Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the Text
Names and Places on this Page
Unavailable for this Edition
1399 [1399]

K. Henry. 8. The life and storye of the Lorde Thomas Cromwell Earle of Essex.

well hys Vicegerent, with the ij. Dukes of Northfolke and Suffolke, with all the Lordes of the Parlament to Lambeth to dyne with the Archbyshop (who mightely had disputed and alleaged in the Parlament agaynst the sayd Articles) to cheare and comforte hys daunted spirites agayne.

MarginaliaThe talke betweene the L. Cromwell and certen of the Lordes at Lambeth.There the 

Commentary  *  Close

As Foxe observes in a marginal note, he obtained this story from Ralph Morice, Archbishop Cranmer's secretary.

sayd Cromwell, with the other noble Lordes sittyng with the Archbyshop at hys table in talke, as euery Lord brought forth his sētence in commendation of Cranmer, to signifie what good will both the kyng, and they bare vnto hym: among the rest one of the company entryng into a comparison betwen the said Thomas Crāmer, and Thomas Wolsey later Cardinall of Yorke, declared in hys iudgemēt, that Cranmer was much to be preferred for hys milde and gētle nature, where as the Cardinall was a stubberne and a churlyshe Prelate, and one that could neuer abyde any noble man, and that (sayd he) know you well ynough, my Lord Cromwell, for he was your Maister. &c. At these wordes the Lord Cromwell beyng somwhat touched to heare the Cardinals seruice so cast in hys teeth, inferred agayne, saying: that he could not denye but he was seruaunt some tyme to Cardinall Wolsey, neither dyd repent the same, for hee receaued of hym both fee, meate and drinke, and other cōmodities: but yet he was neuer so farre in loue with hym, as to haue wayted vpō hym to Rome, if he had bene chosen pope, as he vnderstode that he would haue done if þe case had so fallen out. Whiche when the other had denyed to bee true, Cromwell still persisted affirmyng the same, and shewyng moreouer what number of Florenes he should haue receaued, to be hys Admirall, and to haue saueconducted hym to Rome in case he had bene elected bishop of Rome. The partie not a litle moued with these wordes: told hym, he lyed. The other agayne affirmed it to be true. Vpon this, great and hygh wordes rose betwene them. Whiche contention although it was through intreatie of the Archbyshop and other nobles somewhat pacified for the tyme, yet it might bee, that some bitter roote of grudge remayned behynde, whiche afterward grew vnto him to some displeasure. And this was an. 1540. in þe moneth of Iulye. Ex testimonio, Secretarij. Cantuar.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaAn. 1541
A Parlament.
After this the next yeare folowyng, whiche was 1541. in the moneth of April, was holden a Parlamēt, which after diuers prorogations was continued till the moneth of Iuly the sayd yeare. MarginaliaThe Lord Cromwell apprehended.In the whiche moneth of Iuly, the Lord Cromwell beyng in the Counsayle chamber, was sodenly apprehended, and committed to the tower of Londō. Wherat, as many good mē which knewe nothyng but truth by him did lamēt, and prayed hartely for him: so moe there were on the cōtrary side that reioysed, especially of the religious sort, and of the Clergie, such as had ben in some dignitie before in the Church, and now by his meanes were put frō it. For in deede such was hys nature, that in all his doynges he could not abyde any kind of Popery, nor of false Religion creepyng vnder hypocrisie: and lesse could abyde the ambitious pryde of Popishe Prelacie, whiche professing all humilitie, was so elated in pride, that kynges could not rule in their owne Realmes for them. These snuffing Prelates as hee could neuer abyde: so they agayne hated hym as much, whiche was the cause of shortenyng his dayes, and to bryng him to his end: So that the xix. day of the moneth aforesayd he was attainted by Parlament.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaCrimes and accusations brought against the L. Cromwell.In the whiche Atteinder diuers and sondry crimes surmises, obiections and accusations were brought against him, but chieflye & aboue all other, he was charged & accused of heresie, for that he was a supporter of them (whom they recoūted for heretickes) as Barnes 

Commentary  *  Close

I.e., Robert Barnes.

