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Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Names and Places on this Page
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1106 []

The burnyng of Iohn Rogers.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
The woodcut of the burning of John Rogers at Smithfield gives the impression of an agitated scene, attended by a large crowd, some watching from nearby windows, as they were shown doing in other burnings in urban settings (e.g. William Flower at Westminster, the following year). The moment is the climax at which the dying man washed his hands in the flames 'as he was in burning', and around him men and women gesture and throw up their hands in what can only be read as gestures of acclamation. This was the first burning of Mary's reign, and apart from the horseman (apparently Sir Richard Southwell) armed men are singularly absent. The awkward placing of this print on the page in 1563, spilling over the columns of text, is indicative of the problems of layout faced in Foxe's first English edition with the introduction of large narrative woodcuts. The satisfactory solution reached in 1570, and; 1583, was abandoned in the cheaper 1576, edition in which this and the other large woodcuts extend into both margins. Rogers' last words were reset in each of the early editions; roman type 1563, to italic 1570, to roman again in 1576,and 1583, with minor spelling differences.

Amonges others being then in pryson, this he spake to the Printer of this booke, who thē also was laid vp for lyke cause of religiō: MarginaliaRogers prophecieth of the return of the Gospel.thou sayde he, shalt lyue to see the alteration of this religion, and the Gospell frely to be preached agayne. And therfore haue me commended to my brethren, as wel in exile, as others, and bid them be circumspect in displacing the Papists, and putting good ministers into churches, or els their ende wyll bee worse then ours: MarginaliaRogers counsel in placing good ministers.and for lack of good ministers to furnysh churches, his deuise was, Hoper also agreing to þe same, that for euery x. churches some one good and learned superintendent, should be appointed, whiche should haue vnder him faithful Readers, suche as might wel be got: so that popish priestes should be put out, and the bishop once a yeare to ouersee the profiting of the parishes. This was his counsell & request. At the stake his pardon was brought, if he would haue returned, but he vtterly refused. And so cōstantly gaue the first conflict with the fyre for the loue and testimony of Christe and his worde.

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¶ The history and martyrdome of L. Saūders, who with a stoute & a constant mynd and stomack, was burned for the defence of the Gospell. An. 1555. February. 8. 
Commentary  *  Close
The Life and Martyrdom of Laurence Saunders

Much of the material for the life and martyrdom of Saunders had already appeared in the Rerum, including the narratives of Saunders' early life and background (although the details of Saunders' apprenticeship to Sir William Chester were only added in the second edition of the Acts and Monuments), Saunders' preaching in Northampton, his journey to London, his encounter with Sir John Mordaunt, Saunders' arrest, interrogations by Bishop Bonner and then Bishop Gardiner and his imprisonment in Newgate (Rerum, pp. 404-08). Unusually, most of the letters which Foxe mingles in with his narrative of the martyr's life also first appeared in the Rerum. The account of Saunders' visit from his wife in Newgate and his impassioned defence of the validity of his marriage and the legitimacy of his son are also in the Rerum (pp. 412-13). Saunders' examination, the anecdotes of his journey to Coventry to be executed and the details of his execution are also related in the Rerum, pp. 413-18). Most, if not all, of this material was probably gathered by Edmund Grindal's team and was almost certainly drawn, in whole or in part, from Laurence's widow Joan and the martyr's friend Lucy Harrington, who were both in living in Frankfurt (Garrett, Marian Exiles, pp. 144-7).

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In 1563, Foxe added details to the Rerum narrative: his description of themartyrs's diligent study and prayer, the names of Sanders' benefices, his friends and family trying to protect him in Mary's reign and his refusal to flee the country. He also added more letters of Saunders and the comparison of Saunders to Henry Pendleton. All of this indicates that on his return to England, Foxe did some further research on Saunders.

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In the 1570 edition, Foxe added the details of Saunders' apprenticeship to Sir William Chester (this story, which was very favourable to Chester, was probably supplied to Foxe by Chester) and the letters of Edward Saunders to his brother. Some verses and letters of Saunders were also deleted from the account of Saunders in this edition. The account of Saunders remained unaltered in the third and fourth editions of the Acts and Monuments.

