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802 [778]

K. Hen. 7. Certaine godly persons accused in Couentry. Picus Mirandula.

Prayer, MarginaliaThe Lordes prayer to be in Englishe. and the Creede in English, if he might for these false Priestes.

Item, that who so beleeued as the Church then did beleeue, beleeued ill: and that a man had neede to frequent the schooles a good while, 

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Smith actually said that a man needed to attend school 'per unum annum' [for a year] (Lollards of Coventry, 1486-1522, ed. Shannon McSheffrey and Norman P. Tanner, Camden Society, Fifth series 23 [2003], pp. 67-8).

ere that he can attaine to the knowledge of the true and right faith.

Item, that no Priest hath power to assoile a man in the market of penance, 

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The phrase 'in the market of pennance' is Foxe's insertion into the text(cf. Lollards of Coventry, 1486-1522, ed. Shannon McSheffrey and Norman P. Tanner, Camden Society, Fifth series 23 [2003], p. 68).

from his sinnes.

ROger Browne MarginaliaRoger Browne. of the same Citie, was also accused to be an hereticke, MarginaliaAgainst Pilgrimage.bicause he did hold that no man ought to worship the Image of our Lady of Walsingham, nor the bloud of Christ at Hailes, but rather God almighty, who would geue him whatsoeuer he would aske. 

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Roger Brown went on to declare that the Lord never shed his blood onearth and that he did not have a mother (Lollards of Coventry, 1486-1527, ed. Shannon McSheffrey and Norman Tanner, Camden Society, Fifth series 23 [2003], p.69). Foxe omitted this statement.

Item, that he held not vp his hands, nor looked vp, at the eleuation of of the Eucharist.

Item, that he promised one to shew him certaine bookes of heresie, if he woulde sweare that he woulde not vtter them, and if he would credite them.

Item, that he did eate flesh in Lent, MarginaliaFleshe eating in Lent. and was taken with the maner.

Item, that if any man were not shriuen his whole life long, and in the point of death would be confessed, and could not, if he had no more but cōtrition only, he should passe to ioy without Purgatory: MarginaliaAgainst Purgatory and confession auricular.And if he were confessed of any sinne, & were enioined only to say for penance one Pater noster, if he thought he should haue any punishmēt in Purgatory for that sinne, he would neuer be confessed for any sinne.

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Item, because he said all is lost that is geuen to Priests.

Item, that there was no Purgatory, MarginaliaAgainst confessiō & satisfactiō.that God woulde pardon all sinnes without confession and satisfaction.

THomas Butler MarginaliaThomas Butler. of þe same Citie, was likewise opēly accused to be a very hereticke, because he did hold þt there were but two wayes, that is to say, to heauen, and to hell.

Item, that no faithfull man should 

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Butler was charged with saying that nobody undergoes any punishmentfor sin after death (Lollards of Coventry, 1486-1522, ed. Shannon Mcsheffrey andNorman Tanner, Camden series, 23 [2003], p. 70). Foxe has altered this to a statement that no faithful man should be punished for sin after death.

abide any paine after the death of Christ, MarginaliaAgainst Purgatory. for any sinne, because Christ died for our sinnes.

Item, that there was no Purgatory, for euery man immediatly after death passeth either to heauen, or hell.

Item, that whosoeuer departeth in the faith of Christ and the Church, MarginaliaAgainst merites.howsoeuer he hath liued, shall be saued.

Item, that praiers & pilgrimages are nothing worth, and auaile not to purchase heauen.

IOhn Falkes MarginaliaIohn Falkes. was accused to be a very hereticke, because he did affirme that it was a foolish thing to offer to the Image of our Lady, MarginaliaAgainst Images. sayeng, her head shall be hoare or I offer to her, what is it but a blocke? If it could speake to me, I would geue it an halfepeny worth of ale.

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Item, that when the Priest carieth to the sicke the body of Christ, why carieth he not also the bloud of Christ?

Item, that he did eate cowe milke vpon the first Sonday of Lent.

Item, that as concerning the Sacrament of penaunce & absolution, no Priest hath power to assoile any man frō his sinnes, whē as he can not make one heare of his head.

Item, that the Image of our Lady was but a MarginaliaIt is heresie to say a stone is a stone, & a blocke is a blocke.stone or a blocke.

RIchard Hilmin MarginaliaRichar. Hilmin. was accused that he was a very hereticke, because he did say and mainteine that it was better to depart with money to the poore, then to giue tithes to Priests, or to offer to the Images of our Lady, and that it were better to offer to Images made by God, then to the Images of God painted.