, Clerke 
Commentary  *  Close

Roger Clark. Foxe related that a layman of Norfolk (not Suffolk) named Roger was burned for sacramentarian heresy (Rerum, p. 144). By the time the 1563 edition was printed, Foxe had learned a great deal more about the burnings of John Kerby and Roger Clarke; most of his detailed account of their trials and executions first appeared in this edition. This material was contributed by unnamed eyewitnesses. In the 1570 edition, Foxe added details to the account of the martyrdoms of Kerby and Clarke, which were also obtained from informants, probably including the Ipswich gaoler John Bird (Richard Bird, also an Ipswich gaoler, would be denounced by Catholics in Mary’s reign for encouraging prisoners in their heresy (1576, p. 1981 and 1583, p. 2089). Were the Birds a family of evangelical gaolers? In any case, John Bird was probably the source the interview between Kerby and Robert Wingfield.). In the 1570 edition, Foxe also added an account of Henry VIII’s oration to Parliament on Christmas Eve 1545. Foxe printed this speech from Edward Hall, The union of the two noble and illuste famelies of Lancastre and Yorke (London, 1560), STC 12734a, fos.260r-262r. His purpose in including the speech was to criticize appeal for compromise for the sake of concord and religious unity. In ‘notes’ upon the speech, Foxe argued instead - in passages clearly intend to goad Elizabeth and her magistrates into further reformation of the Church - that correct doctrine and religious purity were more important than peace or unity.

[Back to Top]
, and many other, whom hee by his authoritie & letters writtē to Shriffes & Iustices in diuers Shires, rescued and discharged out of prison. Also, that he dyd euulgate and disparse abroad amongest the kinges subiectes, great nūbers of bookes, cōteyning (as they said) manifest matter of much heresie, diffidence, and misbeliefe. Item, that he caused to bee translated into our Englishe tounge, bookes comprising matter expresly agaynst the Sacrament of the altar, and that after the translation therof, he commended and maintayned the same for good and Christian doctrine.

[Back to Top]

Ouer and besides all this, they brought in certaine witnesses (what they were, þe Atteinder expresseth not) which most especially pressed (or rather oppressed) hym with heynous wordes spoken agaynst the kyng in the Church of S. Peter the poore, in the moneth of March, in the xxx. yeare of the kinges reigne. Which wordes if they be true, as the Atteinder doth purport, iij. thinges I haue here much to maruell at. MarginaliaWitnesses agaynst Cromwell suspected.Fyrst, if hys aduersaryes had so sure holde and matter agaynst hym, then what shoulde moue them to make such hastie speede in all poste haste, to haue hym dispatched and ridde out of the way, and in no case could abyde hym to come to his purgatiō? Which if he might haue done, it is not otherwyse to be thought, but he would easilye haue cleared hym self therof.

[Back to Top]

Secondly, thys I maruell, that if the wordes had bene so heynous agaynst the king, as hys enemyes did pretende, why then dyd those witnesses, which heard those wordes in S. Peters Church, in the xxx. yeare of the kinges reigne, conceale þe sayd wordes of such treason so long, the space almost of ij. yeares, and now vttered þe same in the xxxij. yeare of the kinges reigne, in the moneth of Iulie.

[Back to Top]

Thirdly, here is agayne to be merueled, if the kyng had knowē or beleued these wordes to bee true, & that Cromwell had ben in deede such a traitour to his person, why then did the kyng so shortly after lament hys death, wishyng to haue his Cromwell alyue agayne? What Prince will wish the life of him whom he suspecteth vndoubtedly to bee a traitour to his life and person? wherby it may appeare what iudgement the kyng had of Cromwell, in him selfe, howsoeuer the Parlament by sinister information was otherwise incensed to iudge vpon him.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaWhat mischiefe malicious makebates make in a cōmon wealth.Such malicious makebates 

Commentary  *  Close

I.e., people who create strife or discord.

about Princes and Parlamentes neuer lacked in common weales. MarginaliaExamples of mē falsly accused, & wrongfully iudged.By such kyng Ethelstane was incensed to kill his brother Edwyne 
Commentary  *  Close

See 1570, p. 197; 1576, p. 150 and 1583, pp. 148-9.

pag. 197. So was kyng Edward 2. deposed. So likewise when kyng Richard 2. was once brought into the Tower, what crimes and accusations were layd agaynst him in the Parlament? So was Humfrey the good Duke of Glocester, the kynges vncle, by Henry Beauford Byshop of Winchester & other, in the Parlament holden at Bery, arrested as a traitour, & falsely made away 
Commentary  *  Close

See 1570, p. 845; 1576, p. 680 and 1583, pp. 705-6.

