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in so much that in all England, if an Englishman had met a Dane, vpō a bridge, he might not stire one foot to enter the bridg, before the Dane wer past. And then, if þe english man had not geuē low reuerence to the Dane, at his cōming by, he was sure to be sharply punished. And this subiectiō al most cōtinued frō the reigne of king Ethelwolfus. 230. yeres, til good king Edward. And yet the indignation of god, thus ceased not, but stirred vp the Normans against thē, vpō the occasiō before mentioned, the which Normands cōquered & altered the whole realme, after their owne purpose, in so much þt, besides the innouatiō of the lawes, coines, & possessiōs MarginaliaLanfrācus an Italian archebishop of Canterbury.there was in no church of Englād almost any english bishop but only Normands, & straūgers placed, through all dioces. Amongst whō was Lancfrancus an Italian, made archbishop of Canterbury. MarginaliaOpus scintillarū Lanfranci.Who wrote against Berengarius intitling his booke: Opus scintillarum. MarginaliaThe causes of the many folde afflictiōs of this realme diuersly resited in histories.This punishment of God, against the English nation, writers do assigne diuersly to diuerse causes, of whom som say, that the kings & prelates, & other both of the laitie & of the clergy, which before were redy, for religiō sake, to forsake all, & geue themselues to a solitary life, in proces of time grew to suche dissolutenes, that they left no other realme like vnto thē in iniquitie. Again, some writing of the vision of the good king Edward, a litel before the inuasion of the Normans, testify, what the said king reported of his visiō, wherin he heard, that for the great enormitie and misbehauiour of the head Dukes, bishops, and Abbats of þe realme, þe kingdō shuld be geuen to the hand of his enemie after the decese of him, for the space of one yeare, & one day: which space also was seene to William the conquerer, to be a C. yeres &. L. MarginaliaEnglish men schourged for their vniust oppression of the Britanes,But concerning the causes, of this so great wrathe of God, som writers entreating, declare in these words: Nam sicut Angli, Britones, quos Deus disterminare proposuerat peccatis suis exigentibus, humiliauerant, et a terra Angliæ minus iuste fugauerant, sic ipsi duplici persecutione. &c. that is, like as þe english men did subdue the Britans, whō God purposed for their deseruinges, to exterminate, & they iniustli did put out of their lād: so they shuld be likewise subdued & schourged with a double persecution, first by the Danes, & after by þe Normands. &c. MarginaliaThe iudgement & iust retribution of God to be considered. Rom. i.Wherin we may lerne to consider, & to feare the righteous retribution and wrath of God, from heauen, vpon all iniquitie, & vnrightuous dealing of men. Rom. i. It is expressed before, how Edward being cōpelled by feare, partly of the Danes, partly of Godwinus, & Haraldus murderers of his eldest brother, did bequeth his kingdom to William Duke of Normande, MarginaliaExample of foren mariage amongste Princes.This kindred came in first by king Ethelredus, An. M. which for feare of the Danes & for the fleing away of Godwin & his sonnes, ioyned with the doughter of the Normand Duke, called Emma: wherof came Alfredus & Edward, king ofEngland, & kinsman to this. W. the Normand. Wherby we haue also to note, what daungers often do chaunce to realmes publike, by foreine mariage amongst Princes.

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But this by digressiō, & now to our porpose again, which is to entreate of the matters of the church: where thou didst heare before good, reader, how. W. þe Normand sent to Alexander the Pope, to heare his minde, concerning his enterprise & viage into England. Now what coūsell a quiet & peaceable bishop, wold & shuld haue geuen, in suche a matter, iudge as thou thinkest. what counsel this Pope did geue, & what he did, it is declared. And now to procede farther. MarginaliaAn. 1070.In þe daies of this Alexander, the first of þe reign of. W An. M. lxx, Lanfrancus an Italian being archbisshop of Canterbury, & MarginaliaT ster builded.Tho. archbishop of York who first builded the minster of York, & gaue possessions therunto, came to Rome with Remigius bishop of Dorcester, for their palles, as þe maner was, without whiche no archbishop nor bisshop could be cōfirmed, although their election were neuer so lawfull. MarginaliaThe geuing of the palle.And this palle muste be asked nowhere but of the pope, or his assingnes, and that wtin. iii months, also must be asked not feintly but mightely: MarginaliaDist 100. Cap Prisca.Dist. C. cap. prisca, whiche as it was a chargable thing, to other nations, especially such as were far frō Rome, so it was no small gaine to þe Romish sea, so as they did order it: MarginaliaDist 100. Cap Nouit.for although at þe beginning the palle was geuen wtout money, according to the decre. Dist, C or for litell, as percase in this time of Lanfrank: MarginaliaEx libro grauaminū nationis Germanicyet in proces of yeres it grew to such exces, that where MarginaliaIacobus archebishop of Mentesþe bishoprik of Mentz was wonte to geue to Rome but a x. M. florēce, afterward it arose so, that he that asked to haue his cōfirmation, could not obtaine it, without .xx. thousand. And from thence he exceced, to xxv. thousande, & at length to. xxvii. thousand florences, which summe Iacobus archebishop of Mentz was prest to pay, a litell before the councel of Basill: in so much that the said Iacobus, at his departing, within foure yeares after, sayd, that his death did not so much greue him, as his poore subiectes, which shoulde be constrened, to pay so terrible a fine, for the Popes palle. MarginaliaEneas Suius writeth to be 50 bishoprickes in Germany.Now by this, what did rise to the Pope in whole Germany conteining in it aboue L. bishoprikes, it may be easely cōiectured. Lanfrancus thus cōming to Rome, with the other. ii bishops, he for the estimation of his lerning obtained of Alexander. ii. palles, one of honor, thother of loue. Item obteyned for the other, ii. bishops also theire confirmation. At whiche time, they being there present before Alexander, the cōtrouersy began first to be moued, or rather renued, for the primacy betwixt. ii. metropolitanes, that is betwixt the archebishop of Canterbury, and archebisshop of Yorke, whether of thē shuld haue preeminence aboue the other: For Canterbury chalensed to hymselfe prerogatiue and the primary, ouer whole Britany, and Irelande

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