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Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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true religion,setting Gods gospel at libery. He then being orderly called, hauing both a conscience and a ready good wil to healp forewarde the woorke of the Lorde in his natiue country, lefte such honest and certayne condicions as he had Saxony, and came into England to preach the Gospell, without certeinty of any condicion. In which office, after he had a space diligently and faythfullye trauayled, Nicolas Ridly then Bishop of Londō gaue him a Prebend in the Cathedral churche of Paules, and the Deane, and the Chapter chose him to be the reader of the diuinity lesson there, 

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Curiously, Foxe has not mentioned that Rogers was the vicar of St Sepulchre, a wealthy and important London living.

wherin he diligently trauayled vntill such tyme as Quene Mary obteyning the crown, banished the gospel and true religion, and brought in the Antichrist of Rome, with his Idolatry and superstition.

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After the Quene was come to the Tower of Londō, he being orderly called therunto, made a moste Godly & vehement sermon at Paules Crosse, aduowing and confirming such true doctrine, as he and other had there taught in king Edwardes dayes, exhorting the people constantly to remayne in the same, and to beware of al pestilent popery, idolatrye & supersticion. The Counsayle being then ouer matched with popish and bloudy Byshops, called hym to accompte for this sermon, to whom he made a stoute, witty, and godlye answere, and yet in such sort handeled him selfe that at that tyme he was clearly dimissed: but after that proclamation was set forth by the Quene to prohibit true preaching, he was called againe before the Counsayle, (for the Byshops thyrsted after hys blood). The Counsel quarreled with him concerning hys doctrin, and in conclusion commaunded hym as prisoner to kepe his owne house, and so he dyd: although by flyeng he myght easely haue escaped theyr cruell handes, and many thinges there were which might haue moued hym therunto. He dyd se the recouery of religion in England for that present desperate: he knew he could not want a liuing in Germany, and he knew he could not forget his wyfe and tenne Children, and to seke meanes to succor them. But all these thinges sett a parte, after he was called to answere in Christes cause, he would not depart, but stoutly stode in the defence of the same, and for the the trial of that truth, was content to hassard his lyfe. Thus he remained in his owne house as prisoner a lōg time, 

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Rogers was transferred to Newgate on 27 January 1554.

til at þe length, through the vncharitable procurement of Boner, that bloudy Byshop of London, who loueth no such honest neyghbours,  
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In the Rerum, Foxe explains that Rogers's house was near to Bonner'sLondon palace (Rerum, p. 267).

he was remoued frō his owne house to the prison called Newgate, where he was lodged amonges theues and murtherers for a great space: during which tyme what busines he had with the aduersaries of Christ, al is not knowen, neyther yet

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any more certaynty, thē he him selfe did leaue in writing, which God would not suffer to be lost, but to remayne for the to rede as a perpetuall testimony of Gods truth.

The confession & answer of Ihon Rogers, made vnto the Lorde Chauncelor and to the rest of the Kinges and Quenes most honorable Counsel 
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I.e., the Privy Council.

the xxii. day of Ianuary. Anno. 1555. copied out of his owne hand, which we folowed, and haue also to shewe.  
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BL, Lansdowne 389, fos. 187v-199r is a complete copy of Roger's examinations (including the answers he has not allowed to give). For a printed copy of this document, together with a detailed, albeit hypercritical, comparison of the manuscript with Foxe's version of it, see Chester, pp. 293-337, cf. Chester's overall assessment of Foxe's editing on pp. 151-54, 158 and 208-10. ECL 261, fos. 20r-44r is a partial copy of this material.

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The Martyrdom of Rogers

As with the sections that precede it, this one is strong on narrative, and many of the glosses reflect this (e.g., 'M. Rogers Chaplayne to the Marchaunt aduenturers at Antwerpe'; 'M. Rogers brought to the Gospell by M. W. Tindale, & M. Couerdale'; 'M. Rogers goeth to Wittenberge'; 'M. Rogers returneth from Saxonie into England in K. Edwards tyme'). In a departure from the usual practices in the 1563 edition, the names of speakers are placed in the margin during the portions of the text concerned with Rogers' examinations. The later editions insert the names into the text, reflecting their need to make space available for other forms of comment. The 1563 layout here is further evidence that Foxe had not yet fully worked out a set of conventions governing his annotations at this stage: 1563 was more experimental and irregular than later editions (but see the beginning of Book X for evidence which points another way).

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Several changes after 1563 show Foxe sharpening his attacks on the papists in later years. For example, the gloss 'The catholike church' is replaced by the polemically more powerful 'No head of the Catholicke Church, but Christ' from 1570; other examples are 'The papistes ar loth to abide trial' and 'A fayre pretense to excuse your ignorance'; 'Catholike what yt signifieth' and 'The Popes church proued not to be Catholicke'; 'Mariage of priestes' and 'Lawfulnes of priestes mariage'. These examples suggest that Foxe's more comprehensive and careful annotating from 1570 onwards in part grew out of a desire to make the most of the opportunities it afforded for making polemic points. One example shows an interesting shift in tone after 1563: the more vindictive and demotic 'Here my Lorde lacked but an onion to make the teares com oute' comment of 1563 became 'These murderers pretend a sorrow of hart and yet they will not cease from murdering', which makes the same point, but more directly. Thus, Foxe after 1563 seems to have allowed more space for attacking the opposition, but did so in a more careful manner.

