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1349 [1349]

K. Henry. 8. Allegations agaynst the vj. Articles. Transubstantiation.

vnitye, as though al of them were one soule, & one harte. Christ halowed on his table the mistery of our peace, and of our vnitye. He which receyueth that mistery of vnity, and keepeth not the bonde of true peace, receyueth no misterye for him self, but a witnesse against him self. It is very good for christen men, þt they go often to housell, if they bring with thē to þe alter, vngiltines & innocencie of hart: if they be not oppressed with sinne. To an euill man it turneth to no good, but to destruction, if he receiue vnworthily that holy housel. Holy Marginalia* No scripture inforceth the mixture of water with the wine.* bokes cōmaūnde þe water be mingled to that wine which shalbe for housell, because the water signifyeth the people, and the Marginalia* The wine signifieth Christes bloud.* wyne Christes bloud, and therfore shall neither the one without the other be offred at the holy masse, that Christ maye be with vs, and we with Christ, the head with the lymmes, and the lymmes with the head. We would before haue intreated of the lambe whiche the olde Israelites offered at theyr Easter tyme, but that we desired first to declare vnto you of this mistery, and after how we shoulde receyue it. That signifying lambe was offred at the Easter. And the Apostle Paul sayth in the Epistle of this present day, that Christ is our Easter, who was offred for vs, and on thys day rose from death. The Israelites dyd eate the lambes fleshe as God commaunded, with vnleauened bread and wilde lettisse: Marginalia* Howe we shoulde come to the holy communion.* so we should receyue that holy housell of Christes body and bloude without the leauen of sinne, and iniquitye. As leauen turneth the creatures from theyr nature: so doth synne also chaunge the nature of man from innocencye to vncleannesse. The Apostle hath taught howe we shoulde feast, not in the leauen of euilnesse, but in þe sweete dough of puritie and truth. The herbe which they should eate with the vnleuened bread is called lettisse, and is bitter in taste. So we should with bitternesse of vnfayned repentance purifye our mynde, if we will eat Christes bodye. Those Israelites were not wont to eate rawe fleshe, & therfore God badde thē to eate it neither raw, nor sodden in water, but rosted with fyer. MarginaliaExod. 12.He shall receyue the body of God raw, that shall thinke without reason, that Christ was onely man lyke vnto vs, and was not God. And he that will after mans wisedome search of þe mistery of Christes incarnation, doth lyke vnto hym that doth seeth lambes flesh in water, because that water in this same place signifyeth mans vnderstāding: but we should vnderstand, that all the misterye of Christes humanitye was ordered by the power of the holy ghost: and then eate we his body rosted with fyre, because the holy ghost came in fiery lykenes to the Apostles in diuerse tōges. The Israelites should eate the lambes head, and the feete, and the purtenaunce, and nothing therof must be left ouer night. If anything therof were lefte, they dyd burne that in the fyre: and they brake not the bones. After ghostly vnderstanding we doe then eate the lambes head, whē we take hold of Christes diuinitye in our beliefe. Agayne, when we take holde of hys humanitye with loue, then eate we the lambes feete, because that Christ is the begynnynge and end, God before all worlde, & man in the end of thys world. What bee the lambes purtenaunce, but Christes secret preceptes, and these we eate when we receiue with greedines the word of lyfe. There muste nothing of the lambe be left vnto the morninge, because that all Godes sayinges are to be searched with great carefulnesse: so that all his preceptes may be knowen in vnderstanding and deede in the nyght of this present lyfe, before that the last day of the vniuersall resurrection do appeare. If we can not search out throughly all the misterye of Christes incarnation, then ought we to betake the rest vnto the might of the holy ghost with true humilitye, and not to searche rashlye of that deepe secretnes aboue the measure of our vnderstandyng. They dyd eate the lambes fleshe with their loynes gyrt. In the loynes is the lust of the body, and he which will receyue that housell, shall couer or wrap in that cōcupiscence, and take with chastitie that holy receite. They were also shod. What be shoes but of the hydes of dead beastes? We be truely shod if we match in our steppes & dedes, the lyfe of mē departed thys lyfe, which please God with kepyng of hys cōmaundemētes. They had staues in theyr hādes whē they did eate. Thys stafe signifieth a carefulnes and a diligēt ouerseyng. And all they, that best know and can, should take care of other men, & stay them vp with theyr helpe. It was inioyned to the eaters that they shoulde eate the lambe in haste, for God abhorreth slouthfulnes in his seruauntes, and those he loueth, that seke the ioye of euerlasting life with quicknes, and hast of minde. It is written: Prolong not to turne vnto God, lest the tyme passe away through thy slowe tarrying. The eaters mought not break the lābes bones. No more mought the souldyers that dyd hange Christe, break hys holye legges, as they dyd of the two theeues that hanged on eyther side of hym. And the Lord rose from death sound without all corruption: and at the last iudgement they shall see hym, whom they dyd moste cruelly woūd on þe crosse. This time is called in þe Ebrue tonge Pasca, and in Latine Transitus, and in Englishe a Passeouer, because that on this daye the people of Israell passed from the land of Egypt ouer the read sea: from bondage to the lande of promise. So also dyd our Lorde at thys tyme departe, as sayeth Iohn the Euangeliste, from this world, to his heauenly father. Euen so we ought to folowe our head, and to go from the deuyll to Christ: from this vnstable world, to hys stable kindome. Howbeit we should first in this present lyfe depart from vice to holye vertue: from euill manners to good manners, if we will after this our lente lyfe go to that eternall lyfe, and after our resurrection, to Christ. He bring vs to his euerliuing father, who gaue hym to death for our sinnes. To him be honour and prayse of wel doing world without ende. Amen.

