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Rome haue bene elected, by voyces, and suffrages, of al sortes and degrees, as wel of Prestes and the cleargy, as of the nobility, people, and Senate, all conuenting and assemblinge together: And this election, so I find to stād in force, if it were ratified and confirmed, by the consent of Romaine Empeeours: who had authority to call and to assemble all these, as wel, as bishops together, vnto coūcels, as case required. MarginaliaThe state and maner of the olde church in times past.Vnder the authoritye and iurisdiction of these Emperoures were conteyned bothe in Germanye, Fraunce, Italy, and throughe the whole dominion of Rome, all Patriarches, Bishoppes, masters of churches and monasteries, by the decree of councels, according to the old custome of our aunciters, as I haue to fore declared, in the lyfe of Carolus Magnus. MarginaliaReuerence and obedience, in olde time geuen to princes.The holye and auncyent fathers (like as Christ our Lord with his discyples and Apostles both taught and did) honoured and estemed their Emperoures, as the supreme potestate, next vnder god in earth, set vp ordeined, elected, and crowned of God, aboue all other mortal men, and so counted them, and called them, their Lordes. To them they yelded tribute, and paid their subsides. Also prayed euery day for their life. Such as rebelled against them they toke as rebelles and resisters agaynst God his ordinance, and Christian pity. The name of the Emperour then, was of great maiesty, and receiued, as geuen from God. MarginaliaThe manners and vertue of the forefathers described.Than these fathers of the churche neuer intermedled, nor intangled them selues, with politike affayres of the commen weale: much les they occupied martiall armes, and matters of cheualry. Onlye in pouerty and modesty, was all their contentyon with other christians, who should be porest, and most modest amongst them. And the more humblenesse appeared in any, the hier opinion they conceiued of him. The sharp & two edged sword they toke geuen to the church of Christ, to saue, and not to kill: to quicken, and not to destroy, & called it the sword of the spirite, whyche is the word of God, the life, and lighte of men, and reuoketh from death to life, making of men gods, of mortall, immortall: So farre were they from that, to thrust out any Prince or kinge, though he were out of the way, yea an Arrian from his kingdome, to curse him, to release his subiectes from their oth and their allegance, to chaunge and translate kingdomes, to subuert Empires, to pollute them selues wyth christen bloud, and to warre with their Christian brethren for rule and principality. This was not their spirit and manner than, but rather they loued and obeyed their princes. Againe Princes loued them also, like fathers and felow princes wyth them of the soules of men. MarginaliaThe ambitious presumption of HildebrandNowe this Gregorius vii. other wise named Hildebrandus, trustinge vppon the Normaines, which than ruffled about Apulia, Calabria, and Campania: trusting also vpon the power of Machtilda, a stout woman there aboutRome, and partly again, bearing him self bold, for the discord amongst the Germaines, fyrst of all other, (contrary to the manner of elders) cōtemning the authority of the Emperoure, inuaded the cathedrall sea of Rome: vauncinge hym self as hauing both the Ecclesiasticall and temporall sword, committed to him by Christe, and that fulnesse of power was in his hand, to bind and lose, what so he listed. Wher vpon thus he presumed to occupy both the regiments, to chalenge all the whole dominion, both of the East and West church, yea and all power to him self alone, abiding none to be equall, much lesse superior to him, derogating from other, and arrogating to him self their due right and honoure: setting at light Cesars, kinges, and Emperors, and who reigned but by his godamercye? Byshops, and prelates, as his vnderlinges, he kept in awe, suspendings and cursing, and choppyng of their heades, stirringe vp strife and warres, sowing of discorde, making factions, releasinge othes, defeating fidelity and due allegaunce of subiectes to their princes, yea and if he had offended or iniuried the Emperour him self, yet notwithstanding he oughte to be feared, as he hym self glorieth in a certaine Epistle, as who that could not erre, and had receiued of Christe our sauiour, and of Peter authority to binde, and vnbinde, at his will and pleasure. MarginaliaEx Auentino, qui inuenit in instrumentis donationum. Priestes wiues called presbyterisse, in olde chapter seales.Priestes then in those daies had wiues openly and lawfully, no law forbidding to the contrary, as appeareth by the dedes and writynges of their chapter. seales and donations which were geuen to temples & monasteries, wherin their wiues also be cited, wyth them, for witnes and were called, by their name, presbyterisse, also for Bishops, Prelates, Persons of churches, gouerners of the clergy, masters of monasteries, and religious houses, all these were then in those times in the Emperours ordination to assigne, by voice or consent, whome he wold. MarginaliaHildebrand a mortal enemy against prestes marryage.Now these ii. thinges Gregorius this Pope could not abide. For the whiche ii. causes only, was all his striuing and driuing from his first beginning: To abolish the maryage of priestes. And to translate the authoritye Emperiall, to the clergy. For, to this scope only tended all his labour, practise and deuises: as appeared before, in the councell of Lateren, vnder Pope Nicholas: MarginaliaPrestes mariage made herisy.and also in the councell of Mantua, vnder Alexander, making their maryage heresy, and the other to be simony, and that which before he went about by other, nowe he practiseth by him self: to condemne ministers þt were maried for Nicolaitanes: And to receiue any spirituall regiment of seculer persones, for Simony, directing forth his leters vpon þe same to Henricus the Emperour, to dukes, princes, potestates, tetrarkes, namelye to Berchtoldus. to Rudolphus of Sweuia, to Whelpho, Adalberon, and their wiues. Item to bishops, archebishops, to priestes and to all the people: In the

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