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469 [469]

Wherin this appeare to me, and may also appeare no lesse to all godly disposed men, to be noted, not without great admiratiō that seing this forsaid Romish bishop hath had great enemies and gayne saiers continually from time to time, both speaking and working, preaching and writing against him, yet notwithstanding neuer any could preuaile befor the comminge of this man, the cause wherof, allthoughe it be secretly knowen vnto God, and vnknowen vnto men. Yet so farre as men by coniectures may suppose, it may thus not vnlykely be thought. For wher as other men before him, speaking against the pompe, pride, whordome & auarice of the bishop of Rome, charged him onely or most specially with examples and maners of liefe: Luther went further with him, charging him, not with liefe, but with his learning, not with his doinges. but with his doctrine, not picking at the rine but plucking vp the rote, not seking the man but shaking hys seate, MarginaliaThe Pope charged of heresie by Luther,yea and charging him with plaine heresie, as repining and resisting plainely against the bloud of Christ, contrary to the true sence and direct vnderstāding of the sacred testamēt of gods holy worde. For wher as the fundaciō of our faith grounded vpon the holy scripture teacheth and leadeth vs to be iustified only by the worthines of Christe, and the onely price of his bloud: The Pope proceading with a contrary doctrine teacheth vs otherwise to seek our saluation, not by Christ alone, but by the way of mens meriting & deseruing by workes Wherupon rose diuers sortes of orders and religious sectes emongest men. Some professing one thing, and some another, and euery man seking his own rightuousnes, but few sekinge the rightuousnes of him which is set vp of God to be our rightuousnes redemptiō and iustification.

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Martin Luther therfore vrging and reducing thinges to the foundation and touchstone of the scripture, opened þe eyes of many, which before was drowned in darkenes. Wherupon it can not be expressed what ioye, comfort, and consolation came to the hartes of men, Some lyeng in darkenes and ignoraunce, some wallowyng in synne, some being in dispayre, some macerating them selues by workes, and some presumyng vpon their owne righteousnes, to beholde that glorious benefite of the great lybertie and free iustification set vp in Christ Iesus. And (briefly) to speake, þe more gloriouse þe benefite of this doctrine appeared to the world after long ignoraunce, the greater persecution followed vpon the same. And where the electe of God toke moste occasion of comforte and of saluation. Therof the aduersaries toke moste matter of vexation and disturbaunce. As commonly we see thee true woorde of God bringe with it euer discention and perturbacion, andtherfore truly it was sayde of Christe, that he came not to sende peace on earth, but þe sword. And this was the cause, why that after the doctrine and preaching of Luther, so great troubles and persecutions followed in all quarters of the world, but in no place more then in this realme of Englande (as hereafter in the processe of this story by the grace of Christe shall partly appeare) from the first beginninge of kyng Henry the eyght, vnto this present time. About the eight yeare of kyng Henry theyght. Pope Leo beyng byshop of Rome, this forsayd Luther first began to preache, whose doctrine as it sounded through many other places, so chieflie in England semed to take no small effect, whereby rose great disquietnes among the prelates: and many lawes and decrees were made, to ouerthrowe the same by cruell handling of many good and Christian men. Thus whyle autoritie armed with lawes & rigoure, did striue against symple veritie, lamentable it was to heare how many poore men were troubled and went to wracke, some tost from place to place, some exiled out of the lande for feare, some caused to abiure, some driuen to caues in woodes, some racked with torment, and some pursued to death with fagot & fier. Of whome occasion would nowe serue to intreat, but that first gentle reader somewhat to recreate you withall after these longe and tragicall histories we haue thought good, because the nomber of the yeares doth also serue, to anexe here in this place a mery spectacle or iest which happened in Londō, no lesse to be noted, as also to be laughed at, for that thereby the detestable pompe and ambition of the Cardinalles was detected and shewed.

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¶ The history of a certaine ridiculous spectacle of the Cardinalles pompe, at London in the yeare of our Lorde 1517. 
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Thomas Wolsey

The reason for Campeggio's mission in 1518 (not 1517, as Foxe states) was to persuade Henry VIII to support Pope Leo X's project for a crusade. Legates a latere were only exceptionally admitted to England (or to several other states), but this intention gave Cardinal Wolsey the opportunity to seek the same status for himself. Henry VIII therefore wrote on 11 April 1518, agreeing to the request on the condition that Wolsey was accorded the same rank. The Bull conferring this on the English cardinal was issued on 17 May, over a month before Campeggio reached Calais, so the sequence of events proposed by Foxe is in error. The real reason for the delay in the latter's proceeding to England was that Wolsey had another request. Cardinal Adriano Castelli, who held the English see of Bath and Wells, had been marginally involved in a plot against Leo, and Wolsey was anxious to secure his deprivation in order to possess the see himself. His campaign against Castelli was aided by another cardinal, Sylvestro Gigli, and it appears to have been Gigli's idea to keep Campeggio waiting until their demand was met. Campeggio reached Calais about 21 June and Wolsey sent an escort to bring him into England on around 10 July (Peter Gwyn, The King's Cardinal: the Rise and Fall of Thomas Wolsey [1990], pp. 102-3). An authentic account of Wolsey's pomp is contained in George Cavendish, The Life and Death of Cardinal Wolsey, ed. Richard S. Sylvester, Early English Text Society No. 243. (London: Oxford University Press, 1959). Cavendish wrote between 1556 and 1558, but his work remained in manuscript, and there is no reason to believe that Foxe ever saw it. This account is taken from Edward Hall, The Union of the two noble and illustre families of Lancastre and Yorke (London, 1550), 'The triumphant reign of K. Henrie the eight', p. 64r-v [STC (2nd ed.) 12723a]. An additional source may be found in BL Harley MS 433 fo. 293, calendared in the Letters and Papers…of the Reign of Henry VIII. ed. J. Gairdner et al. (London, 1862-1910), 2, No. 4333. This manuscript originally belonged to John Foxe.

