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Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the GlossesCommentary on the Text
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Actes and Monumentes Of the Church


Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
May 19 to August 1

Foxe attempts to develop some points against Phillip in the margin, noting his arrival with sword drawn and the deliverance of the keys of Southampton to him which suggests conquest and (in 'deliuered') reluctance. 1563 has an unusually large number of glosses at the beginning of this section.

MarginaliaMaye. 19THe. xix. daye of Maye, the MarginaliaLady Elizabeth.Ladye Elizabeth, Sister to the Queene, 
Commentary  *  Close
Block 28: May 19 1554 to 1 August 1554

In the 1563 edition, this section consists of a fairly lengthy account of Elizabeth's imprisonment in the custody of Sir Henry Bedingfield and a brief account of Philip's arrival in England.

The account of Elizabeth and Bedingfield was severely truncated in 1570. Part of the deleted material was praise for Elizabeth's mercy to Bedingfield. (This includes Elizabeth's oft-quoted quip in dismissing Bedingfield: that if she needed a prisoner straitly kept she would send for him). Possibly the deletion of this praise was one sign of Foxe's growing dissatisfaction with Elizabeth. Also deleted was an anecdote that Dr. John Story argued that Elizabeth should be executed, maintaining that it was useless to lop the branches from the tree without striking at the root. This remark would, in another section of the Acts and Monuments, be attributed to Stephen Gardiner (see 1563, p. 1383).

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was brought oute of the Tower, and committed to the custodye of MarginaliaSir Iohn Williams.Sir Iohn Williams, after Lord Williams of Tame, of whome her highnesse was gentlye and curteously entreated: who afterward was had to Woodstocke, and there committed to the the kepyng of MarginaliaSir Hēry Benifield.Syr Henry Benifielde Knyghte, of Oxeborough in Northfolke, who on the other syde, bothe forgetting her estate, and his own duetie, (as it is reported) shewed hymself more harde and strayte vnto her, then eyther cause was geuen of her parte, or reason of his owne parte woulde haue ledde hym, yf eyther grace or wysedome in hym mighte haue seene before what daunger afterwarde myghte haue ensued thereof. But herein haue we to see and note, not so muche the vnciuill nature and disposition of that manne, as the singular lenity and gratious mansuetude of that Princesse, who after commyng to her Crowne, shewed her selfe so farre from reuenge of iniuries takē, that MarginaliaA rare example of a princely clemency.whereas other Monarches haue oftentymes requited lesse offences with losse of life, she hath scarce empayred any pece of his libertie or estimation, saue only that he was restrained for not comming to the court. And whereas som peraduenture of her estate would here haue vsed the bloudy sworde, her Maiesty was contented with scarce a nippyng worde, onely biddyng hym to repayre home, and saying: If we had any prisoner whome we woulde haue sharply and straytly kepte, then we wil sende for you.

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This vertuous and noble Ladye, in what feare she was the meane tyme, and in what perill greater than her feare, the Lord onely best dothe knowe, and next it is not vnknowen to her selfe, to whose secrete intelligence, I leaue this matter farther to bee considered. Thys I maye saye whiche euery manne maye see, that it was not without a singular miracle of God, that she coulde or did escape, in suche a multytude of enemies, and grudge of myndes, so greatly exasperate agaynst her: especiallye of Steuen Gardiner, Byshoppe of Wint. whose head and deuises were chiefly bent (as a bowe) agaynste that onely person to make her away. And no doubte would haue brought it by some meanes to passe, had not the Lorde preuented hym with death to preserue her lyfe to the preseruation of this realme. Wherefore it is false that Doctour Storye sayd in the Parliamente house, MarginaliaThe sayinge of D. Story.lamentyng as I heard saye, that when as they went so muche about the braunches, they had not shotte at the roote her selfe. For why, they neyther lacked theyr dartes, nor no good wyll to shoote at the roote, all they possybly myght. But what goddes prouidence wyll haue kepte, it shalbe kept, when all Doctoure Stories haue shotte oute all theyr artillerye in

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vaine. But of this matter it is sufficiente at this present.

MarginaliaIulye. 19.The. xix. of Iulye did Philippe Prynce of Spaine, and Sonne and Heyre vnto Charles the fifth then Emperour, arriue at Southampton. 

Commentary  *  Close

A brief account of Philip's arrival in England in the 1563 edition was expanded in later editions, with material probably taken from Foxe's lost chronicle source(s). The date of Philip's landing at Southampton is given as 'xix July' in 1563, p. 1004, but as 'xx July' in 1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1471. This could be a correction but other sources also give 19 July as the date, so this was probably a typographical error.

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And the fourth daye after, in the euenyng, he came to Wynchester, where (goynge to the Churche) he was honourablye receyued of the Bishoppe, and a greate number of the nobles for that purpose appoynted. The nexte daye he mette with the Queene, with whom he hadde long and familier talke,

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MarginaliaIulye. 25.And the. xxv. daye, being sainct Iames day, (the chiefe patrone of the Spanyardes) Maryage was honourably solemnized betwene thē. At whiche tyme the Emperours Embassador beyng present, openly pronounced, that in consideration of that Mariage, the Emperour had graunted and geuen vnto his sonne, the kingdome of Naples &c.

