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Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the GlossesCommentary on the Text
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1241 [1172]

Actes and Monumentes of the church.

and condemned in the after none folowyng, as is before declared. Whereupon they being committed to the shirifes, were conueyed to the place of the execution, where they suffered, the one that is Ihon Symson at Rochford, a bout MarginaliaIune. 10.the. x. of Iune, the other whych is Ihon Ardeley the same daye, but in an other place whiche was at Rayly.

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AT the examination of the say Symson & Ardely there were assembled so greate a multitude of people, that (the consistory not being able to hold them) they were fayne to stand in the church, nere about the sayd Consystory, waiting to se the prisoners when they should departe. Yt happened in the meane tyme that the byshop being set in heate with the stout and bold answers of the sayde two prisoners (especyally of Simson) burst out in his lowd and angry voyce and sayd, haue hym away: haue hym away. Now when the people in the church heard these wordes, and thinking (because the day was farre spent) that the prisoners had their iudgment, thei desirous to se the prisoners had to newgate, seuered them selues, one running one way, another another waye, which caused such a noyse in the church, þt they in the consistory wer al amased, & marueiled what it should meane: MarginaliaThe ridiculous fear of Bonner and his doctours.wherfore the byshoppe also being somewhat afrayde of thys sodein stur, asketh what ther was to do. The standers by answering sayd, that there was like to be some tumult. for they were together by the eares. When the byshop hard this, by & by his hart was in his heeles, and leauing his seate, he with the rest of that court betoke thē to their legges, hastening with all spede possible to recouer the doore that went into the byshops house: but the rest beinge somewhat lighter of foote then my Lord, dyd soner recouer the doare, and thronging hastely to gette in, kepte the byshop still out and cryed: saue my Lord, saue my Lord, but meaning yet first to saue them selues, if any daunger shoulde come, wherby they gaue the standers by good matter to laugh at: being in maner in that taking that the old stagers of Oxford were whē it was noysed that the church was on fyre, (wherof we made mention before) sauing that there the party then punished cast awaye hys fagot, and so escaping, was neuer hard of after: but here the poore soules beinge stopped of theyr iudgement a very small tyme, were immediatly after called vnto fire, & to fagot.

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The full hystorye of the worthy Martyr and seruaunt of God Maister Ihon Bradford with his lyfe and actes, and sondry conflicts with his aduersaries, and martirdom at length most cōstantly suffered for the testimony of Christ and his truth. 
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The Martyrdom of John Bradford

Much of the material on Bradford's life and martyrdom first appeared in theRerum. This includes the material on Bradford's life before Mary's reign (Rerum, pp. 463-64), his saving of Gilbert Bourne's life and subsequent arrest (Rerum, pp. 464-65), Bradford's three examinations by Stephen Gardiner (Rerum, pp. 462-84), Bradford's 'private' disputations and his disputation with the Spanish friars (Rerum, pp. 484-502), Bradford's disputation with Pendleton (Rerum, pp. 499-501), Bradford's argument with Weston and his reasons against transubstantiation (Rerum, pp. 502 [recte 499]-499 [recte 500]). There was also a brief note on Bradford's execution which would be reprinted in every edition of the Acts and Monuments (Rerum, p. 501). All of this material came from Grindal. On 28 November 1557, Grindal wrote to Foxe sending him Bradford's examinations and certain other writings of the martyr along with the letter (BL, Harley 417, fo. 119r). In an earlier letter to Grindal, Foxe had acknowledged receipt of a 'historia Bradfordianum' along with various letters of the martyr (BL, Harley 417, fo. 113r).

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In the 1563 edition, Foxe added a mention of Bradford's objections to being made a deacon, a description of his preaching for three years in Edward VI's reign, a description of his imprisonment, a description of his character, lifestyle and appearance and Bradford's being taken to Newgate and then to the stake. Foxe also added an account of John Leaf (who was merely mentioned in the Rerum) and a new description of Bradford's behaviour at the stake, and an account of divine retribution on Woodruff, one of the sheriffs of London. Finally Foxe added an English poem lauding Bradford. All of this material came from individual informants, none from archival or print sources.

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The material on Bradford in the 1563 edition was badly out of order: Bradford's life, imprisonment and execution were followed, logically enough, by his letters to London, Cambridge, Lancashire, Walden and to a person, one 'B. C.'. But these letters were followed by his examinations, and then by more letters, more examinations. This was followed by the description of Leaf's martyrdom, Bradford's behaviour at his execution, and the poem praising him. In the 1570 edition, this material was brought into the classical order: life, imprisonment, examinations, execution and letters.

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Material was also added in the 1570 edition. Three examinations, taking place on 21 March, 28 March and 5 April, were added to this edition. They were reprinted from another version of Bradford's examinations which had been published in 1561 (All the examinacions of the martir J. Bradford [London, 1561], STC 3477, sigs. H5v-I1v, I5r-K5v. There are examinations in this 1561 volume which Foxe never printed: sigs. E5r-E7v). Foxe also added a talk Bradford had with a gentlewoman's servant and more information on Leaf in this edition. He also updated the account of the divine retribution inflicted on Woodroof, and he replaced the English poem praising Bradford with a Latin poem.

