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1352 [1352]

K. Henry. 8. Allegations agaynst the vj. Articles. Transubstantiation.

MarginaliaAn other lying miracle of Paschasius to proue transubstantiation.was a priest, sayeth he, 

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Foxe's wording makes it appear that his source for this story was Paschasius Radbertus. In fact, the story is being taken from William of Malmesbury, De gestis regis Anglorum, ed. R. A. B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson and M. Winterbottom, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1998-99), I, pp. 519-21.

of Almane, named Plegildus, who dyd see and handle with hys handes visibly þe shape of a child vpon the Aultar, and so after he had embraced and kyssed him, it returned agayne into the likenes of bread, as he should come to the receauing therof. This miracle when it was obiected agaynst Berengarius, he merily deridyng the blynd fable, aunswered in these wordes: Speciosa inquit, pax nebulonis, vt cui oris præberet basium, eo dentium inferret exitium. that is, A goodly peace (quod he) of a false verlet, that whom he before kissed with hys mouth, by and by he goeth about to teare hym with his teeth.

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MarginaliaAn other Monkishe miracle to proue transubstantiation.An other miracle is reported 

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This legend is taken from William of Malmesbury, ed. R.A.B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson and M. Winterbottom. 2 vols. (Oxford, 1998-99), I, p. 521.

of a Iew boy, who vpō a tyme entryng into the Churche, with an other Christian lad which was hys play felow, saw vpon the altar a litle childe broken & torne in peeces, and afterward by portions to be distributed among the people. Whiche sight when the yong Iew comming home had told vnto his father to bee true and certeine, he was for the same, condemned to be burned. Thus he beyng inclosed in a house, and the doore made fast where he should be burned, hee was found and taken out from thence by the Christians, not onely alyue, but also hauyng not one heare of his head blemished with the flames about him. Who then beyng of the Christians demaunded, how he was so preserued from the burnyng fire: there appeared (sayd he) to me a beautifull woman sittyng on a chayre, whose sonne the child was, whiche was before diuided and distributed in the Churche among the people, who reached to me her hand in the burnyng flame, and with her gowne skyrtes kept the flames from me, so that I was preserued therby from perishyng. &c. Belyke these Monkes lacked miracles among the Christians, when they were fayne to borow such figmentes of the Iewes to proue their feyned transubstantiation.

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And these commonly were then the argumentes of these Mōkes, wherwith they persuaded þe people to beleue their trāsubstantiation. But to leaue these Mōkes fictions, and to returne againe to Berengarius, thus Malmesbery of hym reporteth, 

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These passages on Berengar of Tours' supporters and Hildebert's verses praising him are from William of Malmesbury, De gestis regis Anglorum, ed. R.A.B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson and M. Winterbottom. 2 vols. (Oxford, 1998-99), I, pp. 514-16.

MarginaliaEx W. Malmesb.that after hee had once or twise recanted (as is aforesayd) yet notwithstādyng this doctrine of þe Sacrament still remained in þe minde of hys hearers. And how so euer the tyranny of the Pope dyd dryue hym through feare to deny his opiniō, and wrought hym much trouble, yet notwithstandyng after his death he lacked not hys well wyllers. In the nūber of whom was Hildebertus Bishop Cenomanensis, whose verses in commendation of hys maister, I thought here not vnworthy to be preserued, beyng otherwise rare peraduenture to be founde in our story writers.

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¶ Verses in prayse of Berengarius. 
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Verses in praise of Berengarius
Foxe text Latin

QVem modo miratur ... mea sorte sua.