. pag. 835. What great treason was in þe wordes of him, who dwellyng in Chepeside at þe signe of the crowne, sayd merely to his sonne, þt if he liued, he would make him heyre of þe crowne 
Commentary  *  Close

See 1570, p. 861; 1576, pp. 701-2 and 1583, p. 727.

: & yet was he therfore atteynted, & iudged for a traytor? pag. 861. col. 1. In þe time of kyng Henry 8. how was that Parlament incensed, wherein both Queene Anne was falsely condemned, and Queene Elizabeth her daughter as falsely dishereted? To omitte here þe attaynder of the Duke of Buckyngham wrought by the Cardinall of Yorke: Of þe Lord Cobhā likewise, & Syr Roger Acton. pag. 684. If þe cause of the Lord Henry late Earle of Surrey were well tried out, perauenture no such heynous purpose of any treason should be found therin, as then was made. 
Commentary  *  Close

This is one of a number of occasions in which Foxe hints that the earl of Surrey was urgently condemned and executed. It should be remembered that Foxe's former pupil and patron, the fourth duke of Norfolk, was Surrey's son.

Who incensed the late Duke of Somerset to beheade his owne brother, but such makebates as these? And afterward when the said Duke him selfe was attaynted for a traitor and condemned for a felon, a briber and extorcioner, how was the Parlament thē incēsed? Adam Damlype receaued of Cardinall Poole at Rome, but a selye crowne in way of almose, & therfore by meanes of Steuen Gardiner was attainted for a traytor 
Commentary  *  Close

Foxe's sources for the complicated, intertwined, narratives which follow were varied. The story of William Callaway and Dr. London first appeared in the Rerum, as did the account of the execution of Germain Gardiner (Rerum, pp. 143-4). The first came from Edward Hall, The union of two noble and illustre famelies of Lancastre and Yorke (London, 1550) STC 12734a, fo. 257r, the second probably was related to Foxe by John Bale. Both of these stories were repeated in all editions of the A&M. In the 1563 edition, Foxe added accounts of Adam Damplip (from unknown informants), Thomas Broke’s speech against the Six Articles, accounts of the 1539 persecution of heresy in Calais, which came from informants, and accounts of the 1540 persecution of heresy in Calais, also obtained from informants, almost certainly including Thomas Broke’s wife, who supplied the detailed narrative of her husband’s ordeals. The 1563 edition also contained an account of an earlier heretic, William Button, who was forced to do penance in Calais sometime before 1532; Foxe states that this account was derived from informants in the town. And Foxe also added the recantations of John Athee and John Heywood, which he obtained from Bishop Bonner’s register (Guildhall MS 9531/12, fos. 61r and 254v).

[Back to Top]
. George Egles dyd but read 
Commentary  *  Close

George Eagles was an itinerant lay preacher who led a secret conventicle near Colchester during Mary's reign. He was executed in the summer in the summer of 1556 for sedition.

some tyme in woodes, and by the sayd Gardiner was also condemned and suffered as a traytour.

[Back to Top]
Go To Modern Page No:  
Click on this link to switch between the Modern pagination for this edition and Foxe's original pagination when searching for a page number. Note that the pagination displayed in the transcription is the modern pagination with Foxe's original pagination in square brackets.
Type a keyword and then restrict it to a particular edition using the dropdown menu. You can search for single words or phrases. When searching for single words, the search engine automatically imposes a wildcard at the end of the keyword in order to retrieve both whole and part words. For example, a search for "queen" will retrieve "queen", "queene" and "queenes" etc.
Humanities Research Institute  *  HRI Online  *  Feedback
Version 2.0 © 2011 The University of Sheffield