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Item, that he had the Lords Prayer and the Salutation of the Angell and the Creede in English, MarginaliaScripture in Englishe.and another booke did he see and had, which conteined the Epistles and Gospels in English,and according to them woulde hee liue, and thereby beleeued to be saued.

Item, that no Priest speaketh better in the Pulpit then that booke.

Item, that the Sacrament of the aultare is but bread,and that the Priests make it to blinde the people.

Item, that a Priest whiles he is at Masse, is a Priest, and after one Masse done, till the beginning of another Masse, he is no more then a lay man, and hath no more power then a meere lay man.

¶ After they were enforced to recant, they were assoyled and put to penaunce.

IN the yeare of our Lord 1488. the iij. of Aprill, Margery Goyt, MarginaliaMargery Goyt. wife of Iames Goyt of Asburne, was brought before the foresayde Iohn Bishop of Couentry and Lichfield, who was there accused 

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Margery Goyte was prosecuted two years after the previous eight Coventry Lollards and there is no evidence that she had any connection with them. She was also from Ashburne, Derbyshire, which is some distance from the city ofCoventry. The account of Goyte, however, is also from the register of Bishop Hales of Coventry. (Lichfield record Office, Register Hales, fos. 168v-169v; printed in Lollards of Coventry, 1486-1522, ed. Shannon McSheffrey and Norman P. Tanner, Camden Society, Fifth series, 23 [2003], pp. 87-94).

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that she said, that that which þe Priests lift ouer their heads at Masse, was not the true and very body of Christ: MarginaliaAgainst the Sacrament of the Aultar.For if it were so, the Priestes could not breake it so lightly into four parts, and swalow it as they do: for the Lordes body hath flesh and bones, so hath not that which the Priests receiue.

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Item, that Priests buieng xl. cakes for a halfepeny, and shewing them to the people and saieng, that of euery of them they make the body of Christ, do nothing but deceiue the people and enrich themselues.

Item, seeing God in the beginning did create and make man, how can it be that man should be able to make God? 

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Foxe omits two articles charged against Goyte. The first charged thatshe denied the virginity of the Virgin Mary and claimed that Christ was conceived ofJoseph. The second omitted article charged that she maintained that a child conceivedof Christian parents did not require the sacrament of baptism (Lollards of Caventry,1486-1522, ed. Shannon McSheffrey and Norman P. Tanner, Camden Society, Fifthseries, 23 [2003], p. 91).

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¶ This woman also, was constreined to recant, and so was she assoyled and did penance.

Thus much I thought heere good to inserte, touchyng these foresaid men of Couentry, especially for this purpose, because our cauilling aduersaries be wont to obiect against vs the newnes of Christes old and auntient Religion. 

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Foxe is using the example of the Coventry Lollards to demonstrate that'true' Christianity existed before Luther and that the Protestants did not invent their doctrines. This apologetic requirement explains why Foxe purged his accounts of theCoventry Lollards of articles attributed to them that he regarded as unorthodox . This lengthy disgression, tying the prosperity of monarchs andtheir reigns to their resistance to 'papistry', is actually an attempt to goad Elizabeth and her councillors into further reforming the English Church.

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To the intent therefore they may see this doctrine not to be so new as they report, I wish they woulde consider both the time and Articles heere obiected agaynste these foresayd persons, as is aboue premised.

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I should also in the same reigne of King Hēry vij. haue induced that history of Ioannes Picus Earle of Mirandula, the mention of whose name partly is touched before, pag. 704. 

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Although Foxe does not openly admit it, the following brief biographyof Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, the celebrated Italian Neo-Platonist and humanist, is a response to an attack by Nicholas Harpsfield. In the first edition of the A&M, Foxe had claimed that Pico della Mirandola, Lorenzo Valla and Erasmus had preparedthe way for Luther (1563, p. 402). Harpsfield responded indignantly, insisting thatPico was completely orthodox. Drawing heavily on Thomas More's translation ofGianfrancisco Pico della Mirandola's biography of his uncle, Harpsfield pointed out that the elder Pico della Mirandola flagellated himself in honour of Christ's passion and that he wished to become a friar. He dismissed passages where Pico della Mirandola denied transubstantiation as academic exercises written when the phlosopher was still an impetuous youth (Nicholas Harpsfield, Dialogi sex [1566], pp. 910-14). Foxe replies by drawing on elements in the younger Pico's biography that support his own case. The elder Pico was, in fact, a brilliant, but not sympatheticthinker, and both Harpsfield and Foxe could find aspects of his thought and writings to appropriate.

