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Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the GlossesCommentary on the Text
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1178 [119]

Item, that thou hast cōmended and praysed al the sayd persons, so erring and beleuing (or at the least wyse some of them) secretelye, and also openly, takinge and beleuyng them to be faythful and Catholike people, and their said opinions to be good and true, & the same to the best and vttermost of thy power thou hast allowed, mayntayned, and defended at sundry tymes.

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Item, that thou, hauyng heard, knowen, & vnderstanded al the premisses, thus to bee, as is aforesayd, hast not regarded all or any part thereof, but contrarye to the same and euerye parte thereof, hast attempted and done, condempning, transgressyng, and breakyng that promise, fayth, religion, order, and custome aforesayde: and hast becōmen, and art an heretick and misbeleuer in the premisses, denying the verity of Christes bodye and bloude in the sacrament of the altar, and obstinatelye affirmyng, that the substaunce of material breade and wyne are there remayning, and that the substaunce of Christes body and bloud taken of the vyrgin Marye, are not there in the said sacrament, really and truly beyng.

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Item, that al the premisses be true, notorious, famous, and manyfest, and that vpon al the same, there haue, and be, amongest the sad and good people of the Citye of London and dioces of the same in great multitude, cōmonly and publiquely, a common and publike fame and opinion, and also in al places where thou haste beene, wythin the sayde Dioces of London.

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¶ The answers of Thomas Causton, and Thomas Higbed, seuerally made to the fore sayd articles obiected, as before.

TO the fyrst, they answer and confesse the same to be true.

To the seconde, they answer and beleue the same to be true.

To the thyrde, they answer and beleue the same to be true.

To the fourth, they answer and thynke the same to be true.

To the fyft, vnto thys clause, (and so was in it very dede,) they answer and beleue the same to be true. And vnto that clause, and so was it in very dede, they answer negatiuely, & beleue that it was so in very dede.

To the sixt, seuenth, and eight, they answer and beleue the same to be true.

To the nynth they answer & say, that they thynke they haue a iust and lawfull cause and ground to swarue and go from the sayde faith and religion, because they haue now red more of scripture, then eyther they them selues, or theyr Parentes and kynsfolke, godfathers or Godmothers haue read or sene heretofore in that behalfe.

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To the tenth, they answer, say, and beleue, that the sayd persones articulate, haue bene named, taken, and counted for heretyckes: and so condempned for heretickrs: yet aboute three yeares past, they were taken for good Christian persons. And for so muche as these Respondentes, dyd euer heare them preache concernyng the sacrament of the aultar, they say that they preached wel, in that they sayde and preached that Christ is not present really and truly in the said sacrament, but that ther is remainynge the substaunce of breade and wyne.

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To the leuenth, they aunswere and saye, that howe soeuer other folkes do repute and take the said persons articulate: yet these respondentes them selues did neuer, nor yet doo so accompte and take them. And further they saye, that in case the said persons articulate named in this article haue preached, that in the sacrament of the aulter is verye materiall breade and materiall wyne, and not the substaunce of Christes bodye and blood, vnder the formes of bread and wine, then they preached well and truely: and these respondentes them selues do so beleue.

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To the twelueth they answere and say: that where other folke haue dispraised the sayd persons articulate, and disallowed theyr opinions these Respondentes (for oughte that they at any time haue hearde) did like and allowe the said persons, and their sayinges.

To the thirtene, they aunswer & saye: that they haue not broken or condemned any promys made by their Godfathers and Godmothers for them at their baptism, and that they are no hereticks, nor misbeleuers (in that they beleue) that there remaineth onely breade and wyne in the sacrament of the aulter, and that Christes natural bodye is not ther, but in heauen: for they saye that the scriptures so teache them.

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To the fourtene they aunswer and beleue, that the premisses before, by them confessed, be true, notorious, and manifest.

The hystorye of VVylliam Hunter, concerning the notable and Christian constancie, as wel of him as of his parentes, in the cause and time of martirdome, suffring for the Gospell. 
Commentary  *  Close
The Martyrdom of William Hunter

William Hunter's case should have disturbed the authorities. He was one of the first of the lay people of humble background to be executed and, unlike some of the other early martyrs with similar backgrounds (e.g., Thomas Tomkins and John Warne), he had no previous history of religious dissidence. The narrative Foxe presents of his arrest and judicial ordeals presents a vivid picture of overzealous local authorities feeding the fires of persecution.

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Foxe's narrative is an excellent example of the importance of oral sources to his martyrology. The entire account of Hunter in the Rerum consists of praise of Hunter's parents for subordinating their natural love for their son to ther duty to God and their support for his refusal to submit (Rerum, pp. 427-8). This material was reprinted in the 1563 edition, with no significant change or addition. But in the second edition, Foxe added the detailed and vivid narrative of William Hunter's arrest, interrogations and martyrdom, which was clearly supplied by Hunter's brother Robert. The reader should keep this source in mind when reading the account: its strengths are its mastery of local detail and its access to the feelings of the martyr and those around him (e.g., his description of William Hunter's dreams). But partisanship may colour some of the 'facts' of the narrative: for example, did the sun shine brightly on Hunter after he prayed for the Son of God to shine upon him?

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
William Hunter

Several notes focus upon the unnaturalness of popery: Foxe exploits the request to Hunter's father to return his son to what he suspects, with justice, will be his death; the glosses concerned with this episode use metaphors of 'fruit', and comment on the naturalnes of the relations between Hunter and his father. In the gloss 'The fruite of the Popes doctrine to set the father agaynst the sonne', Foxe sets the generative metaphors of fruit and paternity against each other to emphasise the subversion of the natural order by papal doctrine and offers a contrast in a later gloss, 'The working of nature betwene the father & the sonne'. Another gloss emphasises the comforting of Hunter by the son of the sheriff ('The Shriffes sonne geueth comfortable wordes to W. Hunter'), which suggests that a son was set against his father. Two glosses make use of phrases established in Book X as anti-catholic commonplaces: the charge that papists cannot 'abide' scripture ('The Catholickes cannot abide the Bible') and the use of the phrase 'pelting chafe' to indicate the fury of a persecutor ('M. Browne in a pelting chafe'). Some glosses near to the account of Hunter's death ('His father and mother come to cōfort him'; 'His father & mother exhort him to be constant'; 'Maister Higbed maruelleth at the constancy of Williams mother') emphasise constancy and several relate the prophetic dream Hunter had shortly before his death and the occasions of 'verification' of it ('A notable thing concerning W. Hunters dreame'; 'W. Hunters dreame verefied'; 'Williams dreame verified'). The cruel treatment of Hunter is also stressed ('Boner commaundeth W. Hunter to the stockes. W. Hunter 2. dayes & 2. nightes in the stockes, with a crust of bread, & a cuppe of water'; 'W. Hnnter layd in the conuict prison with as many yrons as he could beare'). An erroneous date in the 1563 edition is corrected in later editions.

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MarginaliaW. Hunter MarginaliaMarche. 25.AMonge those of whom we made mēcion euen now, Williā Hunter was a very yonge man, but borne of very good parentes, of whom he was not onely instructed to godlines, but also confirmed to deathe: surely after a rare example, yet moste notable and worthy to be had in admiration of all parentes. wherein was a notable sighte, to beholde nature ouercome by godlines.

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