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1485 [1485]

K. Henry. 8. Persecution in Scotland. George VVysehart, Martyr.

MarginaliaThe lawfull vse of the Sacrament of the altar.vnto God: but the great abuse of it is very detestable vnto hym. But what occasion they haue to say such words of me, I shal shortly shew your Lordships. MarginaliaThe storye of a Iewe.I once chaūced to meete wyth a Iewe, when I was sayling vpon the water of Rhene. I did enquire of hym what was the cause of his pertinacy, that he did not beleue that the true Messias was come, considering that they had seene all the Prophecies which were spoken of him, to bee fulfilled. Moreouer , the prophecies taken away, and the scepter of Iuda, by many other testimonies of the scripture, I vanqueshed him that Messias was come, þt whych they called Iesus of Nazareth. Thys Iew aunswered agayne vnto me, MarginaliaThe principall causes, which stoppe the Iewes from Christianitie.when Messias commeth, he shall restore all thinges, and he shall not abrogate the law, which was geuen to our forefathers, as ye do. For why? we see the poore almost perish thorow hunger amongest you: yet you are not moued with pitye towardes them: but amonge vs Iewes (though we be pore) there are no beggers found.

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MarginaliaImages.Secondarely, it is forbidden by the law, to fayne any kinde of Imagery of thinges in heauen aboue, or in the earth beneath, or in the sea vnder the earth: but one God onely to honour: but your Sanctuaries and Churches are full of Idols.

MarginaliaThe Sacrament of the altar.Thirdly, a peece of bread baken vpon the ashes, ye adore and worship, and say, that it is your God. I haue rehearsed here but the sayinges of the Iew, which I neuer affirmed to be true. Then the bishops shooke theyr heades, and spitted on the earth, and what he ment in this matter farther, they would not here.

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Marginalia7. Article.7 Thou false hereticke didst say, that extreme vnctiō was not a sacrament.

MarginaliaAunswere.My Lordes, forsoth I neuer taught anye thyng of extreme vnction in my doctrine, whether it were a Sacrament or no.

Marginalia8. Article.8 Thou false heretick saydest that holy water is not so good as wash, and such like. Thou condēnest coniuring, and sayest that holy churches cursynges auaile not.

MarginaliaAunswere.My Lords, as for holy water, what strength it is of, I taught neuer in my doctrine. Coniuringes and exorcismes, if they were conformable to the word of God, I would commend them: but in somuch as they are not conformable to the commaundement and word of God, I reproue them.

Marginalia9. Article.9 Thou false hereticke and runnagate, hast sayd that euery lay man is a Priest, and such lyke. Thou sayest that the Pope hath no more power, then any other man.

MarginaliaAunswere.My Lords, I taught nothing but the word of God. I remember that I haue read in some places in S. Iohn and S. Peter,of the whych one sayth 

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Revelation 1:6; 5:10.

: he hath made vs kinges and priestes. MarginaliaApoc. 1. & 5.The other sayth 
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I Peter 2:9.

: he hath made vs a kingly Priesthode. Marginalia1. Pet. 2.Wherefore I haue affirmed that any man being cunning in the word of God, & the true fayth of Iesu Christ, hath hys power geuen him from God, and not by the power or violence of mē, but by the vertue of the word of God, the which word is called þe power of God, as wytnesseth S. Paule 
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Romans 1:16.

euidently enough. MarginaliaRom. 1.And again, I say that any vnlearned man, not exercised in the word of God, nor yet constant in his fayth, whatsoeuer estate or order he be of, MarginaliaThe instrument to binde and lose.I say he hath no power to binde or loose, seing hee wanteth the instrument, by the which he bindeth or looseth, that is to say, the woord of God.

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After that he had sayd these wordes, all the Bishops laughed and mocked him. When that hee behelde theyr laughing: Laugh ye (saith he) my Lords? Though that these sayings appeare scornfull and worthye of derision to your Lordships, neuertheles they are very wayghty to me, and of a great value, because that they stande not onely vpon my life, but also the honor and glory of God. In the meane time many godly men beholding þe woodnes and great crudelitye of the bishops, and the inuincible pacience of maister George, did greatly mourne and lament.

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Marginalia10. Article.10 Thou false hereticke saydest, that a mā hath no free will. But is like to the Stoikes, whiche say, that it is not in mans will to do any thyng, but that all concupiscence and desire commeth of God, what so euer kynde it be of.

MarginaliaAunswere.My Lordes, I sayd not so truly, I say, that as manye as beleue in Christ firmely, vnto them is geuen liberty, conformable to the saying of S. Iohn. 

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John 8:34, 36.

If the Sonne make you free, then shall ye verely be free. MarginaliaIohn. 8.Of the contrary, as manye as beleue not in Christ Iesu, they are bond seruantes ofsynne. He that sinneth, is bond to sinne.

