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1204 [1204]

K. Henry. 8. Richard Bayfilde, Iohn Tewkesberye, Martyrs.

a spedy fire, was ij. quarters of an houre alyue. And when the left arme was on fire and burned, he rubbed

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Richard Bayfield, sometime monk of Bary St Edmunds, who learned the new learning from Robert Barnes (which took him into the abbey prison), migrated to Cambridge and made further advances in 'good letters' -- as Foxe called the work of Tyndale and others. He became a major colporteur of prohibited reformation books, going abroad to send into England consignments of works by Luther, Zwingli and others , imported in multiple copies. Bayfield was finally arrested at a London bookbinder's in October 1531, and interrogated by Sir Thomas More. He was tried by Bishop Stokesley of London and burned as a relapsed heretic on 27 November. CUL copy: there is considerable additional pen detail in this image.

MarginaliaThe Martyrdome & suffering of Richard Bayfild, with his right hand, and it fell from his body, and hee continued in prayer to the end, without mouyng.

MarginaliaSyr Tho. More agaynst Bayfild.Syr Thomas More, after he had brought this good man to his end, ceased not after his death, to raue in his ashes, to prye and spye out what sparkes hee could finde of reproche and contumely, whereby to rase out all good memory of his name and fame. In searchyng wherof, he hath found out ij. things to lay agaynst him. The one is, þt he sayth, he went about to sure hym self to ij. wiues at once, one in Brabant, an other in England. The second, that after his takyng, all þe while þt he was not in vtter dispayre of his pardon, hee was contēt to forsweare his doctrine, and letted not to disclose hys brethren. 

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More made these charges in his Confutation. (See The Confutation of Tyndale's Answer, ed. Louis A. Schuster, Richard A. Marius, James P. Lusardi and Richard J. Schoeck, CWTM 8, [3 vols., New Haven, CT, 1978], I, pp. 17-18). The accusation of bigamy is probably unfounded, but the claim that Bayfield informed on another evangelicals is convincing.

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For the aunswere whereof, although there were no more to be sayd, yet this were enough to say, MarginaliaM. More a partiall iudge in matters of heresye.that M. More thus sayth of him, a mā so blinded in the zeale of Popery, so deadly set agaynst the one side, & so partially affectionate vnto the other, that in thē whom he fauoureth, he can see nothyng but all fayre roses and swete vertue: in the other which he hateth, there is neuer a thyng can please his phantasie, but all is blacke as pitche, vice, abomination, heresie, and foly, what soeuer they do, or entend to do. But as touchyng the defense of this Bayfild, as also of other moe, I will deferre the defense of them, to a seuerall Apologie by it self, hereafter (God willyng) to be adioyned.

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¶ Iohn Teukesbery Leatherseller of London, Martyr.

MarginaliaIoh. Tewkesbery Leatherseller of London, Martyr.IOhn Tewkesbery was conuerted by the readyng of Tyndals Testament, and the wicked Mammon. He had the Bible written. In al pointes of religion he opēly did dispute in the Byshops Chappell in hys palace. Who in the doctrine of iustification and all other Articles of his fayth, was very expert, & prompt in his aūsweres, in such sort as Tonstall and all his learned mē were ashamed, that a Leatherseller should so dispute with them, with such power of the Scriptures & heauenly wisedome, that they were not able to resiste him. This disputation continued a seuennight. The proces of whose examinations, Articles, & aunsweres, here folow as they are out of the Byshops Register extracted. 

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These materials are taken from a court book of Cuthbert Tunstall that is now lost. These documents are from Tewkesbury's first trial for heresy; not the second - and lethal - trial.

