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1492 [1492]

K. Hen. 8. Persecutiō in Kent. W. Carder, Grebill, Harrison, Brown, Walker, Martyrs.

MarginaliaThe miraculous workyng of God in Walter Mille.miraculously in him, made it manifest to þe people that his cause and Articles were iust, and hee innocently put downe.

Now whē all thinges were ready for his death, and he conueyed with armed mē to the fire, Oliphant bad him passe to the stake: and hee sayd, nay, but wilt thou put me vp with thy hand & take part of my death, thou shalt see me passe vp gladly, for by the law of God I am forbidden to put handes vpō my selfe. Then Oliphant put him vp with his hand, and hee ascended gladly, saying: Introibo ad altare dei, MarginaliaW. Mille denyed by the bishops to speake.and desired that he might haue place to speake to the people, the which Oliphāt & other of þe burners denied, saying that hee had spoken ouer much, for the Bishops were altogether offended that the matter was so long continued. MarginaliaWalter Mille permitted by the yong men to speake.Then some of the yong men committed both the burners, and the Bishops their masters to the deuill, saying that they beleued that they shoulde lament that day, and desired the sayd Walter to speake what he pleased.

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And so after he had made his humble supplication to God on his knees, hee arose, and standing vppon the coales sayd on this wise. MarginaliaThe wordes of Walter Mille to the people.Deare frendes the cause why I suffer this day is not for any crime layd to my charge (albeit I be a miserable sinner before God) but onely for the defence of the faith of Iesus Christ, set foorth in the new and old Testament vnto vs, for the whiche as the faythfull Martyrs haue offred them selues gladly before, beyng assured after the death of their bodies of eternall felicitie, so this day I prayse God, that he hath called me of his mercy among þe rest of his seruauntes, to seale vp his truth with my life: which as I haue receaued it of him, so willyngly I offer it to hys glory. Therfore as you will escape the eternall death, be no more seduced with the lyes of Priestes, Monkes, Friers, Priors, Abbots, Bishops, and the rest of the sect of Antichrist, but depend onely vppon Iesus Christ and his mercy, that ye may be deliuered from condemnatiō. Al that while there was great mournyng and lamentation of the multitude, MarginaliaThe constant hardines of W. Mille.for they perceiuing his patience, stoutnes, and boldnes, constancie, and hardines, were not onely moued and stirred vp, but their hartes also were so inflamed, MarginaliaWalter Mille the laste Martyr in Scotland.that he was the last Martyr that died in Scotland for the Religion.

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¶ The Martyrdome of Walter Mill.
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CUL copy: he is depicted as having a greyish brown beard and hair. WREN copy: the same details are provided.

MarginaliaWalter Mill of Scotland, Martyr.
After his prayer, he was hoysed vp on the stake, and beyng in the fire, hee sayd: Lord haue mercy on me: Praye people while there is tyme, and so constantly departed.


Non nostra impietas aut actæ crimina vitæ
Armarunt hostes in mea fata truces:
Sola fides Christi sacris signata libellis,
Quæ vitæ causa est, est mihi causa necis.

After this, by the iust iudgemēt of God, in the same place where Walter Mille was burnt, the Images of the great Churche of the Abbey, whiche passed both in number and costlynes, were burnt 

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This took place after John Knox's first sermon in St. Andrews on 13 June 1559. David Laing (ed), The Miscellany of the Wodrow Society, vol. 1 (Edinburgh, 1844), p. 60

in tyme of reformation. Ex fideli testimonio è Scotia misso.

And thus much concernyng such matters as happened, and such Martyrs as suffered in the Realme of Scotland for the fayth of Christ Iesus, and testimonie of his truth.

¶ Persecution in Kent.

IN reuoluyng the Registers of William Warrham 

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Archbishop Warham's persecution

As Foxe indicates, his source for this section is the register of Archbishop William Warham of Canterbury. These documents survive as Lambeth Palace Library, Warham Register, fos. 159r-175v and they are printed in Kent Heresy Proceedings,1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997). Foxe's reprinting of several of these documents is not always accurate, as he occasionally concealed the opinions of those Lollards of which he disproved (such as some of the opinions of William Carder, Agnes Grebil, John Browne and Edward Walker). Foxe had two objectives in reprinting these documents. The first was to demonstrate that there was a 'True Church' before Luther (he declares this as one of his main purposes in supplying accounts of the Lollard martyrs). The second objective was to emphasize the cruelty of the Catholic clergy in persecuting these people, most especially Agnes Grebil (whose husband and children testified against her, for which act he blames the Catholic clergy). Foxe's concern to emphasis this cruelty is so great that - in contrast to his general policy throughout the A&M - he exaggerates the contrition and compliance of these Lollards, in order to heighten the savagery of the Catholic churches (he does this with the Lollards Carder, Harryson and Alice Grevil).