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The main source for Foxe's story of Campeggio's second visit in 1529 is Edward Hall's chronicle, referred to above, pp. 161-3, 170r-171v, and 184v. This is in the regnal year 21 Henry VIII, not, as stated, 19 Henry VIII. The pope in question was Clement VII, not Clement VIII. This appears to have been simply a mistake (if he had been counting the anti-popes, he should have been Clement IX, since 'Clement VII' reigned at Avignon from 1378 to 1394, and 'Clement VIII' from 1423 to 1429). The occasion for this second visit was, of course, the resolution of the 'King's Great Matter' - the annulment of his marriage to Catherine. The story of the sack of Rome, which helped to frustrate the king's efforts, is also taken from Hall's Chronicle (pp. 159-61). The story of Wolsey's malice against Richard Pace, dean of St Paul's (and dean of Exeter and dean of Salisbury), however, does not come from Hall, and although the fact of his collapse can be confirmed from letters calendared in the Letters and Papers, there is no likelihood that Foxe would have known about these. It no doubt derived from the letter of Erasmus to Thomas Lupsett of 4 October 1525, in which he hoped that 'our friend Pace has recovered by now' from 'the love disease' [syphilis] which afflicted him (Erasmus, Collected Works ed. Alexander Dalzell [1994], No. 1624 [p. 305]). This had already been published in the Opus epistolarum Des. Erasmi Roterodami (Basel: Froben, 1529). There is no reason to suppose that the cardinal was deliberately responsible for Pace's insanity, which caused him to be recalled from Rome in November 1525, although it is possible that the pressures put upon him may have been a contributory factor. Pace was relieved of his duties as king's secretary in 1526, and consigned to the care of the Brigittine monks at Syon. Pace was in and out of care for the rest of his life, pursuing his scholarly interests as best he could. For a while, he lived normally in London, but later he returned (apparently voluntarily) to Syon. On the whole, Wolsey's treatment of him was patient and considerate, and Foxe was taking at face value hostile stories that had become part of the cardinal's 'Black Legend'. The former diplomat never, however, completely recovered, and died eight years later. On Pace, see Jervis Wegg, Richard Pace, A Tudor Diplomat (London, 1932), pp. 273-288. The original of the 'ambitious letter', written by Wolsey to Gardiner, is to be found in BL Cotton MS B.XI, fo. 57, although how Foxe obtained a copy of it is not known. The source of the 'Instructions' is similarly unknown, but the stories about Barnes and the Legatine Congregation are to be found in Hall's Chronicle, pp. 146-7, 166, and 169. Wolsey's arrest, the summoning of Parliament, and More's appointment as chancellor, are similarly taken from Hall, as are the 'Greuvances against the Clergie' (p. 188) and the articles against Wolsey (p. 189). The petition of Humphrey Monmouth to Wolsey and the Council, dated 19 May 1528, from which most of the story his 'trouble' is taken, came from a manuscript in Foxe's possession (BL Harley MS 421). It was printed by Strype (Ecclesiastical Memorials, 1, ii, p. 89) and taken from Strype by the Letters and Papers (4, ii, No 4282). The proceedings against Arthur, Bilney, and others are taken from the registers of John Tunstal, bishop of Durham (not Stokesley), bishop of London (London Guildhall Library, Guildhall MS 9531/10 (fos.131r-36r)), whilst the story of Thomas Hytten probably comes from John Fisher's Rochester register, now missing. The substance of these blocks was repeated with very little alteration in 1583.

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David Loades

ALbeit that it is not greatly pertinente vnto thys hystory, nor gretly requisit in these so waighty matters, to intreaet much of Thomas Wolsey Cardinall of York, notwithstanding it semeth good not to passe ouer this one thing, that through the variety of matter, the tediousnes of the history may be taken away, as also that the thynge it self may be profitable, for example. For like as the Lacedemoniās in times past were accustomed to shewe and demonstrate dronkē menne vnto their children to beholde and loke vpon, that through the foulnesse of that vyce, they might inflame them the more to the study and desyre of sobrietie: euen so it shall not be hurtfull sometymes to set fourth the exāples which are not honest, that others myght thereby ga-

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