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1021 [1021]

K. Henry. 8. The historye and actes of Doct. Martyn Luther.
¶ The vsuall prayer of Martin Luther.

COnfirme (O God) in vs, that thou hast wrought, and perfect the worke that thou hast begon in vs, to thy glory. So be it. Ex histor. Phil. Melancth. ex Sledano, ex Paralip. Abb. Vrspurg. et ex Casp. Peucero.

Marginalialluther, in hys iourney wryteth to þe Emperour and nobles of Germanie.MArtin Luther thus beyng 

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Foxe's account of all the events below, down to and including Henry VIII's attack on Luther, is drawn from Sleidan's Commentaries. (See Johannes Sleidan, A famouse cronicle of our time, called Sleidanes Commentaries, translated John Daus [London, 1560], STC 19848, fos. 31v-34v.

dimissed of þe Emperour, accordyng to the promise of hys safeconduict made (as you haue heard) departed from Wormes, towarde his coūtrey, the xxvi. of Aprill, accompanied with the Emperours Herauld, and the rest of hys company, hauyng onely xxi. dayes to hym graunted for hys returne, and no more. 
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Luther had twenty-one days to reurn home. During that time he was protected by the Imperial safe conduct; after that period he was at the mercy of the local authorities.

In the whiche meane space of hys returne, he wryteth to þe Emperour, and to other nobles of the Empire, repeating briefly to them the whole action and order of thynges there done, desiryng of them, their lawfull good will and fauour, whiche as he hath alwayes stand nede of, so now hee most earnestly craueth, especially in this, that hys cause, whiche is not his, but the cause of the whole church vniuersal, may be heard with indifferencie & equitie, & may be decised by the rule and authoritie of holy Scripture: signifying moreouer, that when soeuer they shall please to send for hym, he shalbe ready at theyr commaundement, at any tyme or place, vpon their promise of safety, to appeare. &c.

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MarginaliaThe doctors of Paris condemne þe bokes of Luther.Duryng the tyme of these doinges, the Doctours and scholemen of Paris, were not behynd with their partes, but to shewe theyr cunning, condemned the bookes of Luther, extracting out of the same, especially out of his booke De Captiuitate Babylonica, certaine Articles as touchyng the Sacramentes, the lawes and decrees of the Churche, equalitie of workes, vowes, contrition, absolution, satisfaction, purgatory, free will, priuileges of holy Churche, councels, punishment of hereticques, philosophie, scholediuinitie, with other more. MarginaliaPhillip Melancthon aunswereth the Parisians.Vnto whom Philippe Melancton maketh aūswere, and also Luther him selfe, albeit pleasauntly and iestyngly.

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MarginaliaLuther outlawed by the Emperour.It was not long after this, but Charles the new Emperour, to purchase fauour with the Pope (because hee was not yet confirmed in hys Empyre) prouideth and directeth out a solemne writte of outlawry against Luther, & all them þt take hys part, commaūding the sayd Luther, where soeuer he might be gotten, to be apprehended, and his bokes burned. By this decree proclaimed against Luther, the Emperour procured no small thanke with the Pope: in somuch that the Pope ceasing to take part with the French kyng, ioyned hym selfe wholye to the Emperour. MarginaliaM. Luther kept a side for a while.In þe meane time, Duke Fridericke, to geue some place for the tyme, to the Emperours proclamation, conueyed Luther a litle out of sight secretlye, by the helpe of certaine noble men, whom he well knewe to bee faythfull and trustye vnto him in that behalfe. There Luther beyng closse and out of company, wrote diuers Epistles, and certeine bookes also vnto his frendes, MarginaliaLuthers booke de abroganda Mißa ad Augustinenses.among whiche he dedicated one to his company of Augustine Friers, intitled De abroganda Missa. Which Friers the same time, beyng encouraged by him, began first to lay downe their priuate Masses. Duke Fridericke fearyng least that would breede some great styrre or tumult, caused the censure & iudgementes of the whole Vniuersitie of Wittenberge, to bee asked in the matter, committyng the doyng therof to iiij. Iustus Ionas, Phil. Melancthon, Nic. Amsdorffius, Ioh. Dulcius.

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MarginaliaThe Masse layd down first at Wittenberge.The mindes of the whole Vniuersitie being searched, it was shewed to the Duke, that he should do well and godly, by the whole aduise of the learned there, to commaunde the vse of Masse to be abrogate through his dominiō: And though it could not be done without tumult, yet that was no let, why þe course of true doctrine should be stayed, for the multitude, whiche commonly ouercommeth the better part. MarginaliaThe iudgemēt of the Vniuersitie of Wittenberge agaynst the Masse.Neither ought such disturbaunce to be imputed to þe doctrine taught, but to the aduersaries, whiche willingly and wickedly kicke agaynst the truth: wherof Christ also geueth vs forwarnyng before. For feare of such tumultes therfore, we ought not to surcease from that, whiche we know is to be done, but constantly must go forward in defense of Gods truth, how soeuer the world doth esteme vs, or rage against it. Thus shewed they their iudgement to Duke Fridericke.

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Marginalia1521. MarginaliaK. Henry writeth agaynst M. Luther.It happened moreouer, aboute the same yeare & time, that king Henry also pretendyng an occasion to impugne the booke De Captiuitate Babylonica, wrote agaynst Luther. In whiche booke:

1. He reproueth Luthers opinion about the Popes pardons.

2. He defendeth the supremacie of the Byshop of Rome.

3. He laboureth to refell all hys doctrine of the Sacramentes of the Churche.

This booke, albeit it caryed the kynges name in the title, yet it was an other that ministred the motion, an other that framed the stile. 