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Thomas S. Freeman

Archbishop of Canterbury, MarginaliaEx Regist. W. Warrham Archiepisc. Cant.I find moreouer besides these aboue comprehended, in the tyme and reigne of kyng Henry, the names of diuers other, whereof some suffered Martyrdome for the like testimonie of Gods worde, and some recanted, whiche albeit here do come a litle out of order, and should haue bene placed before in the begynnyng of kyng Henryes reigne: MarginaliaCertayne Martyrs before omitted.yet rather then they should vtterly be omitted I thought here to giue them a place, though somewhat out of tyme, yet not altogether I trust without frute vnto the reader, 
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The fact that this material appears out of chronological order in the A&M in Foxe is a compelling indication that this material was being transcribed and translated while the 1570 edition was being printed.

beyng no lesse worthy to bee registred and preserued from obliuiō, then other of their felowes before them.

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¶ A Table of certayne true Seruantes of God and Martyrs omitted, which were burned in the Dioces of Cant. vnder William Warrham Archbishop of Canterbury, with the names of their persecuters and accusers. an. 1511.
Persecuters and Iudges.Accusers and VVitnesses.The Martyrs.
MarginaliaMartyrs in Kent before the tyme of M. Luther.
of Caunter-
D. Cutbert
Doctour of
both lavves,
and Chaun-
celour of the
D. Sylue-
ster, Lavv-
D. Wellys.
Doct. Iohn
Deane of
Commentary  *  Close

This is the same John Colet whom Foxe had praised as a proto-Protestant reformer of the Church (although it should be emphasized that Colet was, contrary to Foxe's implications, an orthodox Catholic). Thr late insertion of this material into Foxe's text (as indicated by the fact that the material mentioned in the previous comment appears out of chronological order in the A&M , which is a compelling indication that this material was being transcribed and translated while the 1570 edition was being printed), probably hindered Foxe from noting this discrepancy.

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This is the same Dr Thomas Woodington whom Foxe has already claimed earlier in the A&M as having been killed by a bull before 1509. In fact, Thomas Woodington, far from being slain by a bull in the reign of Henry VII, rose to become Dean of the Arches in 1513 and died around 1522 (Emden A).

William Rich of
Agnes Iue, of Cant.
Robert Hilles of
Steuen Castelyn of
Ioh. Grebill of Ten-
terden, husband to
Agnes Grebill
the Martyr.
Christopher Grebill
the naturall sonne
of Agnes Grebill
the Martyr.
Iohn Grebill the
younger, the natu-
ral sonne of Agnes
Grebill the Mar-
William Oldberd
of Godmersham.
Laurēce Cheterde.
Thomas Harwood
of Rovvenden.
Ioane Harwood
hys vvife.
Phillip Hardwood.
William Baker of
Edw. Walker.
Robert Reynold,
of Benynden.
William Carder of
Tenterden, Wea-
Agnes Grebill of
Tenterden, wyfe
of Iohn Grebill
the elder, and mo-
ther to Iohn and
Christopher Gre
bill, who with her
own husbād accu-
sed her to death,
beyng of three
score yeres of age.
Robert Harrison, of
Halden, of the age
of lx. yeares.
Iohn Browne of
Edward Walker of
Maidstone, Cutler.
¶ The Articles wherupon these v. blessed Martyrs were accused and condemned by the foresayd iudges and witnesses, were these as folowe. 
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Foxe is conflating the virtually identical charges made against William Carder, Agnes Grebil, John Browne and Edward Walker (see Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997),pp. 2-3, 8-9, 16-17, 43-44 and 50-51). But Foxe omits two articles that appeared in each of these lists of charges. The first was the legally required article asking if the defendant was from the diocese where the trial was being held. The second was a charge that the various defendants denied that baptism was essential for salvation (Kent Heresy Proceedings, pp. 2, 8, 16, 44 and 50).

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MarginaliaEx Regist. W. Warrhā. Fol. 177.FIrst for holdyng that the Sacrament of the aultar was not þe true & very body of Christ, but only materiall bread in substaunce. 

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The clause 'but only material bread in substance' is not found in the register and was added by Foxe.

2 That auricular confession was not to bee made to a Priest.

3. That no power is giuen of God to Priestes of mini-

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