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The account of Bradford was unchanged in the 1576 and 1583 editions.


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John Bradford

Much of the text in this section is concerned with the discussions between Bradford and various catholic interlocutors. Many of the glosses give prompts and cues to the ebb and flow of this debating, with a good deal of quiet and not-so-quiet moulding of readers' expectations and perceptions in Bradford's favour. There are several examples of a marginal gloss denouncing a catholic assertion as untrue on the strength of it being about to be objected to by Bradford (e.g. 'Boner agayne commeth in with an other vntruth'; 'An other vntruth in Winchester'). At one point when Winchester changes the subject, the gloss announces that he has lost his 'holde' ('Winchester leaueth his holde'; see also the gloss 'Winchester driuen to eate his owne wordes'). A syllogism in the margin assumes that which the catholic interrogator it is directed against sought to disprove ('Argument who so receaue the body of Christ do receiue the fruite and grace of lyfe: no wicked do receiue fruite and grace of lyfe. Ergo, no wicked men receiue the body of Christ'). In addtion to all this there are more direct attacks. The dubious legality of holding Bradford is often alluded to in the margin ('Bradford committed to the tower most vniustly'; 'M. Bradford imprisoned without a cause'; 'Bradford condemned without iust cause but as was gathered at his iudgement against him'; 'Bradford imprisoned for that, for which he had the lawes on his side'), and the point that is made in the case of other martyrs, that they have been imprisoned in order to generate evidence rather than on the strength of any evidence, is also used ('M. Bradford imprisoned not for matter they had, but for matter they would haue agaynst him'). Foxe emphasises anything embarrassing to the papists, producing yet another reference to Winchester's De Vera Obedientia ('Herodes oth quoth Winchester'; 'Winchest. De vera obedientia') and reporting Tunstal's admission about the relative novelty of the doctrine of transubstantiation ('Note how these Bishops themselues do graunt, that the time was, when transubstantiation was not defined by the Church. Tonstall sayth it was more then 800: yeares after Christ'). The catholic preference for acting in darkness is also gets mentioned ('Bradford kept in the Vestrey till darke night'; 'M. Bradford had from the Counter to Newgate by night'), as does Winchester's apparent preference of vows to men over those to God ('The preposterous iudgement of Winchester, to care so little for an othe to God, and so much for his vowe to the Pope'; 'Winchester stumbling at vowes made to mā and leaping ouer solemne othes made to God') which ties in with Foxe's general complaint against catholicism: that it fails to give due weight to the genuinely divine over the merely human. The standard characterisation of the exasperation of the papists in the face of resolved protestants is used three times: twice they are portrayed as 'in a chafe', and once as in a 'pelting chafe' ('The Frier in a chafe'; 'Wynchester in a chafe'; 'Wynchester in a pelting chafe'). An implicit marginal unmasking occurs in the description of Seton as 'flattering' and then as one who 'rayleth' soon after ('The flattering commendation of D. Seton to Mayster Bradford'; 'D. Seton rayleth agaynst M. Bradford').

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While in comparison to certain moments in the Oxford disputations Foxe's notes are on the whole less intrusive, the level of aggression in the glosses increases somewhat during Bradford's discussion with Harpsfield; this may be because they go through a more diverse agenda than is usually the case. Alternatively, the fact that they agree on quite a few points and have quite a civilised discussion for the most part may have encouraged Foxe to display more opposition in the glosses. Pendleton is ungenerously treated, for the straightforward reason that he was a turncoat ('Pendleton belike would study out the reasons that moued him to alter, for he had none ready to shew'). As for the contribution of the glosses to the portrayal of Bradford, his ongoing pastoral enthusiasm despite his imprisonment is noted ('Bradford preacheth and ministreth the Sacrament in prison'; 'Byshop Farrar confirmed in the truth, by Iohn Bradford'; see also the gloss 'Note well the Popes way to bring men to fayth', which bemoans the catholic use of imprisonment as a means of conversion), as is the affection shown to him by the people ('The reuerēt regard and affection of the people to M. Bradford'; 'The people in Cheapside bad Bradford farewell') and the tears of the prisoners at his departure ('The prisoners take their leaue of Bradford with teares'). The glosses set Bradford up as the charismatic pastor that his letters in the following section prove him to have been. He also enjoys the martyr's privilege of forseeing his own death ('Bradford dreameth of his burning, according as it came to passe') and is shown to be unworldly ('Bradford content with a little sleepe'). His tearfulness ('Bradfordes teares') and (especially) the mention of his name in connection with mortification ('Bolde confidēce and hope of Gods word and promise, semeth strange among them which are not exercised in mortification') should be read in part as preparatives for the joyfully self-condemnatory nature of the impending letters. There are several cross-references to other places in the book; 1570 has a correct reference to all three citations, 1576 to one, in all other cases, no specific reference is given. There is one example of a gloss badly placed after 1570 and an example of a scriptural reference wrong in 1563 (1. Cor. 12) but correct thereafter (1. Cor. 11).

