Navigate the 1563 Edition
PrefaceBook 1Book 2Book 3Book 4Book 5
Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the Text
Names and Places on this Page
Unavailable for this Edition
1059 []

VVest Theodorete also in his seconde Dialogue of these kyndes of bread & wyne, saieth: Nec naturam egrediuntur, manent etiam in sua substantia. i. They go not out of their owne nature, but they tary in their owne substaunce.

Harp. They are vnderstanded to bee of the same substaunce wherein they are turned.

West. But what say you by this? Manent in priori substātia. They remain in their former substāce

Harp. Symbola manent: The outwarde signes do tary.

West. But what is ment here by this word Symbolum?

Harp. The outwarde forme or shape onely of the nature.

West. Then you can not call them a substaunce.

Harp. Yes syr: euery thing hathe a certayne substaunce in his kynde.

West. That is true: but accidentes are not substaunces in their kynde.

Harp. Sunt quid in suo genere. Of this they contended muche.

West. Chrisostome ad Cæsarium Monachum, sayeth. Sicut antequam consecratur, panis est: sic postquā consecratur, liberatus est ab appellatione panis, donatus est appellatione corporis dominici, cum natura remanet. That is: Lyke as before it is consecrated, it is bread: So after it is consecrated, it is deliuered from the name of bread, & is endued with the name of the Lordes body, where as the nature doth remaine.

[Back to Top]

Harp. Where reade you this place I praye you?

West. Here in Peter Martyr I finde it: I haue his booke in my hande.

Harp. The Autor shalbe of more credite, before that I make so muche of hym, as to frame an aunswere vnto it.

West. In deede I knowe not well where he findeth it: but Gelasius sayeth: that the nature of bread and wyne doo tary.

Harp. What was that Gelasius?

West. A Byshop of Rome.

Harp. Then he allowed the Masse.

West. Yea: and often tymes sayd it: and purgatorie also he allowed, and so prayer for the dead, reliques, and inuocation to sainctes.

Harp. Belike then he ment nothing against transubstantiation.

West. It doth appeare so in dede: but Orygen vpō Math. the xv. chap. sayth: that the materiall bread doth tarie, and is conueyghed in to the pryuie, and is eaten of wormes.

Harp. Tushe, tushe, this place appertaynes vnto holy bread.

West. What? dothe it appertaine to holye bread?

Harp. Yea vnto holy bread.

West. By what meanes can you shew how this myraculouse worke, bryngeth Christ into the sacrament?

Harp. By þe scriptures I proue that, whiche sayeth: Hoc est corpus meum, This is my body.

West. It doth reioyce all vs, not a litle, that you haue so well maintayned the sounde doctrine of the sacrament of the altar, wherein you haue faithfully cleaued to the Catholycke churche, as an onely staye of our religion, by the whiche meanes you haue proued your selfe mete to be authorised further towardes the practising of the scripture. And here I do opēly wytnes, that I do throughly consente with you: and haue for disputatiō sake only, brought these argumētes against you, which you haue ryght learnedly satisfied: and now all thinges beyng done, after our forme and maner, we wyll end this disputation, saying: In oppositum est sacra theologia. In oppositum est. &c.

[Back to Top]
Certaine obseruations or censures geuen to the Reader, vpon the disputations of the Byshops and Doctors aboue mentioned, declaring what iudgement is to be geuen, as well touching the arguments of the aduersaries, as also to the aunswers of the Martyrs. 
Commentary  *  Close
Block 22: The Disputational digest in 1563

In the 1563 edition, Foxe followed the Oxford disputations with a remarkable summary of all the arguments in the debate. First came a statement claiming that Ridley, Latimer and Cranmer were not defeated in the debate by flaws in their logic or their theology but, if they appeared to be overcome, it was because the debate was controlled by their adversaries; in Foxe's words - paraphrasing Weston's claim that 'vicit veritas' - 'vicit non veritas, sed potestatas' (see textual variant 67 and 1563, p. 991). The opening sentences of this statement would be reprinted in subsequent editions, the rest of it was omitted, and a new transitional sentence was added (textual variant 66).