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This Picus Earle of Mirandula MarginaliaPicus Mirādula Earle. being but a yong man, was so excellently witted, & so singularly learned in all sciences, and in all toungs, both Latine, Greeke, Hebrew, Chaldey, and Araby, that cōming to Rome booted and spurred, he set vp 90. conclusions, to dispute in the same with any in al Christēdome, whosoeuer would come against him. Of which conclusions diuers were touching the matter of þe Sacramēt, &c. And when none was found in all Rome, nor in Europe, that openly would dispute wt him, priuely and in corners certaine of the Popes Clergy, Prelates, Lawyers, & Friers, by the Pope appointed, cōsulted together to inquire vpon his cōclusions, wherupon they did articulate against him for suspicion of heresie. And thus the vnlearned Clergy of Rome priuely circumuēted and intangled this learned Earle in their snares of heresy, against whome they neuer durst openly dispute. He dyed being of the age of 32. of such witte and towardnes, as is hard to say whether euer Italy bredde vp a better. In his sicknes Charles viij. the French King, moued with the fame of his learning, came to visite him. The furniture of his bookes cost him 7000. florens. A little before his death his mind was to giue all away, and to take a coule, to go about & preach, but the Lord would not permit him. His story requireth a long tractatiō, which if place do serue, we will not peraduēture forget. With ij. Popes, that is, with Pope Innocent, & Alexander vj. he had much vexation. 
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This is somewhat distorted. It is true that Innocent VIII ordered Pico della Mirandola's arrest for heresy, but Alexander VI absolved him.

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¶ The names of the Archbyshops of Canterbury in this sixt booke conteyned.
62Iohn Stratford.viij.
63Iohn Kempe.iij.
64Thomas Burchier.xxxiij.
65Iohn Morton.xiiij.
66Thomas Langhton. MarginaliaThis Thomas Lāghton was elected Archbysh. but died before he was confirmed.
67Henry Dene.ij.
Guliel. Warham.xxviij.
¶ Heere endeth the sixt Booke, and the first Tome.
A briefe note of Ecclesiasticall lawes ordeined by auncient Kings in this Realme.
MarginaliaEcclesiasticall lawes ordeined by auncient kings of this Realme.

FOr somuch 

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Ecclesiastical laws

The pre-Conquest laws excerpted in this in this section are translated from William Lambarde's Archaionomia. Lambarde's versions of these laws are based on translations made by Laurence Nowell, the antiquary. Nowell used an early twelfth-century translation of these lawcodes into Latin, the Quadripartitus. Nowell translated the Quadripartitus back into Anglo-Saxon, as he understood it. Lambarde gathered Nowell's manuscript translation together and printed them as the Archiaonomia. (See Patrick Wormald, The Making of English Law: King Alfredto the Twelfth Century [Oxford, 1999], pp. 6-7 and 260-2. For a more detailed analysis see Patrick Wormald, 'The Lambarde Problem: Eighty Years On' in Alfredthe Great: Studies in Honour of Janet Bately, ed. Jane Roberts, Janet Nelson and Malcolm Godden (Cambridge, 1997), pp. 237-75. Foxe cited these laws in anattempt to demonstrate that 'English' kings had held jurisdiction over the EnglishChurch before both were weakened and corrupted by the Papacy.Thus, while the Anglo-Saxon laws deal with multifarious criminal and economic matters, Foxe only prints those laws pertaining to the Church. Although Foxeabridges some of these laws, his translations of them are accurate.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

as it is, and hath bene a persuasion lōg gendered in the heads of many, that the Bishops of Rome be the vniuersall heads of the whole militant Churche of Christ in earth, and haue alwaies so cōtinued from the beginning of the primitiue time. And that no Prince, King, nor Emperour in his owne Realme hath any interest to intermedle with matters and lawes Ecclesiastical, but on-ly the sayd Bishops of Rome: to refell and remoue that opiniō out of the heads of all Englishmen, as a thing most false, and contrary both to histories of time, and examples of ancient Kings & gouernors of this Realme, I thought to fill vp a litle end of paper here left, with some such briefe rehearsall of lawes diuised & appointed by Kings and rulers of this land, for the ordering of the Church, and causes Ecclesiasticall, to the intent that all the world may see the gouernement of Christes Church heere in earth vnder Christ, hath not depended only of the Pope from auncient

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