J. Barrie Hall

The famous Berengarius whom the world now admires and will always admire, has died never to die: while he possessed the highest eminence in the holy faith, the final day, daring an outrage, finally carried him off. A day of ruin and treason to the world was that day on which there was grief and the uttermost ruin of things; on which the estate of the church, the hope and the glory of the clergy, the cultivator of justice was brought down with the bringing down of justice. Whatsoever philosophers, whatsoever poets have sung, has been surpassed by his intellect and his eloquence. A more holy and a greater wisdom, undertaking a greater scheme, filled his hallowed breast and mouth with God. His heart desired wisdom, his voice brought it forth, and his action put it into effect: thus each separate thing lent its support to its Maker. A man of holiness and wisdom, whose fame grows by the hour: whoever is the greatest of men is less than he. He who made wealth held on to few honours: to him the pauper was preferable to the rich man, and justice preferable to gain. To him ample circumstances did not impart sloth or luxury; many high honours did not make him proud. He turned his eyes neither to silver nor to gold, but grieved whenever he lacked someone to give these things to. He did not cease to lend support to the resourceless in their ruin, until he himself by giving was poor also. His care was to follow nature, to make use of the laws, and to deny his mind to vices and his mouth to deceits, to set virtues before wealth, truth before falsehood, to say and do nothing empty of sense, to harm no one, to do good to everyone, to drive away from mind and hand favour and popular gain. His clothes were of rough weave, he took no drink before he was thirsty, no food before he was hungry. Chastity made her abode in him, and, as lust conquers the impure, so he conquered lust. Our parent nature, he said, has pitted chastity against the world, and, while others degenerate from it, it is born to me. Justice, which used to wander and had almost abandoned the world, he enclosed in his holy breast. A man holy from boyhood, he as much surpassed his own fame as fame surpasses the world. His fame is less than his merits, and, though it fly through all the world and though it always increase, it will yet not equal them. A man pious and serious, a man so modest in both that envy could gnaw at him in neither. For envy bewails him whom it had previously carped at, and it did not so carp at and hate him as it now praises and loves him. As previously it groaned for his life, so now it groans for his death, and complains that his days have quickly departed. A man truly wise, and blessed in every respect, who enriches heaven with his soul and the earth with his body. May I after death, I pray, live and take my rest with him, and my portion could not be more blessed than his portion.

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MarginaliaVerses in commendation of Berengarius.QVem modo miratur, semper mirabitur orbis,
Ille Berengarius non obiturus obit:
Quem sacræ fides fastigia summa tenentem,
Tandem extrema dies abstulit ausa nefas.
Illa dies damnosa dies, & perfida mundo:
Qua dolor & rerum summa ruina fuit.
Qua status ecclesiæ, qua spes, qua gloria cleri,
Qua cultor iuris iurè ruente ruit.
Quicquid Philosophi, quicquid cecinere Poetæ,
Ingenio cessit eloquioq̀ suo.
Sanctior & maior sapientia, maius adorta,
Impleuit sacrum pectus & ora Deo.
Pectus eam voluit, vox protulit, actio prompsit:
Singula factori sic studuere suo.
Vir sacer & sapiens, cui nomen crescit in horas:
Quo minor est quisquis maximus est hominum.
Qui census peperit paucos, seruauit honores:
Cui potior pauper diuite, iusq̀ lucro.
Cui nec desidiam, nec luxum res dedit ampla:
Nec tumidum fecit multus & altus honos.
Qui nec ad argentum, nec ad aurum lumina flexit:
Sed doluit quotiens cui daret hæc, aberat.

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Qui non cessauit inopum fulcire ruinas,
Donec inops dando pauper & ipse fuit,
Cuius cura sequi naturam, legibus vti.
Et mentem vitijs, ora negare dolis:
Virtutes opibus, verum præponere falso,
Nil vacuum sensu dicere vel facere:
Lædere nec quemquam, cunctis prodesse, fauorem
Et populare lucrum pellere mente, manu.
Cui vestis textura rudis, cui non fuit vnquam,
Ante sitim potus, nec cibus ante famem.
Quem pudor hospicium statuit sibi, quamq̀ libido
Incestos superat, tam superauit eam.
Quem natura parens cum mundo contulit, inquit,
Degenerant alij, nascitur iste mihi.
Quæque vagabatur & penè reliquerat orbem,
Inclusit sacro pectore iustitiam.
Vir sacer à puero, qui quantum præminet orbi
Fama, adeò famæ præminet ipse suæ.
Fama minor meritis cùm totum peruolet orbem,
Cùm semper crescat, non erit aqua tamen.
Vir pius atque grauis, vir sic in vtroque modestus,
Vt liuor neutro rodere poßit eum.
Liuor enim deflet, quem carpserat antea, nec tam
Carpsit & odit eum, quam modo laudat, amat:
Quàm prius ex vita, tam nunc ex morte gemiscit,
Et queritur celeres huius abijsse dies.
Vir verè sapiens & parte beatus ob omni:
Qui cœlos anima, corpore ditat humum.
Post obitum secum viuam precor ac requiescam.
Nec fiat melior sors mea sorte sua.