[Back to Top]

In the edition of 1563, Foxe went on to present a summary of his theology of the Sacrament (p. 992), followed by a diagram (which Foxe calls a table) illustrating it (pp. 993-94). These were never reprinted by Foxe. This was followed by a series of summaries of the major arguments advanced against Cranmer (1563, p. 995). Ridley (1563, pp. 995-96), Latimer (1563, p. 996) and Cranmer, during Harpsfield's disputation (1563, p. 996). Foxe followed this with his own answer to each argument (1563, pp. 997-99). Foxe did not ever reprint these summaries and answers. Finally, almost as an afterthought, Foxe printed a letter from Mary to the mayor, alderman and inhabitants of Oxford, ordering them to keep Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer in custody during the disputations (1563, p. 999) (It is unknown from where Foxe obtained this document; he did no work in the Oxford municipal archive, and he certainly would not have had time to search before the publication of the 1563 edition. A copy of the letter was probably placed with the official transcript of the disputations). This letter, as well as a brief note which followed it noting the condemnation of the three bishops (1563, p. 999), was also never reprinted.

[Back to Top]

This section is another demonstration of the enormous importance which Foxe attached to the Oxford disputations as a means of proselytisation and propaganda. Together with the section on the canon of the mass, the dispute in Convocation in 1553 and Jane Grey's dialogue with Feckenham, this is part of the attack on the mass which is the theme of Book 10.

[Back to Top]

Why then did Foxe omit this material (except for a few introductory sentences which were retained) from the editions after 1563? One reason which led to much of the material which appeared in the 1563 edition being omitted was the press for space and the need to conserve paper in the subsequent editions. But, unlike the canon of the mass, this material was never restored, even in the edition of 1583. Foxe may also have felt that this digest impeded the flow of his narrative and that he could achieve the same results through other means. One strategy was the reorganisation of material. By moving material appearing in the 1563 edition (such as Ridley's protestations concerning the conduct of the disputations and the first informant's description of the condemnation of the three bishops, to follow the account of the disputations) it was possible for Foxe point out both the unfairness of the debate and the condemnation of Ridley, Cranmer and Latimer, without repetition. More importantly, he was able to make the same points in marginal notes, without the obtrusive apparatus of appendices and diagrams.

[Back to Top]

T Hus ye haue harde in these forsayde disputations, about the holy supper of the Lorde, the reasons and argumentes of the Doctors, the answeres and resolutions of the byshoppes, and the triūphe of the Prolocutor, triumphing before the victorie: with vicit veritas: who rather in my mynd should haue exclamed: vicit potestas, As it happeneth alwayes vbi pars maior vincit meliorem. For els if potestas had not helped the Prolocutor more then veritas, there had been a small victoria. But so it is, where iudgementes be partiall, and parties be addicted, there all thinges turne to victory, thoughe it be neuer so meane and simple. But contrariwyse all partialitie set apart, if censure should be geuen vpon these disputations with vpright and indifferent iudgement, weying with the argumentes of the one syde, the aunsweres of the other, we shall perceiue victory there falsly bragged, where no victory was. If in these disputations it had so been, that the distinction of the aunsweres, had been wypt away or remoued by the Opposers, or if the argumentes of the Opponentes side had been so strong, that they could not be dissolued of the aunswerer, than would I confesse victorie gotten. But seing now all the argumentes brought against the byshops, to be taken away by a playne distinction, of really, spiritually, and sacramētally: and againe this distinction of theirs so to stande in force, that the contrary argumentes of the other part, were not able to infringe the same, therfore we must saye, as is sayde, Vicit non veritas, sed potestas.

[Back to Top]

And for the readers sake, to make the matter more largely and euidently to appere concerning the distinction made of the bishoppes in this disputacion, wher by they did both repeale the arguments obiected and manfully maintayne the veritye, here haue we as in a briefe summe or table expreßed as well there arguments, as the distinctions and aunsweres of the other part to the same.

[Back to Top]
In these
Go To Modern Page No:  
Click on this link to switch between the Modern pagination for this edition and Foxe's original pagination when searching for a page number. Note that the pagination displayed in the transcription is the modern pagination with Foxe's original pagination in square brackets.
Type a keyword and then restrict it to a particular edition using the dropdown menu. You can search for single words or phrases. When searching for single words, the search engine automatically imposes a wildcard at the end of the keyword in order to retrieve both whole and part words. For example, a search for "queen" will retrieve "queen", "queene" and "queenes" etc.
Humanities Research Institute  *  HRI Online  *  Feedback
Version 2.0 © 2011 The University of Sheffield