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125 [1142]

obedience and subiection vnto hym. Howe he gaue away his kingdome and possessions vnto Lewis, the Frenche kinges sonne, commaundinge the sayde Lewis to spoyle him, bothe of landes and lyfe. Whereuppon the king being forsaken of his Nobles, Prelates, and cōmons was inforced against his will to submitte hym selfe, and sweare obedience vnto the Pope, paying vnto him a yearely tribute of a thousande Markes by yeare, for receiuing his kingdom againe, whereby both he and his successors after him wer vassals afterwarde vnto the Pope. And these were the Apostolicall actes of this holy Vicare in the realme of Englande. Marginalia

The counsels of Lateran.

Almericus condemned

Moreouer he condemned Almericus a worthy learned mā, and a Bishop, for an heretike, for teaching and holding against Images. MarginaliaIoachim Abbas condemned.Also he condemned the doctrine of Ioachim Abbas (whome we spake of before) for heretycall. MarginaliaPriuate tythes brought in.Thys Pope brought first into the churche the paying of priuate tithes. He ordeined the receyuyng once a yeare at Easter. Vnto the Papall Decretalles he added the decree. Omnis vtriusque sexus. &c MarginaliaBel & Candle before the sacramente.Also the reseruation of the sacrament, and the going with the Bell, and light before the Sacrament, was by hym appoynted. In the sayde counsell of Lateran, MarginaliaCanon of the Masse authorised.he also ordeined that the Canon of the Masse should be receiued with equall authoritie as thoughe it hadde proceded from the Apostles themselues. MarginaliaTransubstantiationHe broughte in Transubstantiation. looke in the Decretalles Titul. i. De summa trinit. et fide Catholica. cap. firmiter credimus.

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MarginaliaMariage in the. 3. degree restreined.Item, the saide Innocentius the thirde, ordeyned that none shoulde marye in the thyrde degree, but onely in the fourth degree, and so vnder.

MarginaliaThe Pope setteth kinges & Emperors together by the eares.The sayde Pope styrred vp Otho agaynste Philip the Emperoure, because the sayde Phylip was elected Emperour against his wyll. Vpon the occasion wherof followed much warre and slaughter in Germany. Marginalia

Philip Emperor deposed.

Otho Emperor deposed.

And afterwarde against the sayde Otho, whome he hadde made Emperour, he set vp Fredericke Kyng of Cycile, and caused the Archebishop of Mayēce to pronounce him excommunicate in all his Tytles, and to be deposed of Empires. For the whiche cause the Princes of Germany dyd inuade his Bishopricke, spoylinge and burnynge his possession. The cause why the Pope so dyd accurse and depose him, was for that the sayde Otho dyd take and occupye certayne Cities, Townes, and Castels, whiche the Pope sayde pertained to him.

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Item, the saide Pope ordeined that yf anye Prince offended one another, the correction should appertayne vnto the Pope. MarginaliaThe coūsel of LateranIn this counsell of Laterane were Archbishops & Primates lxi. Bishoppes foure hundred, Abbotes twelue Priours and Conuentuals D.CCC. besydes other Embassadours, Legates, Doctours, andLawyers an innumerable sort. &c.

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In the Chronicle of Gualter Hemingham otherwise called Gisburgensis, it is recorded þt MarginaliaObseruant Friers the daies of this king Iohn, and Pope Innocent, began the two sects and orders of Friers 

Commentary  *  Close
Innocent III and the mendicant orders

Foxe moved the short tract on the life and acts of Innocent III from the end of the section on King John in the 1563 edition to the beginning of the section on Henry III's early reign in the 1570 edition. The account is almost entirely extracted out of John Bale, Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae …Catalogus (Basel, 1557), pp. 234-5 but also supplemented with evidence from Innocent III's papal decretails, commonly called Corpus Juris Canonici. There were various manuscript versions in existence making it difficult to know which version is used here.

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From this summary Foxe indulges in anti-papal polemics from the thirteenth century as a framework for his rewriting of the Cathar heresy into agents of Christ's church. First Foxe attacked the increase of Monastic Orders as a sign that the Roman Church could not even agree from within itself. The text is largely lifted from John Bale's Catalogus pp. 234-5 and The Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough, ed. Harry Rothewell, Camden Society, 3rd Series, 89 (London, Camden Society, 1957), pp. 150-1. The list of 101 Orders is interesting. Martin Luther did not produce any such list despite Foxe's reference to him. The unidentified English book that Foxe refers to is also unknown. It is possible that Foxe was relying on an unprinted list compiled by John Bale.

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Next follows the prophecy of the nun, Hildegard written down in her Scivias, Liber vitae meritorum and Liber divionorum operum, which represented a popular prophecy about the Antichrist from the early thirteenth century that had transmitted to the fourteenth-century primarily through Gebeno, Prior of Eberbach's Speculum Temporum Futurorum (1220). This text had attempted to link Hildegard's prophecy to the growing Cathar heresies. Hildegard was the abbess of Disibodenberg and Rupertsberg. In the 1563 edition Foxe took this account from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Strasbourg, 1556), pp. 650-655. However, in the 1570 edition Foxe has corrected the date of the prophecy from 1170 to 1146 and rearranged the prophecy itself. This suggests that he had either consulted Flacius' source, the Chronica Martini Poloni from Matthew Parker's collection (probably CCCC MS 372 or CCCC MS 59) or alternatively from a composite manuscript (CCCC MS 404) containing various prophesies including Hildegard.

