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1687 [1649]

Queene Mary. The Cardinalls Oration. Submißion to the Pope. Absolution by the Cardinall.

Marginalia1554. Nouemb.then that hys sonne was placed by Mariage in the kingdome. And most glad he was of al, that the occasion therof shoulde come by me, beyng an English man borne, which is, as it were, to call home our selues. MarginaliaCharles the Emperour compared to Dauid.I can well compare hym to Dauid, which though hee were a man elect of God: yet for that he was contaminate with bloud & warre, he could not buyld the temple of Hierusalem, but left the finishyng thereof to Salomon, which was Rex pacificus. So may it be thought, that the appeasing of controuersies of religion in Christianitie, is not appoynted to this Emperour, but rather to hys sonne, who shall perfourme the buylding that hys Father hath begonne. Which Church cannot be perfectly builded without vniuersally in all Realmes we adhere to one head, and do acknowledge hym to be the Vicar of God, and to haue power from aboue. For all power is of God, according to the saying: Non est potestas, nisi a Deo. And therefore I consider that all power, beyng in God, yet for the conseruation of quiet and godly lyfe in the world, he hath deriued that power frō aboue into two partes here in earth: MarginaliaTwo powers in earth: ecclesiastical, and Imperiall. which is into the power Imperiall & Ecclesiastical. And these two powers, as they be seuerall & dinstinct, so haue they two seuerall effectes and operations. For Secular Princes, to whom the Temporall swoord is committed, be Ministers of God to execute vengeaunce vpon transgressours and euyl liuers, and to preserue the wel doers and Innocentes from iniury & violence. Which power is represented in these two most excellent Persons, the Kyng and Queenes Maiesties here present, who haue thys power committed vnto them immediately from God, wythout any Superiour in that behalfe.

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The other power is of ministration, MarginaliaThe power of the keies clarkely declared.which is the power of the keyes, and order in the Ecclesiasticall state, whych is by the authority of Gods word, and examples of the Apostles, and of all old holy Fathers from Christ hererto, attributed and geuen to the Apostolike Sea of Rome by speciall prerogatiue. From which Sea, I am here deputed Legate and Ambassadour, hauyng full and ample Cōmission from thence, and haue the keyes committed to my handes. MarginaliaThe popes keyes sent by the Cardinall.I confesse to you that I haue the keyes, not as myne own keyes, but as the keyes of hym that sent me: and yet cannot open, not for want of power in me to geue, but for certaine impedimentes in you to receiue, which must be taken away before my Cōmission cā take effect. Thys I protest before you, my Cōmission is not of preiudice to any person. I come not to destroy, but to build, I come to reconcile, not to condemne, I come not to compel, but to cal againe, I am not come to call any thyng in question already done, but my Cōmission is of grace and clemency, to such as wyll receiue it. For touchiug all matters that be past, they shall be as thynges cast into the Sea of forgetfulnes.

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But the meane whereby you shall receyue thys benefyte, is to reuoke and repeale those lawes and statutes, which be impedimentes, blockes and barres to the execution of my Cōmission. MarginaliaThe popes keyes can not worke in England, before the locke of good lawes be chaūged.For like as I my selfe had neither place or voyce to speake here among you, but was to al respectes a banished man, till such tyme as ye had repealed those lawes that lay in my way: euen so cannot you receyue the benefyte and grace offered from the Apostolike Sea, vntyll the abrogation of such lawes, whereby you haue disioyned and disseuered your selues from the vnity of Christes church.

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It remayneth therefore, that you lyke true Christians and prouident men, for the weale of your soules and bodyes, ponder what is to bee done in this so weyghty a cause, and so to frame your actes and proceedinges, as they may tend fyrst to the glory of God, and next to the cōseruation of your common wealth, surety, & quietnes.

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The next day after, þe three Estates assembled again in the great Chamber of the Court at Westminster: where the Kyng and Queenes Maiesties, and the Cardinall being present, they dyd exhibite (sittyng all on their knees) a Supplication to their hyghnesses, the tenour whereof ensueth.

¶ The copy of the Supplication and Submission exhibited to the Kyng and Queenes Maiesties, by the Lordes and Commons of the Parlament. 
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Block 34: From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon

The supplication of parliament to Philip and Mary for permission to present their submission to Pole together with an account of Pole's receiving that submission are reprinted from Elder (cf. Copie of a letter, sigs. E3r-E5r with 1563, p. 1010; 1570, p. 1649; 1576, p. 1407; 1583, p. 1477).


Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon

A comparison of Glosses points up a problem Foxe faces here. In the latter gloss it is easy for Foxe to argue against Pole that the nobility were not keen on the return of papal power, but in the former he has to satisfy himself with suggesting that the professed repentance of the Lords and Commons was only skin deep. As with the disruptions in London, the implication of discontent beneath the surface was useful, although in this case there was the danger of portraying the nobility as hypocritical: that Foxe was willing to risk this shows the strong desire to work against the idea of catholic loyalty in the nobility (perhaps a particular fear after the 1569 rebellion). Foxe also adds a procedural thrust, noting that the pope's absolution had to come via the monarchs. The historic moment of absolution is subverted by glosses which contrast the pope's absolution with Christ's. The repeated accusation of flattery hurled at Pole continues the portrayal of him as the consummate politician begun in the previous section.