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And thus I suppose, it standeth cleare and euidently proued by course of all these ages afore recited, from the tyme of Tertullian and Austen, vnto the dayes of this Ælfricus aboue mencioned, and after hym, that this newcome miracle of trāsubstantiatiō was not yet crept into þe heads of men, nor almost came in any question amongest learned men, nor was admitted for any doctrine in þe Churche, at least for any general doctrine of all men to be receaued, til a thousand yeare complete after Christ, MarginaliaSathan at large.
Apoc. 20.
that is, till that Sathan began to bee let at large. Apocal. 20. MarginaliaThe matter of transubstantiation, neuer called in question, before the 1000. yeare after Christ.For who euer heard in all the primitiue Churche, or euer read in the workes of the old aūcient Doctors this question once to be asked, or disputed, whether any substaunce of bread and wyne remained in the Lordes Supper? Or what man was euer so doltishe to beleue any such thyng, or euer called hereticke for not beleuyng the same, before the tyme of seduction, that is, before the. 1000. yeares aforesayd were expired.

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MarginaliaThey that thinke trāsubstantiation to bee otherwise then a new doctrine, are ignoraunt of historyes and antiquitie.Wherfore they that stand so much vpō the antiquitie of this Article as a doctrine whiche hath euer since Christes tyme bene receaued in the Church, taught by the Apostles, beleued of all Catholickes, and confirmed by consent of all ages, of Councells, of nations, & people vnto this present day: these I say, either shew them selues very ignoraunt in hystories & in all state of antiquitie, or els most impudently they do abuse the simple credulitie of the people.

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MarginaliaTransubstantiatiō whē it first came in question.To procede now farther in this discussion of antiquitye, it folowed, that after the tyme of Ælfricus aforesayd, this matter of transubstantiation began fyrst to be talked of and to comme in question emong a fewe superstitious monkes: so that as blyndnes, and superstition beganne more and more to encrease, so the sayd grosse opinion stil more and more, both in number and authoritye preuayled, in so much that about the yeare of our Lorde. 1060. the denying of transubstantiation began to be counted heresie.

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MarginaliaBerengarius the first that euer was counted heriticke for denying transubstātiation.And in this number fyrst was one Berengarius a Frenchmā, and Archdeacon of Angeowe, which of all christen men, which we reade of, was fyrst called and counted an hereticke for denying of transubstantiatiō, and troubled for the same, as ye shall heare.

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This Berengarius lyued 

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This account of Berengar of Tours, including the observation on the contradiction in the sources is taken from Heinrich Bullinger, De origine erroris libri duo (Zurich, 1568), fos. 122v-123r. The sequence of events, especially as narrated by Foxe. is somewhat confusing. Berengar's doctrines were condemned at the Council of Vercelli in 1050. In 1051, a national synod at Paris also condemned his teachings. At the Council of Tours (1055), presided over by Hildebrand, then papal legate, Begengar signed a confession of faith in which he stated that after the consecration the bread and wine were truly the body and blood of Christ. At another council in Rome, in 1059, Berengar again affirmed the real presence of of the body of Christ in the consecrated Host. Subsequently, however, Berengar renounced this position. In 1078, Hildebrand, now Pope Gregory VII, summoned Berengar to Rome, where the archdeacon signed a profession of faith affirming the conversion of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ. The following year in a council held at Rome, Berengar signed a formula affirming the doctrine of transubstantiation. On his return to Angers, Berengar again attacked the formula that he had signed. He made a final recantation of his teachings at the council of Bordeaux in 1080.

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in þe time of Pope Leo. 9. Victor, and Nicolas. 2. whiche was about the yeare of our Lord. 1060. Albeit I do fynd our wryters here in some discrepaunce. MarginaliaVide Bullin. De origine erroris, & Chronic. Bibliandri.For the moste of them do hold, that he fyrst recanted vnder Pope Leo. 9. in the Councell of Vercellense: and afterward agayn vnder Pope Nicolas. 2. about the yeare. 1062. as is to be gathered of Gratian, De consecrat. disti. 2. Ego Berengarius, where he sayeth, that Pope Nicolas dyd send alabout to Bishops and Archbishops, the Copie of his recantation. Agayn by the Actes of the Councell of Rome, it there appeareth, MarginaliaActa Concilij Romæ habiti cōtra Berengarium.þt the sayd Berengarius made this hys

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