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Marginalia11. Article.11 Thou false hereticke sayest, it is as lawfull to eate fleshe vpon the Friday as on Sonday.

MarginaliaAunswere.Pleaseth it your Lordships, I haue read in the Epistles of S. Paule 

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Titus 1:15.

, that who is cleane, vnto hym al things are cleane. MarginaliaTim. 1.Of the contrary, to the filthye men all thinges are vncleane. MarginaliaEating of meates.A faythfull man cleane and holy, sanctifieth by the word, the creature of God. MarginaliaThe creature doth not sanctifie without the worde.But the creature maketh no man acceptable vnto God. So that a creature may not sanctifie any impure and vnfaithfull man. But to the faithfull man, all thinges are sanctified by the prayer of the word of God. After these sayinges of maister George, then sayd all the bishops with their complices: What 
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A deliberate echo of Matthew 27:65 and parallels.

nedeth vs any wytnes against him? hath he not openly here spoken blasphemy?

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Marginalia12. Article.12 Thou false hereticke doest say, that we should not praye to Saintes, but to God onely. Say whether thou, hast sayd this or no? say shortly.

MarginaliaAunswere.For the weakenes and the infirmity of the hearers, he sayd without doubt plainly that Saintes should not be honoured. My Lordes (sayd he) there are two thinges worthye of note. The one is certaine, the other vncertaine. MarginaliaTo honour one God is certaine.It is found plainly and certaine in scripture, that we should worship and honor one God, according to the saying of the fyrst commaundement: Thou shalt onelye woorship and honor thy Lorde God, wyth all thy hart. MarginaliaMath. 4.But as for praying to, and honoring of Saints, there is great doubt among many, whether they heare or no, inuocation made vnto them. Therfore I exhorted al men equally in my doctrine, that they should leaue the vnsure way, and follow that way, which was taught vs by our maister Christ. He is our onely mediatour, and maketh intercession for vs to God his father. MarginaliaThe sured way is to be folowed.Hee is the doore 

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John 10:7-10.

by the which we must enter in. He that entreth not in by this doore, but climeth an other waye, is a theefe and murtherer. Hee is the veritye and lyfe. Hee that goeth out of this way, there is no doubt but hee shall fall into the mire: yea verely is fallen into it alreadye. Thys is the fashion of my doctrine, the which I haue euer followed. Verelye that whych I haue heard and read in the word of God, I taught openly, and in no corners. And nowe ye shall wytnes the same, if your Lordships wyll heare me. Except it stand by þe word of God, I dare not be so bold to affirme anye thyng. These sayinges he rehearsed diuers times.

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Marginalia13. Article.13 Thou false hereticke hast preached playnely, saying that there is no Purgatory, and that it is a fayned thyng, any man after this lyfe to be punished in Purgatory.

MarginaliaAunswere.My Lordes, as I haue oftentymes sayd heretofore, without expresse witnes and testimony of the Scripture I dare affirme nothyng. MarginaliaPurgatory not once named in scripture.I haue oft and diuers tymes read ouer the Bible, and yet such a terme foūde I neuer, nor yet any place of Scripture applicable thereunto. Therefore I was ashamed euer to teach of that thyng, whiche I could not finde in the Scripture. Then sayd he to Master Iohn Lauder his accuser: If you haue any testimony of the Scripture by the whiche ye may proue any such place, shew it now before this auditorye. But this dolte had not a worde to say for hym selfe, but was as dumme as a betle in that matter.

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Marginalia14. Article.14 Thou false hereticke hast taught playnely agaynst the vowes of Monkes, Friers, Nunnes and Priestes, saying: that who soeuer was bounde to such lyke vowes, they vowed thē selues to the estate of damnation: MarginaliaPriestes mariage.moreouer, that it was lawfull for Priestes to mary wyues, and not to lyue sole.

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MarginaliaAunswere.Of soth (my Lordes) I haue read in the Euangell, 

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Matthew 19:12.

MarginaliaMath. 19
Three kindes of chast men.
that there are iij. kyndes of chaste men. Some are gelded from their mothers wombe: some are gelded by men: and some haue gelded them selues, for the kyngdome of heauen sake. Verely I say, these men are blessed by the Scripture of God. But as many as haue not the gifte of chastitie, nor yet for the Euangel, haue not ouercome the concupiscence of the fleshe, and haue vowed chastitie: MarginaliaThe daunger of haue experience, althoughe I should hold my peace, to what inconuenience they haue vowed them selues. Whē he had said these wordes, they were all dumme, thinking better to haue tenne cōcubines, then one maryed wife.

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Marginalia15. Article.15 Thou false hereticke and runnagate sayest, thou wilt not obey our generall, nor prouinciall Councels.

MarginaliaAunswere.My Lordes, what your generall Councels are, I know not, I was neuer exercised in them: but to the

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