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Once this prophecy is outlined Foxe begins his discussion of the Cathars (Albigenses). Foxe publishes a letter by the Pope's legate concerning the Cathars setting up of a rival Pope. This account was first printed in the 1563 edition but from the 1570 edition onwards would be followed by a larger account of the Albigensian crusade (1209-1229) after further discussion of England's financial plight. The inclusion of the 1563 account without change even though Foxe had discovered more details reveals something of Foxe's working practise for the second edition. The account is extracted from either Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (7 vols., London, 1872-1884), vol. 3, pp. 78-9 or Roger of Wendover, Flores Historiarum, ed. Henry G. Hewlett, Rolls Series (3 vols., London, 1886-9) vol. 2, pp. 272-3.

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This section is then completed by a full reproduction of a post-Wyclif Lollard tract attacking the practises and corruption of friars probably written in the early fifteenth century. Jack Upland was either mistaken as a work of Chaucer or for political and religious reasons attributed to the famous author of the fourteenth century to by-pass the ban on Lollard writings under the Six Articles. The popularity of Chaucer also made the association a powerful propaganda tool. In 1550 Robert Crawley had published a similar tract for reformist purposes entitled Piers Plowman, which had proved successful. See John N. King, 'Robert Crawley's editions of "Piers Plowman": A Tudor Apocalypse', Modern Philology, 73:4 (1976), pp. 342-352. If the reformists could show that Chaucer was a 'proto-Protestant' then this would help to popularise acceptance of the Elizabethan Church. P.L. Heyworth, 'The Earliest Black-letter editions of "Jack Upland"', The Huntingdon Library Quarterly, 30:4 (1967), pp. 307-314 has suggested that its original publication in the 1530s by John Gough and then again by John Day was to support the Henrician break from Rome and the subsequent dissolution of the monasteries. Jack Upland allowed Foxe to trace, through the association of Chaucer with Wyclif as 'faithful witnesses', the apostolic church at a time when the Antichrist was in full control of the church. The decision must also be, in part, related to John Day's earlier publication of the tract in the 1540s, which made its inclusion in the Acts and Monuments an easy addition to print. Its publication in the midst of Henry III's reign was to demonstrate the corruption of monkish orders, which Foxe had listed two pages earlier.

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Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

, one called the preacher order, or blacke Fryers of sainct Dominicke. The other called the Minorits of sainct Francis. Marginalia1215 DominickThe preacher or black Fryers order beganne of one Dominycke a Spanyard, about the partes of Tholouse, who after he had laboured ten yeares in preachynge agaynst the Albingenses, and suche other as dyd holde against the Churche of Rome, afterwarde comming vp to the counsel of Laterane with Fulco Bishop of Tholouse, desired of the foresayde Innocent the third, to haue his order of preaching Friers confirmed, which þe Pope a great while refused to graunt, at length had a dreame, that the Churche of Laterane was ready to fall. Whiche whan he beheld, fearyng and muche sorrowyng thereat, commeth in this Dominicke, who with his shoulders vnpropped the Church, and so preserued the building therof from falling. &c. And rightwel this dreame may seme to bee verified. MarginaliaFriers vpholders of the Popes churche.for þe Friers haue bene alwayes the chiefe pillars and vpholders of the Popes churche. Vppon thys the Pope wakyng out of his dreame, called Dominicke to him, and graunted his petition. And so came vp this Woluishe order of the Domynickes. I call it Woluishe, for that his mother whan she was great with this Dominicke, dremed that she had in her wombe a Wolfe, whyche had a burning Torche in his mouthe. The whiche dreame the preachers of that order do greatly aduaunce, & expound it to theyr orders glory, as well as they can. Neuerthelesse, how soeuer they expounde it, they can make a wolfe but a Wolfe, and this to be a Woluishe order. The rule whiche they followe, semeth to be taken out of sainct Augustine, as who should say that Christes rule were not inough to followe to make a christian manne. Theyr profession standeth vpon thre principall poyntes, as thus described. Charitatem habentes, humilitatem seruantes, & paupertatem voluntāriam possidentes: That is, hauing charitye, holding humylitye, and possessyng wilfull pouerty. Theyr habite and clothing is blacke.

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The Mynorit friers descended from sainct Francis

The order of the Minors or Minorite Fryers descended from one Frauncis an Italian, of the Citie Asisium. This Assisian Asse, whom I suppose was some simple and rude Ideot, hearyng vppon a tyme howe Christ sent forth hys Disciples to preache, thoughe to imitate the same in himselfe and his Dysciples, and so left of shooes, hadde but one coate, and that of vyle clothe: in stede of a latchet to his shoe, and of a girdle, he toke about him an hempen cord, and so apparelled his disciples, teaching them to ful fill (for so he speaketh) the perfection of the gos-

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