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MarginaliaThe supplicatiō & submission of the Lordes & Cōmons, to the king & Queenes maiesties.WE the Lordes Spiritual, & Temporall, & the Commons of this present Parlament assembled, representing the whole body of the Realme of England, and Dominions of the same, in our owne names par-

ticularly, and also of the sayd body vniuersally in this Supplication directed to your Maiestyes, wyth most humble suite, that it may by your gracious intercession and meane bee exhybyted to the most Reuerende Father in God, the Lorde Cardinall Poole Legate, sent specially hyther from our most holy Father Pope Iulio the thirde, and the Sea Apostolike of Rome, MarginaliaO great sorow and deepe repentaunce.doe declare our selues very sory and repentaunt for the Schisme and disobedience committed in this Realme and the Dominions of the same, agaynst the sayd Sea Apostolyke, eyther by makyng, agreeing, or executyng any Lawes, Ordinaunces, or Commaundementes agaynst the Supremacie of the sayd Sea, or otherwyse doing or speakyng that might impugne the same: Offeryng our selues, and promising by this our Supplication, that for a token and knowledge of our sayd repentaunce, wee bee and shall bee alway ready, vnder and wyth the authorities of your Maiesties, to the vttermost of our power, to doe that shall bee in vs, for the abrogation and repealing of the sayd Lawes and Ordinaunces in this present Parliament, as well for our selues, as for the whole body, whom we represent.

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Where vpon we most humbly besech your Maiesties, as person vndefyled in the offence of this body towardes the sayd Sea, which neuerthelesse God by his prouydence hath made subiect to your Maiestyes: MarginaliaThe Popes absolution can not come, but by intercession of kinges and to set foorth this our most humble suite, that we may obtayne from the Sea Apostolyke, by the sayd most Reuerend Father, as well particularly as vniuersally, Absolution, Release, and Discharge from all daunger of such Censures, & sentences, as by the Lawes of the Church, we be fallen in: and that we may, as Children repentaunt, be receaued into the bosome and vnity of Christes Church, so as this noble Realme, wyth all the members thereof, may in vnity and perfect obedience to the Sea Apostolike, and Popes for the tyme being, serue God and your Maiesties, to the furtheraunce and aduauncement of his honour, and glory. Amen.

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The Supplication being read, the King & Queene delyuered the same vnto the Cardinall, MarginaliaThe supplication geuen vp by the king and Queene to the Cardinall. who (perceyuyng the effect thereof to aunswere hys expectation) dyd receiue the same most gladly from their Maiesties: and after hee had in fewe woordes geuen thankes to God, and declared what great cause hee had to reioice aboue all others, that his comming from Rome into England had taken most happy successe: hee by the Popes authority did geue them this absolution folowing.

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¶ An absolution pronounced by Cardinall Poole, to the whole Parliament of England, in the presence of the Kyng and Queene. 
Commentary  *  Close

The description of Pole's absolution of parliament (in response to its submission) does not come from Elder. A copy of the absolution (in an English translation identical to Foxe's) survives in Foxe's papers (cf. Inner Temple Library, Petyt MS 538/47, fol. 39r with 1563, p. 1011; 1570, p. 1649; 1576, p. 1407; 1583, p. 1478). The account of the absolution being read was probably based on notes made by an eyewitness. The text of the absolution itself was probably translated from a contemporary tract, the Copia delle lettere del Serenissimo Re d'Inghilterra et del Reverendissimo Card. Polo Legato della S. Sede Apostolica alla Santita di N. S. Iulio Papa III sopra la reduttione di quel Regno alla unione della Santa Madre chiefa et obedienza della Sede Apostolica (Rome, 1554), sig. A6r-v. As was so often the case, the Latin original of the absolution was printed, along with a translation, in 1563, but was dropped from later editions.

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MarginaliaAbsolutiō from the Pope geuē to the Realme of England.OVr Lord Iesus Christ, which with his most precious bloud hath redemed and washed vs from all our sinnes and iniquities, that hee might purchase vnto hym selfe a glorious Spouse wythout spot or wrinckle, and whom the father hath appointed head ouer all his Church: he by his mercy absolue you. MarginaliaChristes absolution not sufficient, without the Popes be ioyned withall.And we by Apostolike authoritie, geuen vnto vs by the most holy Lorde Pope Iulius the thyrd, (hys Vicegerent in earth) do absolue and delyuer you and euery of you, wyth the whole Realme and the Dominions thereof, from all Heresy and Schisme, and from al and euery iudegmentes, Censures, and paynes, for that cause incurred: and also wee do restore you agayne, vnto the vnyty of our mother the holy Church: as in our Letters more playnly it shal appeare: In the name of the Father, of the Sonne, & of the holy Ghost.

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MarginaliaEngland brought from Gods blessing to the warme Sunne.When all thys was done, they went into the Chappell, and there syngyng Te Deum, wyth great solemnity, declared the ioy and gladnes that for thys reconciliation was pretended.

The reporte of this was wyth great speede sent vnto Rome, as well by the Kyng and Cardinals letters, which hereafter follow: as also otherwyse. MarginaliaGreat ioy at Rome for the conuersion of England.Whereupon the Pope caused there at Rome, Processions to be made, and thankes to be geuen to God with great ioye, for the conuersion of England to hys Church: and therefore praising the Cardinals diligence, and the deuotion of the Kyng and Queene, on Christmas

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