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
August 1 to September 3

Glosses in this section concentrate on political events detailing Phillip's progress and the forward march of the counter-reformation. Foxe uses the glosses to make relatively subtle attacks on the catholics: in contrast to the disputations, where the glosses often gave room to an adversarial voice, here narrative is used to shape events to favour a protestant interpretation. Thus glosses report the removal of English arms for Spanish at Windsor, linking this to Phillip's name, without mentioning the quick reversal of this change, or the fact that Phillip did not order the change, apparent from the text. Winchester is accused of not being able to abide 'Verbum Dei. The precision of the formulation is noteworthy: Foxe does not directly accuse him of hating scripture, but lets the ambiguity between what he reports (Winchester's anger at an image of Henry VIII holding Verbum Dei) and what he implies (Gardiner hates the Bible) go unresolved.

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A harsher note is sounded in calling the rood at St. Paul's Bonner's 'God'. The difference in tone is probably partly due to the fact that Bonner's violent temperament made him an easier target for opprobium; furthermore, it was polemically valuable to link the passionate lack of self-control Bonner later exhibits with the antichristian sensuality of idolatry. Frivolity and self-indulgence are also pointed to on the civic level with the reference to 'vayne pageants', although the Old Testament resonances of the self-indulgence of Israel are applicable.

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MarginaliaAugust. 1.Wherevpon the firste daye of August folowyng there was a proclamation, that frō that tyme foorth, the style of all maner wrytynges shoulde be altered, and this folowyng shoulde be vsed.

☞ Philip and Marye by the grace of God, Kyng and Queene of England, Fraunce, Naples, Ierusalē, and Ireland, defenders of the Fayth, princes of Spain and Cicill, Archdukes of Austrich, Dukes of Millan, Burgundie and Brabant, Counties of Haspurge, Flāders and Tyroll.

Of this Mariage, as the Papistes chiefly seemed to be verye glad, so diuers of them after diuers studies to shew foorth theyr inward affections, som made interludes and pagents, 

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Block 29: August 1 to September 3

In the case of Latin poems, written by John White, the marian Bishop of Lincoln, elegising the marriage of Philip and Mary as well as two sets of verses attacking the marriage and responding to White (1563, pp. 1004-05). The author of the first set of verses is identified as 'James Caufield' in the 1563 edition; this is altered to 'J. C.' in subsequent editions (cf. 1563, p. 1005, with 1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1472). 'Caufield' was probably James Calfhill, the celebrated Elizabethan divine, whose name is variously given as 'Calfill,' 'Calfeld,' or 'Calfilde' (see Foster). The author of the second set of verses, identified as 'I. F.' in the 1563 edition (p. 1005) was almost certainly Foxe himself.

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White's verses celebrate the common ancestry of Philip and Mary through John of Gaunt, ancestor of both the Tudors and the monarchs of Castille. (Interestingly, White anticipated by four decades Robert Person's arguments that Philip III, not James VI, was Elizabeth's rightful heir). In an effort to counter English xenophobia, White maintained that this common ancestry meant that Philip was really English. Those who opposed this marriage were foreigners such as the French and the Scots, and traitors such as Northumberland and Wyatt, 'the Catiline of our age'.

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Calfhill's response denounced the polluting of English royal blood with Spanish and claimed that the marriage was God's punishment for the sins of the English. Northumberland was a hero and Wyatt fought valiantly against the papacy. Interestingly, Foxe in his verses said nothing about Northumberland or Wyatt and emphasised that the marriage was not God's will. Cruelly, Foxe also mocked Mary's childlessness and the failure of her marriage.

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In the 1570 edition, Foxe added two poems by John Parkhurst. Although the poems were added to the 1570 edition, their content makes it clear that they were written at the same time as White's verses. Parkhurst denounced Philip as a foreigner, he denounced Charles V and he was lavish in praise of both Wyatt and Dudley.

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Most unusually, Foxe never provided a translation for these verses. It is not difficult to see why poems praising rebels and discussing the foreign marriage of a queen and the royal succession should remain in the relative obscurity of Latin. It was probably the very topicality of these verses, however, that led Foxe to include, and later increase, them. A Hapsburg marriage was a real possibility in the 1560s and there is some evidence that Foxe discreetly opposed this, and any other marriage of Elizabeth to a catholic. These verses allowed Foxe to attack such a marriage safely. Foxe may also have been happy to take advantage of the opportunity these verses gave him to rehabilitate Wyatt.

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some drewe foorth Genealogies, deriuing hys petigrue from Edwarde the thyrd, and Iohn of Gaunte, some made verses: Amonges al other mayster Whyte, then Bishop of Lincolne (hys Poeticall vayne being dronken with ioy of the Maryage) spued out certayne verses, the copye whereof we haue here inserted.

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Philippi & Mariæ Genealogia, qua ambo principes ex Iohanne de Gandauo, Ewardi tertij, Angliæ Franciæque regis filio descendisse ostenduntur, Whito Lincolniense Authore.

ILle parens regum Gandaua ex vrbe Iohannes
Somersetensem comitem profert Iohannem.
Somersetensis venit hoc patre dux Iohannes,
Qui Margaretam Richemundi habuit comitissam.
Hæc dedit Henricum, qui regni septimus huius
Henrico octauo solium regale reliquit.
Hoc patre propitio, & fausto quasi sydere nata
Iure tenes sacram, teneasque Maria coronam.

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Verses of mayster VVhyte, Bishop of Lincolne, concernyng the maryage of Philip and Mary.
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