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1516 [1516]

K. Henry. 8. Appendix. The order and maner of K. Henryes death.

For the consideration wherof, Duke Iohn Fridericke, Prince Electour, and the Lantgraue entreated for him to haue his cause indifferently to be heard, and to be committed to ij. parties that were equall, and not partiall: yet notwithstāding the sute of these Princes, & the cōtrary labour of the Cardinalls, which were his capitall aduersaryes, so preuailed at Rome, that the cause of Luther was still detayned in their own hādes, and contrary to all indifferencie, was committed to the hearyng of the Popes Legate then in Germanie, called MarginaliaCardinalis Sancti Sixti, enemye to Luther.Cardinalis Sancti Sixti. Who being no lesse enemie agaynst Luther, then the other, and notwithstandyng that Luther obediently appeared at his call, and with humble Protestation submitted hym selfe to bee aunswered by the Scriptures, and referred hym selfe to the iudgement of þe Sea of Rome and of foure Vniuersities, to witte, Basile, Friburge, Louane & Paris, yet contrary to all equitie, shewing forth no Scripture nor reason, reiecting his gentle Protestatiō, submissiō, and honest offer, with al other hys requestes and sutes, he would needes forthwith haue him to reuoke his errours, threatning and manasing him most cruelly, and commaunded hym no more to come in hys sight. MarginaliaLuther appealeth from the Cardinall to the Pope.

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Wherupon Luther being thus proudly reiected of the Cardinall, made hys appeale from the sayd Cardinall to Pope Leo being better informed.

This appellation also being cōtemned of the Pope, who would neyther come to any agreement, nor take any reasonable condition, nor shewe Luther hys errours by the Scripture, nor yet referre the matter by learning to be decided, but would needes perforce procede agaynst hym by mere authoritie, and oppression at Rome, Luther then seing there was no other refuge or remedie for hys owne defence, and seing moreouer the truth of Gods word to lie vnder foote by might and authoritie oppressed, so that none durst almost confesse the same, and that the poore flocke was so nusled in errours & vaine opinions to the seduction of their soules, for these & other such causes, he being necessarily therunto compelled, MarginaliaM. Luther appealeth from the Pope to the next generall Councell.commensed thys Appeale from the Pope misinformed to the next generall Councell that should be, calling for the helpe of the publicke notarie, and testimonie also of sufficient witnesses requisite in that behalfe accordingly.

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¶ The death of K. Henry the viij. with the maner therof.

MarginaliaThe order and maner of the kinges death.ANd thus closing vp 

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Death of Henry VIII

Foxe completely rewrote his conclusion of Henry VIII's reign between his 1563 and 1570 editions. (Interestingly, Foxe said nothing about the death of the king, nor did he offer final thoughts on his reign, in the Rerum). In 1563, Foxe began with thoughts on the futility of persecution and then procceeded to remark on the importance of good councillors to guide a monarch. He claimed that Anne Boleyn, Thomas Cromwell, Archbishop Cranmer, Sir Anthony Denny (the Chief Gentleman of the Privy Chamber) and Dr. William Butts, Henry's physician, were able to often guide Henry into serving the True Church. (Although only Cromwell and Cranmer could qualify as royal councillors in the strictest sense of the word, most scholars are agreed in seeing Anne Boleyn, Butts and Denny as both staunch evangelicals and individuals with considerable personal access to Henry which these used to further evangelical causes). Foxe then bewailed the increasing loss of influence that these good councillors had on Henry, and opined that Henry, goaded on by his bishops, would have continued persecuting the True Church, had his reign not been cut short by his death (1563, pp. 681-2). Foxe then described how the persecutions of Henry VIII's reign led many prominent evangelicals to recant, even though they later served God and even, in some cases, suffered martyrdom.

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In 1570, Foxe dropped all of this material. There were three basic reasons for this. The first is that Foxe had acquired important new information about the death of Henry VIII and the monarch's attitudes toward religion in general, and Stephen Gardiner in particular, at the time of his death. Even a cursory glance through this material indicates that - unless Foxe invented these anecdotes - the source for this was Cranmer. Since we know that Ralph Morrice, Cranmer's secretary supplied Foxe with material for the 1570 edition, it would seem reasonable to infer that he was Foxe's source for these narratives as well. Moreover, Morrice is cited by Foxe as his informant (Morrice having heard Sir Anthony Denny relate it to Cranmer) for the famous anecdote of Henry declaring that he eliminated Stephen Gardiner from the list of executors to his will, because the king believed that the other executors would not be able to control Gardiner as he had done.

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But Foxe also eliminated the previous account because his views on Elizabeth I had changed and this affected his treatment of Henry. As Foxe grew impatient with the failure of Elizabeth to reform the English Church, he omitted his strictures on the need for good counsel and also the relatively benign portrait of Henry with which he had closed Book 8 in his first edition (in the 1563 edition, Foxe claims that only death prevented Henry from launching a more severe persecution of evangelicals. In the 1570 edition, he dropped this material and replaced it with an account of how Henry VIII was on the brink of sweeping evangelical reforms when he died.). This was replaced by an account which was much more critical of Henry for failing to complete the Reformation he had begun and which also implicitly suggested that it was Elizabeth's duty to finish the final uprooting of Catholicism begun by her father and brother.

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Thomas S. Freeman

thys eight booke with the death of K. Henry the 8. I will now (the Lorde Christ assisting me with hys grace) procede next to the tyme and reigne of K. Edward hys sonne, after that first I shall intermitte a fewe woordes touchyng the death of the sayd K. Henry hys father, and the maner of the same. Who after long languishing, infirmitie growing more and more vpon hym, lay from S. Steuens day 
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I.e., 26 December.