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MarginaliaIuly. .1. MarginaliaMaister Ihō Bradforde.THys Ihon Bradforde was borne at Manchester in Lancashere: hys parentes dyd bring hym vp in learnyng from hys enfancy, vntil he attayned such knowledge in the latine tong, and cūning in writing, that he was able to gaine his owne lyuing in some honest condicion. He then became seruant to MarginaliaSir Ihon Haringtonsyr Ihon Harrington knight who in the greate affaires of the King Henry the eyght and Edward the syxt, which he had in hand when he was Treasurer of the kings campes, and buildinges, at diuers tymes in Bullonois, had such experiēce of Bradfordes actiuity in writing, of his expertnes in the art of Auditours, and also of his faithful trustines, that not only in those affaires, but in many other of hys priuate businesses he trusted Bradford, in such sorte, that aboue al other he vsed his trusty seruice. Thus liued Bradford some yeares in a meruelous worldy forwardnes: euen after the course of the world, as a child of this world. But the Lord which had elected hym vnto life, and preordined hym to preach Christes gospell, in that houre of grace which in his secret counsell he had appoynted he called this his chosen childe to the vnderstanding, and partaking of the same gospel of lyfe: In which call he was so truly caught, that forthwith this effectuall call was perceyued by the fruites. For then Bradford did forsake his worldly affaires, and forwardnes in worldlye wealthe, and after the iuste accompt geuen to his Maister of all hys doinges he departed from hym, 
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Bradford's leaving the employment of Sir John Harrington was not this simple. In his final examination of Bradford, Stephen Gardiner accused Bradford of having cheated Harrington out of ?140 and then becoming a 'gospeller'. Bradford indignantly and absolutely denied this accusation. Thomas Sampson, in a brief life of Bradford, which prefaced a 1574 edition of two of Bradford's sermons, wrote that Bradford, while in the service of Harrington, treasurer of Henry VIII's camp during the 1544 expedition to France, had taken money from the royal treasury without Harrington's knowledge. Later Bradford heard a sermon by Hugh Latimer, demanding the return of ill-gotten gains. This sermon seared Bradford's conscience and, following Latimer's counsel, he restored the money (Bradford [PS], I, pp. 32-33).

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Sampson's account is partially confirmed by the correspondence of Bradford with his friend John Traves, most of which was first published by Foxe in his 1583 edition. A letter written by Traves to Bradford, probably written about February 1548, contains Traves's advice to Bradford on restoring the money (BL, Harley 416, fos. 33r-34r, printed in Bradford [PS], I, pp. 1-4). In a letter written to Traves a few weeks later, Bradford stated that Latimer had advised him to write to Harrington, giving his former employer two weeks to make restitution. If Harrington refused, Bradford was to report the matter to the duke of Somerset and the privy council. A letter of 22 March 1548, from Bradford to Travers, describes Bradford's efforts to force a reluctant Harrington to return the money. A few weeks later Bradford wrote that Harrington had agreed to repay the money before 'Candlemas next coming' (2 February 1549) and that Latimer thought that this was sufficient. Apparently Harrington did not meet this deadline; in the autumn of 1549, Bradford wrote to Traves that Harrington had promised to make the payment on the following Candlemas. And in a letter to Traves written around February 1550, Bradford rejoiced that restitution had finally been made in full.

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From these letters, it would appear that Bradford was a party to some financial irregularity connected with Harrington's official duties on the French campaign in 1544. Years later, his conscience was stirred by Latimer, and following Latimer's advice, he forced Harrington to return the ill-gotten money.

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and with meruelous fauour to further the kingdom of God by the ministery of hys holy word, he gaue hym selfe wholy to the study of the holy scriptures. The which that he might the better do, he departed from the Temple at London, where the temporal law is studied, and went to the vniuersity of Cambridge, to learne by Goddes lawe how to further the buildinge of Gods temple. In Cambridge hys diligence in study profiting in knowledge, & godly cōuersatiō so pleased all men, that within one whole yeare after that he had ben there, the vniuersity did geue hym the degre of a Maister of Arte. MarginaliaBradford Maister of arte and felow in Pēbroke hall.Immediatly after the Maister and fellowes Penbroke hall dyd gyue him a fellowship in their colledge with them: yea that man of God Martine Bucer so lyked hym, that he had him not only most deare vnto hym, but also often tymes exhorted hym to bestowe his talent in preaching: vnto which Bradford answered al wayes, that he was vnable to serue in that office through want of learning. To the which Bucer was wont to reply, saying: MarginaliaMartine Bucers saiyng.If thou haue not fyne manchet breade, 
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The finest quality wheat bread [OED].

yet geue the poore people that barly bread which the Lord hath committed vnto the. And whiles Brad-

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