Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 45. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 46. John Aleworth 47. Martyrdom of James Abbes 48. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 49. Richard Hooke 50. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 51. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 52. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 53. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 54. Martyrdom of William Haile 55. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 56. William Andrew 57. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 58. Samuel's Letters 59. William Allen 60. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 61. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 62. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 63. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 64. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 65. Cornelius Bungey 66. John and William Glover 67. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 68. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 69. Ridley's Letters 70. Life of Hugh Latimer 71. Latimer's Letters 72. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed73. More Letters of Ridley 74. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 75. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 76. William Wiseman 77. James Gore 78. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 79. Philpot's Letters 80. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 81. Letters of Thomas Wittle 82. Life of Bartlett Green 83. Letters of Bartlett Green 84. Thomas Browne 85. John Tudson 86. John Went 87. Isobel Foster 88. Joan Lashford 89. Five Canterbury Martyrs 90. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 91. Letters of Cranmer 92. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 93. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 94. William Tyms, et al 95. Letters of Tyms 96. The Norfolk Supplication 97. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 98. John Hullier 99. Hullier's Letters 100. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 101. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 102. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 103. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 104. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 105. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 106. Gregory Crow 107. William Slech 108. Avington Read, et al 109. Wood and Miles 110. Adherall and Clement 111. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 112. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow113. Persecution in Lichfield 114. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 115. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 116. Examinations of John Fortune117. John Careless 118. Letters of John Careless 119. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 120. Agnes Wardall 121. Peter Moone and his wife 122. Guernsey Martyrdoms 123. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 124. Martyrdom of Thomas More125. Examination of John Jackson126. Examination of John Newman 127. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 128. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 129. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 130. John Horne and a woman 131. William Dangerfield 132. Northampton Shoemaker 133. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 134. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1770 [1731]

Queene Mary. The Vicar of Crondall falling out of the pulpit. The story of George Marsh.

Marginalia1555. Aprill.was sent to England, he sayd, he thanked God that euer he had lyued to see that day, addyng moreouer that he beleued that by the vertue of that Bull he was as cleane from sinne, as that night that he was borne: MarginaliaBlasphemy to Christes Gospell punished.

MarginaliaThe sodaine death of one Nightingall Parson of Crondall in Kent, who was made by the Cardinals authoritie chiefe Penitentiary of that Deanry.¶ The description of a Popish Priest, who whē he had taken away the glory and office of Christ fell downe sodeinly and dyed.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
Like the burning of John Lawrence (1583, p. 1543) this image belongs to the small group of single-column cuts that were narrative and specific. The exemplary image of the popish priest of 'Crondall' (i.e. Crundale, Kent, in the diocese of Canterbury) illustrates the punishment that was visited on the preacher for applying words of St John to his papal bull of pardon. The depiction implies passive inertia on the part of the congregation who heard this message, rosaries in hand. But the church in which they sit has the features of a reformed building. Here and elsewhere (compare the burning of Tomkins' hand) the illustrators depict white glass with distinctive oval quarries, and in this case the plain windows, together with the pulpit, represent a properly reformed church. In fact St Mary's, Crundale, still has some fragments of its medieval stained glass.

and immediatly vpon the same fell sodenly downe out of the Puplit, and neuer styrred hand nor foote, and so lay he. Testified by Rob. Austen of Chartham 

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Nightingale was not named in the 1563 edition; instead he was identified, or misidentified, as the parson of 'Arundall in Canterbury'. Nor was the sermon quoted in the 1563 edition nor was Robert Austen mentioned in this edition. Clearly, Austen read the account in the 1563 edition and sent Foxe further details, clarifying and correcting the original account.

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which both heard and saw the same, and is witnessed also by the whole countrey round about.

¶ Iohn Awcocke. 
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The Martyrdom of John Alcock

There was a brief note in the Rerum stating that John Alcock died on 2 April 1555 in Newgate prison and was buried in the fields (p. 431). This note was reprinted in all editions of the Acts and Monuments, without change, except that Newgate was only mentioned in the Rerum.

This John Alcock, or Awcock, is very probably the Hadleigh shearman whose arrest and imprisonment is described elsewhere by Foxe. There is a manuscript copy of Alcock's answer to the privy council's interogation of him in Foxe's papers (BL, Lansdowne 389, fo. 212v).

MarginaliaAprill. 2. Iohn Awcocke, Martyr.IN the moneth of Aprill, and the second day of the same moneth, dyed in prison Iohn Awcocke, who after was buryed in the fieldes, as the maner of the Papists was to deny their Christian buriall to such as dyed out of their popish Antichristian Church.