(as is aboue mentioned) to the latter end of Ianuary. His Phisicians at length perceauing that he woulde away, and yet not daring to discourage hym with death, for feare of the Acte past before in Parlament, MarginaliaOf the Act that none should speake of the kinges death, vid. Stat. an. Henr. 8.that none should speake any thyng of the kynges death (the Acte being made onely for Southsayers and talkers of Prophesies) moued them that were about the kyng to put hym in remembraunce of his mortall state and fatall infirmitie. Which when the rest were in dread to do, M. Denye, who was specially attendant vpon hym, boldly comming to the kyng, tolde hym what case hee was in, to mans iudgement not lyke to liue, and therefore exhorted hym to prepare hym selfe to death, calling him self to remembraunce of hys former life, and to call vpon God in Christ betime for grace and mercy, as becommeth euery good Christian man to do.

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Although the kyng was loth to heare any mention of death, yet perceauing þe same to rise vpon the iudgement of his Phisicians & feeling his own weaknes, hee disposed him self more quietly to harken to the wordesof hys exhortation, and to consider hys lyfe past. Which although he much accused, yet (sayd he) is the mercy of Christ able to pardon me all my sinnes, though they were greater then they bee. M. Denye being glad to heare him thus speake, required to know hys pleasure, whether he would haue any learned mā sent for to cōferre withall, and to open hys minde vnto. MarginaliaThe kyng at hys death chuseth onely to talke with D. Cranmer.To whom the king aūswered againe, that if he had any, he would haue D. Cranmer, who was then lying at Croydon. And therefore M. Denye asking the king whether hee wuold haue hym sent for, I will first, sayd the kyng, take a litle sleepe, and then as I feele my selfe, I will aduise vpon the matter.

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After an houre or two, the kyng awakyng and feeling feeblenes to encrease vppon him, commaunded D. Cranmer to be sent for: but before hee could come, the kyng was speachles, and almost senseles. MarginaliaD. Cranmer commeth to the kyng.Notwithstādyng perceauing D. Cranmer to be come, he reaching hys hand to D. Cranmer, dyd holde hym fast, but could vtter no worde vnto hym, and scarse was able to make any signe. Then the Archbyshop exhorting hym to put hys trust in Christ, and to call vpon hys mercy, desired him, though he could not speake, yet to geue some tokē with hys eyes, or with hand, as he trusted in the Lord. Then the kyng holdyng hym with hys hand, did wring hys hand in hys, as hard as he could, and so shortly after departed, 

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Henry VIII died on 28 January 1547.

after he had reigned in thys land þe terme of 37. yeares and 9. monethes, MarginaliaThe kinges children.leauing behinde hym 3. children, Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth.

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MarginaliaTalke betwen Thomas Cranmer Archbyshop of Cant. and the Duke of Suffolke, about Steuen Gardiner.Moreouer for so much as mention is inserted in thys place of the good inclination of king Henry in his latter dayes to the reformation of religion, by the occasion hereof it commeth also to mynde, somewhat lykewyse to adde by way of appendix touching the talke betwene the Archbishop of Canterburye Thomas Cranmer, and the Duke of Suffolke Charles Branden, as concerning the kinges purpose and intent conceaued agaynst the bishop of Winchester Steuen Gardiner, in that he could neuer allowe any reformation in religion in thys realme, and namely being offended wyth this, that men should vse in their talke, The Lord, aswel as Our Lord. The sayd Duke sayd vnto the sayd Archbishop: We of the counsell had him once at a good lift, and should well haue dispatched him from his authoritie, if the kinges maiesty our Maister had stayed hymselfe from admitting him to hys presence, as then hys highnes was content that we shoulde throughly haue sifted and tried him. It was my Lord (quoth the Duke to the Archbishop) at that tyme, when Gardiner hys Secretary 

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In other words this incident took place around the time of Germain Gardiner's arrest in 1544. Germain Gardiner and John Lark were executed for alledgedly conspiring with Reginold Pole, whilst in reality, their executions were part of the factional struggles at Court in 1543-44. John Heywood (More's brother-in-law) was condemned with them but he was later reprieved when he recanted on the way to the scaffold. The episode, as described, is clearly exaggerated, but it is plausible that Gardiner may well have been in disfavour with Henry, and to have had to make his peace with the king, in the aftermath of the Prebendaries' Plot and Germain Gardiner's downfall.

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was attached and suffered for defending the Popes authoritie. For then I & certain of the Coūsell hauing cōference with the kings Maiestie for that matter, his highnes was fully perswaded that the Bishops Secretary being in such speciall fauour wyth his Maister, would neuer stand so stiffe in defence of the bishop of Romes vsurped power and authoritye, without hys sayd maisters both aduise, knowledge, and perswasion. For already (quoth the King) he played but a homely part with me, whē he was Ambassadour to þe Pope cōcerning my cause of diuorce. MarginaliaSte. Gardiner appoynted to be had to the Tower.And therfore (quoth þe king to me) send for hym my Lorde incontinently, & by assistaunce of two or three moe of the Counsell whom you thinke good, let him bee committed to the Tower, to aunswere to such thinges as may be obiected agaynst him. This communication was in the euening, so that we purposed to haue executed the kinges pleasure and commaundement the next mornyng. How be it our talke was not so secrete, but that some of hys friendes of the priuy chamber then, suspecting the matter (wher he had many friendes) sent him woord thereof. MarginaliaSte. Gardiner priuily cōmeth to the kyng.Who incontinently repayred to the kinges presence, and finding some matter to minister vnto the king, hys hyghnes said to the Bishop: We do maruail that your Secretary hath thus notoriously offēded against vs & our lawes. It is surely thought that you are not all cleare

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in thys
***. ij.
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