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Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the GlossesCommentary on the Text
Names and Places on this Page
Unavailable for this Edition
1217 [1148]

Actes and Monumentes Of the Church


Marginalia3Where they were, and in what place they haue sene them.

Marginalia4Whom they knowe haue lately come from beyond the sea, specially from Zurike, Strausbrogh, Ftanckforde, Wezel, Emden, and Disburge.

Marginalia5Whom they knowe or vehemently suspect to be common cariers of letters or money thether from thence.

Marginalia6That they bryng to my Lord Mayor al suche seditious bokes as they haue or shal haue foūd hereafter.

Here foloweth the examinations of Thomas Haukes, before Edmund Boner, Byshop of London, woorde for woorde, as it was betwene the Byshoppe and diuers other and him. an. 1555. 
Commentary  *  Close
The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes

The Rerum contains an acccount of Haukes's background and life (p. 445), which is reprinted in all editions of the Acts and Monuments. The Rerum continues with a relatively brief account of Haukes's final examination by Bonner, his condemnation and his journey back to Essex to be burned (Rerum, pp. 445-46). This material was reprinted in the 1563 edition (on p. 1162) but dropped thereafter to be replaced by a more detailed account. The Rerum also contains an account of Haukes's execution, which was reprinted in all versions of the Acts and Monuments and his two 'private' examinations by Bonner (Rerum, pp. 446-62). All of this was fairly typical of the material Grindal assembled for the Rerum: a collection of documents, usually written by the martyr, supplemented with biographical material from oral sources. Two copies of Haukes's account of his 'private' examinations remain in Foxe's papers: BL, Lansdowne 389, fos. 13r-27r and 171r-182v.

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The account of Haukes in the 1563 edition was essentially a reprinting of the material in the Rerum, although the arrangement of this material was different and rather unusual: Haukes's examinations were printed before the details of Haukes's life and martyrdom were given. In the 1570 edition, Foxe rearranged the order of material, placing it in chronological order, with Haukes's life now followed by his examination and then by the details of his martyrdom. Foxe also replaced the public examinations of Haukes by Bonner, and the martyr's condemnation, with material drawn from Bonner's official record. (This material, probably kept in a court book, is now lost).

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Foxe reprinted the 1570 account of Haukes without any significant alteration in the third and fourth editions of the Acts and Monuments.


The first examination of Thomas Haukes.


Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Thomas Hawkes

Many of the glosses draw attention to stages in the narrative and also matters under discussion; indeed Hawkes' is one of the more disputational lives, and the margins reflect this fact. Some of the glosses take specific points made by Hawkes in arguments with his interrogators and draw out the general principles inherent in them ('Fecknam maketh euery act spoken of in the new Testament to be a ceremony'; 'The wordes of Christ are to be vnderstand, not as he spake , but as he ment thē'). The gloss 'Other doctrine taught in the Church of Rome then euer Paule taught' makes Hawkes' point clearer for the reader, and there are also glosses highlighting poor attempts at exegesis by Bonner and Fecknam ('See how Boner proueth holy water by the scripture'; 'Elizeus put salt in the water, not to washe away sinne, but onely to make the water sweete'; 'Boner proueth holy bread by the 5. loaues and 3. fishes'; 'Fecknams reason lyeth in Paules Breches'). In short, Foxe's margins are in some respects similar to those we find in the Oxford disputations sections; he also includes a comment of his own about the sacrament that is not indicated by the text ('It is his sacramentall body, or the Sacramēt of his body, but not his true body'). Bonner gets his usual criticism, his pride and anger both drawing marginal comments ('Boner looked to be curtised'; 'Boner in a fume with Thomas Haukes'), while another gloss uses the disparaging term 'coniure' in relation to his persuasion of Baget ('Boner taketh Baget with him aside to coniure him'). A gloss emphasises his assertion that he is no preacher ('B. Boner iudgeth other men by his own sore'). The limitations of papist debating skills are highlighted ('Boner whē he can not ouercome by doctrine, goeth about to oppresse by authoritie'; 'Fecknam falleth out of his matter to rayling'). The solidity of Hawkes' profession is emphasised in the use twice of the gloss 'Thomas Haukes builded his fayth vpon no man'. The gloss 'Thomas Haukes standing at the stake reasoneth with the Lord Rich' uses the surprising term 'reasoneth' to describe Hawkes' mode of speaking at the stake: a more biblical term might have been expected. There are various errors of placing, with 1570 (as is usual) more accurate in comparison to later editions.