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His attacks are often (following Rogers) procedural ('Steph Gardiner refused to haue the truth to be tryed by learning'; 'Gardiner wil compel to that, which he cānot teach to be true'; 'M. Rogers could not be heard to speake'; 'Confused talke without order'; 'M. Rogers imprisoned against all law and right'; 'M. Rogers punished before any law was broken'), and they also point out the cruelty ('The Pope a destroyer of maryage and maynteyner of whoredome'; 'M. Rogers could not be suffered of Boner to speake to his wife before his burning'), ignorance ('A fayre pretense to excuse your ignorance') and vice ('The Bishop of Winchester iudgeth M. Rogers, by his owne disease') of the persecutors, while also joining Rogers in capitalising on the past opinions and allegiances of the persecutors ('The Bishops contrary to theyr former doinges and wrytinges'; 'The Byshops neyther will stand by theyr assertion, nor yet will suffer other men so to doe'). The last of these glosses neatly combines an attack on the hypocrisy of the bishops who will not hold to their old opinion with criticism of their cruelty for persecuting Rogers for doing precisely that.

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Providing contrast to the failings of the papists, the glosses emphasise Rogers' pious concern for his family ('M. Rogers carefull prayer for his wife and children'), his generosity ('Prouision by M. Rogers for the prisoners') and his steadfastness ('M. Rogers refuseth his pardon'). Two pairs of glosses contrast protestant virtue and papist vice ('M. Gosnold laboured for M. Rogers' and 'Great mercy of Winchest. no lesse then the Foxe hath to the chickenes, or the Wolfe to suck the bloud of Lambes'; 'The godly spirite of M. Rogers' and 'Marke here the spirite of this prelate'). A series of glosses concerned with Rogers' prophecies appears at the end of the section: 'M. Rogers seemeth to prophesie here of England, and that truely' notes that Rogers 'seemeth' to predict the defeat of the papists, and this gloss is followed by others predicting the return of the exiles and the gospel, and concerning Rogers' attitude to the ministry and 'Priestes cappes'. The 'seemeth' perhaps functions as a device to remind the attentive reader that the threat of antichrist is never entirely subdued. This is especially significant given the glosses which follow on the provision of preachers and caps: these glosses would have been read in the shadow of the fear of antichrist. In line with established practice, 1583 has 'read afore' where 1570 and 1576 give accurate references.

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MarginaliaL. Chan.FYrst the Lord Chauncelor sayd vnto me thus. Sir ye haue hard of the state of the Realme in which it standeth now.

MarginaliaRogers.No my Lorde, I haue bene kepte in close prison, and except there haue bene some generall thinge sayd at the table, when I was at dyner or supper, I haue hard nothing: and ther haue I heard nothing wheruppon any special thing might be grounded.

MarginaliaL. Chan.Then said the Chaūcelor: General things, general thinges mockingly. Ye haue heard of my Lord Cardinals cōming, & that the Parliamēt hath receued his blessing, not one resisting vnto it, but one man, which did speake against it. Such an vnity and such a miracle hath not bene sene. And all they (of which there are viii. score in one house 

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I.e., the House of Commons.

sayd one that was by, whose name I know not) haue with one assent and consent receaued pardon of theyr offenses for the schisme that we haue hadde in England, in refusing the holy father of Rome to be head of MarginaliaThe catholike churchthe holy Catholike Church. How saye yee, are ye content to vnite and knit your selfe to the fayth of the Catholik Church with vs in the state in which it is nowe in Englād? will ye do that?

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MarginaliaRogers.The Catholike Church I neuer did nor will dissent from.

MarginaliaL. Chan.Nay but I speake of the state of the Catholike Church, in that wise in which we now stand in England, hauing receaued the Pope to be supreame head.

MarginaliaRogers.I know none other head but Christ, of his catholike Church, neyther wil I acknowledge the Byshop of Rome to haue any more autority, then any other Bishop hath, by the word of God, and by the doctrine of the old & pure Catholike Churche. iiii. hundreth yeares after Christ.

MarginaliaL. Chan.Why didst thou thē aknowledge King Hērye the eyght to be the supreme head of the church if Christ be the onely head?

MarginaliaRogers.I neuer graunted him to haue any supremacy in spirituall thinges, as are the forgeuenes of sins, giuing of the holy ghost, autoritie to be a Iudge aboue the word of God.

MarginaliaL. Chan.Yea said, he and the Bishop of Duresme,

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