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MarginaliaFebruary. 8.AFter that quene Mary had published that proclamation in the first yeare of her ra-

igne, by whyche she dyd inhybite the syncere preaching of Goddes holy worde, diuerse godly ministers of the worde, which had þe cure and charge of soules committed to them, did notwithstanding accordyng to their bounden dutie, feade their flocke faithftully, not as preachers autorized by publique autoritie (as the godly order of the Realme was in the happy dayes of blessed kyng Edward) but as the priuate pastors of particular flockes: Amōg whō Laurēce Saūders was one, a mā of worshipful parentage, his bringing vp was in learninge frō his youth in places mete for that purpose, as namely in that notable schole in the college of Eton: from whence, according to the maner there vsed, 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close

Some of the glosses in this section lead the reader towards an appreciation of the other-worldliness and strength of faith inherent in the act of martyrdom ('M. Saunders in prison, till he was in prison'; 'Saunders godly bequest to his wife'; 'Experience of the comfortes of Christ in prison'). The effect of this can be paradoxical, with prison being a genuine comfort to the spiritually minded. This pious, Christ-like turning the world upside-down finds its parodic twin in the characterisation of the papists and popery. Thus Bonner, in line with previous conduct, is so perverse as to see preaching the truth as treason ('Preaching of Gods word, made treason with Bishop Boner'). A nearby gloss reinforces Foxe's characterisation of him as intemperate by describing him as seeking Saunders' blood. Elsewhere, and again building on an established typology, a gloss ('He meaneth peraduenture when the Sanctus is singing for then the Organs pipe merely and that may giue some Comfort') bemoans the sensuality of the mass.

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The attacks on Gardiner focus on the contrast between his conduct under Mary and under her father ('A priuy nippe to Winchester'; 'Winchesters booke de vera obedientia'). This is behaviour implicitly contrasted with Saunders' constancy, which the marginal glosses emphasise ('The constant minde of a christian souldiour'; 'M, Saunders would haue no suite made for him'). There are examples of the cruelty and use of force by the catholic authorities ('Note how Winchester confuteth M. Saunders'; 'M. Saunders wife not suffered to speake with him in prison'). Saunders' constancy and his indifference to worldly pain or pleasure are ascribed to his humility and thus to his reliance on divine grace ('A notable example of the Lord comforting his seruauntes in their troubles'; 'Strength to stād in Christ, commeth not of our selues, but it is the gift of God'). The gloss 'M. Saunders put in the common gayle in Couentrye' gives a hint of a Christ-like or apostolic bearing on Saunders' part. There are also references emphasising conscience as a source of resolution and (religious) resistance ('Argument. Conscience ought neuer to stand vpon things vncertaine. Tyme and authoritye be thinges of themselues alwayes vncertayne: Ergo, conscience ought neuer to stand vpon tyme and authoritye'; 'To liue as the Scripture leadeth vs, is not to liue as we list').

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The shift from the previous book towards narrative and the reproduction of epistles led Foxe to increase the number of glosses referring to scriptural passages; many of these are erroneous either in terms of their variation across editions or their accuracy as scriptural references. Errors of positioning of notes also occur in this section, with the 1570 edition as usual being the most accurate.

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MarginaliaScholars ar takē out of Eton colledge into the kynges college in Cābridge. he was chosen to go to the kynges college in Cambridge, where he cōtinued scholer of the college three whole yeares, where he profited in knowlege and learning very much for that time. Shortly after that, he did forsake the vniuersitie and went to his parentes, vpon whose aduise he minded to become a marchāt, (his mother a Gentlewoman of good estimation then left a wydowe, hauing a good portiō for him amonge the other his brethren to sette hym vp wealthely). But after that, for profe hee hadde beene wyth a certayne Marchaunt in London, hys mynde altered, for that hee

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