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MarginaliaThomas Haukes.THe. xxiii. day of Iune, I was apprehended, and sente to London to Doctoure Boner, at the same tyme Bishop of London: and a man with me, who broughte me vp as a prisoner, with a letter to the Byshop, wherin was contayned these words folowing.


Commentary  *  Close

This letter was part of Haukes's narrative does not come from any official archive.

Most reuerend father in god, be it knowen vnto you þt I haue sēt you one Thomas Haukes, dwelling in the countye of Essex, who hath a child, þt hath remained vnchristined more thē. 3 wekes, who being vpon þe same examined, hath denied to haue it baptised, as it is now vsed in the church, whervpon I haue sent him to your good Lordship to vse him as ye thinke best, by your good discretion. Then the Bishop red the letter vnto me: when I heard it, I thoughte I should not be very wel vsed, seing it was put to his discretion. Then wrote he a letter again to him that sent me with many great thanks, for his diligence in setting forth the Quenes procedings. Then spake the Bishop vnto me, and said: what should moue you to leaue your child vnchristened so long?

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Haukes. Because we be bound to do nothing contrary to the worde of god.

Boner. Why? Baptisme is commaunded by the worde of god.

Haukes. His constitutiō therin I do not deny.

Boner. What deny ye than?

Haukes. I deny all thinges inuented and deuised by man.

Boner. What thinges be those, that be deuysed by man, that ye be so offended withall?

Haukes. Your Oyle, Creame, Salt, Spettle, Candle, and coniuryng of water. &c.

Boner. Wyll ye deny that, that al the whole worlde, and youre father hath bene contented withall.

Haukes. What my father, and all the whole worlde haue done, I haue nothing to do withall: but what god hath commaunded me to do, to that stande I.

Boner. The Catholike church hath taught it.

Haukes. What is the Catholike church?

Boner. It is the faithfull congregation wher soeuer it bee dispersed throughoute the whole world.

Haukes. Who is the head therof?

Boner. Christ is the head therof.

Haukes. Are we taught in Christe, or in the Church now?

Boner. Haue ye not read in the. viii. of Iohn where he saide, he would sende his comforter which should teach you all thynges?

Haukes. I graunt you it is so, that he would send his coumforter. but to what ende? forsoth to this end, that he shuld lead you into al truth and veritie, and that is not to teach a new doctrine.

Boner. A sir, ye are a right scripture man. for ye wil haue nothing but the scripture. There is a great nūber of your countrey men of your opiniō. Do ye not know one Knight & Pygot?

Haukes. Knyght I know. but Pigot I do not know.

Boner. I thought ye were acquainted wyth him: it semeth so by your iudgement. What preachers do ye knowe in Essex?

Haukes. I know none.

Boner. Do ye not know one Baget there?

Haukes. Yes forsooth, I know hym.

Boner. What maner a man is he?

Haukes. An honest man, so farre as I know.

Boner. Do ye know him if ye see hym?

Haukes. Yea that I do. Then sayd he to one of his seruantes: go call me Baget hether. And than he sayde to me: ye seme to be a very proud man and a stubborne. (He that brought me vp stode all this whyle by.)

Haukes. What should moue youre Lordshyp so to saye?

Boner. Because I se in a man that came with you much humilitie and lowlinesse.

Haukes. It semeth your Lordship speaketh þt to me, because I make no more curtesy to you. And with that came Baget: the Bishop sayde to Baget. How say ye sir, knowe ye this mā?

Baget. Yea forsoth my Lord: with that Baget and I shoke handes. Then sayde the Byshop to Baget: sir, this man hath a chyld, whiche hath lyen three wekes vnchristened, as I haue letters to shewe, who refuseth to haue it baptised, as it is now vsed in the churche: howe say you thereto?

Baget. Forsoth my Lord I say nothing therto, (with low curtesy to the hard ground.)

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