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The assertion that someone other than Henry VIII wrote the book is Foxe's addition and it is a reference to the rumours that Thomas More was the work's real author.

But who soeuer had the labour of this booke, the kyng had the thanke, and also the reward. MarginaliaK. Henry made defender of the fayth, by þe pope.For consequently vpon the same, the Byshop of Rome gaue to the sayd kyng Henry for the style agaynst Luther, the style and title of defender of the Christen fayth, and to hys successours for euer.

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Shortly after this, within 

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Adrian VI

In the 1563 edition, Foxe printed a selection of the 100 articles presented by the German princes at Nuremberg in 1522, listing their grievances against the papacy. These articles were culled from the full list of grievances printed in Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculus rerum expetendarum ac fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535), fos. 177v-187r. Ortwin Gratius (or van Graes) was a German humanist and he edited the Fasciculum, a collection of documents relating to later medieval church history. Gratius ardently sought reform of clerical abuses and he believed that this could not be done by a corrupt papacy but only through general Councils. His collection was intended to provide historical examples of conciliar authority and clerical corruption and was thus very useful to Foxe, despite Gratius's detestation of Protestantism.

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In fact, the section of the Acts and Monuments devoted to the pontificate of Adrian VI, is based almost entirely on documents reprinted from the Fasciculus, with background detail excerpted from John Bale's Catalogus, Caspar Hedio's continuation of the chronicle attributed to Burchard of Ursburg and Johannes Sleidan's Commentaries. The purpose of this section is unmistakeable: to demonstrate the economic and moral abuses of the Catholic church.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

the compasse of the same yeare, Pope Leo, after he had warred agaynst the Frēch men, 
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The account of Leo X's death, and some of the information about Adrian VI is drawn from John Bale, Scriptorum Illustrium maiorum Brytanniae Catalogus (Basel, 1557), pp. 637-8. Bale misdates the pestilence and the loss of Rhodes, however, to the pontificate of Leo X. Foxe corrects this, and gets his additional information on Adrian, with the aid of Capar Hedio, Paraleipomena rerum memorabilum ( Basel, 1569), p. 460.

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and had gotte from them, through the Emperours ayde, the Cities of Parma, Placentia, and Millen. &c. he sittyng at supper, and reioysing at iij. great giftes that God had bestowed vpon him. 1. That he beyng banished out of hys countrey, was restored to Florence agayne with glory. 2. That he had deserued to be called Apostolicke. 3. That he had dryuen the Frenche men out of Italy: MarginaliaThe death of pope Leo, in the midst of his triumphe.after he had spoken these wordes, he was stroocken with a sodeine feuer, and dyed shortly after, beyng of the age of 47. yeares: albeit some suspect that he died of poyson. MarginaliaPope Adrian the vj.Successor to whom was Pope Adrian the vi. scholemaster somtymes to Charles the Emperour: who lyued not much aboue one yeare & a halfe, in his Papacie. Duryng whose small tyme, these iij. especiall things were incident: MarginaliaA great pestilence in Rome.A great pestilence in Rome, wherein aboue an hundreth thousand people were consumed. The losse of Rhodes by the Turke. And thyrdly the capitall warre, whiche the sayd Pope Adrian, with the Emperour, and the Venetians, and the kyng of Englād, did hold agaynst Fraunces the Frenche kyng.

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MarginaliaAdrian a Germane pope & not vnlearned.This Pope Adrian was a Germane borne, brought vp at Louane, and as in learning he exceded the common sorte of Popes: so in moderation of lyfe and maners hee semed not all together, so intemperate as some other Popes haue bene: and yet lyke a right Pope, nothyng degeneratyng from his Sea, MarginaliaPope Adrian a great enemie to Luther.hee was a mortall enemy agaynst M. Luther and his partakers. In his time, shortly after the Councell of Wormes was broken vp, MarginaliaA diet of the princes kepte at other metyng or assemble was appointed by the Emperour at Noriberge, of the princes, nobles and states of Germanie. an. 1522. Vnto this assemble the sayd Adrian sent his letters in manner of a brief, with an instruction also vnto his Legate Cheregatus, to informe hym howe to procede, and what causes to alledge agaynst Luther, before the Princes there assembled. His letter with the instruction sent, because they are so hypocritically shadowed ouer with a fayre shewe 

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Foxe's description of Adrian VI's letter to the German is the martyrologist's own editorial comment. The layout of the page in the original editions is particularly significant at this point since the caustic marginal notes are actually embedded in the text.

and colour of paynted zeale and Religion, and beareth ressemblaunce of great truth and care of the Churche, able to deceaue the outwarde eares of them, whiche are not inwardly in true Religion instructed: MarginaliaPaynted pretences ought to be examined.I thought therefore to geue to the reader a sight therof, to the entent that by the experience of them, he may learne hereafter in cases lyke, to bee prudent and circumspecte in not beleuyng ouer rashely the smothe talke, or pretensed persuasions of men, especially in Church matters, vnles they cary with them the simplicitie of playne truth, goyng not vpon termes, but grounded vpon the worde and reueled will of God, with particulare demonstrations, prouyng that by the Scripture, which they pretend to perswade. First the letter of this Pope conceaued and directed agaynst Luther, procedeth in this effect.

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