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MarginaliaEx Regist. Lond.On Wensday the xxi. day of Aprill, in þe yeare of our Lord. 1529. Iohn Tewkesbery was brought into the Consistory at Londō before Cutbert B. of London & his assistances, Henry B. of S. Asse, & Iohn Abbot of MarginaliaThe examination of Iohn Tewkesbery before Tonstall bishop of London.Westminster. Vnto whom the Byshop of London declared that hee had at diuers tymes exhorted hym to recant the errours and heresies, which he held and defended, euen as he did then agayne exhorte him, not to trust to much to hys owne wyt and learnyng, but vnto the doctrine of the holy mother þe Church. Who made aunswere that in his iudgement, hee did not erre from þe doctrine of the holy mother the Church. And at þe last, beyng examined vpon the errours, which (they sayd) were in the said booke called þe wicked Māmon, he aunswered thus: Take ye the booke and read it ouer, and I thinke in my conscience, ye shal finde no fault in it. And being asked by the sayd bishop, whether he dyd rather geue credite to his booke or to the Gospell: he aunswered, that the Gospell is and euer hath bene true. MarginaliaArticles ministred to Iohn Tewkesbery, out of the boke of the wicked Mammon.And moreouer beyng particularlye examined what hee thought of thys Article, that the Iewes of good entent and zeale slue Christ, he aunswered: looke ye the booke through, before and after, as it lyeth, and ye shall finde a better tale in it, then ye make of it, & further thought that who soeuer translated the newe Testament, and made the booke, meanyng the wicked Mammon 

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This is one of the works of William Tyndale.

, he did it of good zeale, and by the spirite of God.

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Also beyng farther asked by the sayd Byshop of Lōdon, whether he would stand to the contentes of hys booke, he aunswered: looke ye the booke before and after, and I will be content to stand to it. Then beyng examined, whether that all good woorkes must be done without respecte of any thyng, hee aunswered, MarginaliaMerites by working.that a man shoulde do good workes for the loue of God onely, and for no hope of any reward higher nor lower in heauen: for if he should, it were presūption. Also being demaunded whether þt Christ with all his workes, did not deserue heauen. He aunswered and sayd: that it was playne inough. Which thinges beyng done, the Byshop sayd further to Iohn Tewkesbery thus: MarginaliaThe bishops iudgement of the boke of the wicked Mammon.I tell thee before God and those whiche are here present, in examination of my conscience, that the Articles aboue named, and many other more conteined in the same booke, are false, hereticall, and condempned by the holy Church: how thinkest thou? And further, the sayd Byshop of London sayd vnto hym agayne: I tell thee before God & those whiche are here present &c. and so asked him againe what he thought of those Articles. And after many exhortations, he commaunded hym to aunswere determinatly vnder payne of the lawe, saying further vnto him, þt if he refused to aunswere, he must declare him an open and obstinate heretike according to the order of the law. Which thinges so done, the Bishop asked Iohn Tewkesbery again, whether the said booke called the wycked Mammon were good?

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MarginaliaThe iudgement of Iohn Tewkesbery of the boke of the wicked Mammon.To whiche interrogatory he answereth, that he thinketh in his conscience, there is nothing in the booke, but that which is true. And to this article obiected, that is, that faith only iustifieth without workes, he aūswereth that it is well said. Wherunto þe Bishop inferred agayne, that the Articles before obiected, with diuers other conteyned in the booke called the wycked Mammon, were false erronious, dampnable, and herericall, and reproued and condempned by the Churche: and before God and al those that were present, for the discharge of his conscience, he had often and very gently exhorted the sayd Iohn Tewkesbery, that he would reuoke and renounce hys errours, otherwyse if he did intend to perseuer in them, he must declare him an heretike, which he would be very sory to do. These thinges thus doone, the Bishoppe oftentimes offered him, that he shoulde chose what spirituall or temporall man hee woulde to be his Counsellor, and gaue hym tyme as before, to delyberate with hym selfe, vntill the next sitting.

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MarginaliaAn other examination of Iohn Tewkesbery.Also in the same moneth of April, in the yere of our Lord aforesaid, the Bishop of London Cutbert Tonstall sitting in the Consistorye, with Nicolas of Elye, Iohn of Lincolne, and Iohn of Bathe, & Welles. &c.

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