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Although in thys tyme of Berengarius, which was about the yeare of our Lord. 1060. (as ye haue heard) thys errour of transubstantiation beganne to growe in force and strength, by the supporting of certayne popishe Monkes aboue rehearsed, as Lancfrancus, Guimundus, Algerius 

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Alger of Liège (d. 1332) wrote a treatise against Berengar.

, Hugo, Byshop of Lingone. Fulbertus, (of whom it is sayd in storyes, that our Ladye gaue hym sucke being sicke, with her owne brestes) 
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I.e., Fulbert of Charttres. The story is in William of Malmesbury, De gestis regis Anglorum, ed. R.A.B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson and M. Winterbottom. 2 vols. (Oxford, 1998-99), I, p. 519.

and such other 
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All of these authors are cited or extracted in De veritate corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Iesu Christi, ed. Johann Vlimmer (Louvain, 1561).

: MarginaliaTransubstantiation fyrst decreed for a generall lawe, by Pope Innocent the 3.yet notwithstanding, all thys while the sayd transubstantiation was decreed for no publicke lawe, nor doctrine to be holden by any generall consent, eyther of the Church of Rome, or any other Coūcell, before the Councell of Laterane, vnder Pope Innocent the 3. who, MarginaliaThe generall Councell of the yeare of our Lord. 1215. celebratyng 
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This account of the Fourth Lateran Council, including the mentions of Almeric and Joachim of Fiore, comes from John Bale, Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae Catalogus (Basel, 1557), p. 235.

in the Churche of Laterane, a general Coūcell of. 1300. Byshops, enacted there diuers constitutions, as of yerely confession, & the cōmunion to be vsed of the whole multitude once a yeare through euery parishe Churche.

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Item, for the recouerie of the holy land, with a subsidie also to be leauied for the same.

Item, for the abolishyng of the bookes and writyngs of Ioachim Abbas, and also the opinions of Almaricus afore mencioned: MarginaliaEx Antonin. part. 3. tit. 19. cap. 1.notwithstandyng that the sayd Ioachim did subscribe with hys owne hande that hee held the same doctrine, whiche was in the Churche of Rome, and also submitted hys bookes to be presented to the Sea of Rome, there to be corrected or approued. And yet was he iudged though not an hereticke, yet to be erroneous, and especially in those bookes, whiche he wrote agaynst Peter Lombard, called afterward the Master of Sentence.

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In the sayd Councell, besides diuers other constitutions and the Articles of the Crede there in order repeted, MarginaliaExtrau. De Sūm. trin. cap. 1. firmiter credimus. as appeareth, Extr. De summa trinit. & fide Catholica, cap. 1. firmiter. there was also enacted, decreed, and established the fayth and belief of transubstātiation in these wordes folowyng.

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MarginaliaThe wordes of the Councell, wherby transubstantiation was fyrst established.There is one vniuersall Churche of the faithfull, without which none cā be saued, in the which Church the self same Iesus Christ is both Priest, and also the sacrifice, whose body and bloud are truely conteined in the Sacrament of the aultar vnder the formes of bread & wine, the bread beyng trāsubstātiated into the body, & the wine, into the bloud, by the

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