A declaration of the lyfe, examimination and burning of George Marsh, who suffered most constant Martyrdome for the profeßion of the Gospell of Christ, at Westchester the 4. day of Aprill. An. 1555. 
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The Martyrdom of George Marsh

The information, and lack of information, on George Marsh in the Rerum is revealing. Foxe stated that Marsh was the curate of [Church] Langton and that he received the living from Laurence Saunders, the martyr, who was the rector of Church Langton. Foxe added that Marsh was burned on 24 April 1555 (Rerum, p. 432). He then stated that nothing else had reached him about Marsh apart from two letters, which are printed in Rerum, pp. 432-41. Once again, the Rerum was strong on documents but weak on oral sources and eyewitness accounts.

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In the 1563 edition, Foxe added the background on Marsh's early life, Marsh's own account of examinations by Bishop Cotes of Chester and an eyewitness account of Marsh's death and Cotes's sermon denouncing the martyr. In the second edition, Foxe added Marsh's account of his treatment and examinations by the earl of Derby and members of his household. (It is quite interesting that Marsh's accounts of his imprisonment and examinations by Derby first, and then by Bishop Cotes, came to Foxe at separate times and, presumably, from separate sources. The source for the information used in 1563 appears to have been in Chester. This is an important reminder of Foxe's dependence on informants, particularly informants who were able to send eyewitness accounts or material written by the martyrs themselves). Marsh's letter summarizing his examinations was also added to 1570, while Foxe shortened and modified his earlier account of Bishop Cotes's sermon against Marsh and its aftermath.

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The account of Marsh's martyrdom was unchanged in the third and fourth editions of the Acts and Monuments.


Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
George Marsh

As is usual, many of the glosses in this section describe the various stages of apprehension, interrogation and execution. Some of the glosses suggest Marsh's approximation to / imitation of Christ ('G. Marsh of his owne voluntary minde offereth himself to his enemies'; 'Peters counsell to Christ, to saue himselfe'; 'G. Marsh followeth Christes aunswere to Peter'). Opposed to him are the forces of Antichrist, characterised in the usual ways: Marsh is cruelly treated during his imprisonment (the favoured term is 'straitness') and is forced to do things asked of common criminals ('G. Marsh caused to hold vp his handes at Lancaster amongest other malefactours'; 'The vnmercifull straitenes of the Byshop toward G. Marsh in prison'; 'The strayt keeping of Marsh in prison'). Bishop Cotes is particularly disliked by Foxe. One gloss accuses Cotes of prejudice ('The B. iudgeth Marsh to be an hereticke, before he heareth him'), followed soon after with a series of glosses accompanying an account of bad bishops of the ancient church ('No new thing for Byshops to be persecutors', 'Examples of persecuting Bishops in the old tyme', 'Byshop Iasan', 'B. Annas and Cayphas'). There is a reference to the lustful demise of the bishop ('Gods iust reuenging hand vpō a persecuting Bishop'); the text reveals Foxe's source to have been rumour.

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Further attacks on the ungodly include a gloss pointing to the disloyalty of catholic nobles to Edward I ('The Earle of Darby, L. Windsor, and Lord Dacars in K. Edwards time agreed not to the Actes of Religion') and an attack on the blasphemous utterance of one of Marsh's detractors ('This blasphemous mouth of the parson of Grapnal'). There are also glosses objecting to the manner in which discussions with Marsh were conducted ('The Byshops clergy more able to examine than to dispute'; 'So sayth the Turke in his Alcaron that no man must dispute of his lawe'). These objections may have been motivated by Marsh's less than authoritative performance in the face of his interrogators. The glosses point to his reluctance to answer on the crucial question of the sacrament, and his later sense that this was due to a lack of boldness ('G. Marsh loth to aunswere to the question of transubstantiation'; 'Marsh troubled in his consciēce for being no more bolde touching the Sacrament'), a quality he eventually obtains ('G. Marsh strengthened in prison with the boldnes of Gods spirite').

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There is an interesting contrast between the glosses 'Neither the place nor person of the Pope spoken agaynst but onely his doctrine' and 'Gods mercy preferred before the Queenes mercy': the first reproduces Marsh's relatively sophisticated point that his dislike of the papacy is not to be taken as hatred for particular popes. The latter gloss emphasises his stark choice between the queen's authority and his faith. Unlike the earlier gloss, it omits his qualifications (in this case his loyalty to the queen in all but this), presenting the reader with the bare terms of his choice; the precedence of faith over political allegiance was too crucial a point to be obscured. Foxe occasionally sharpens or adds logical matters to Marsh's words ('Christes breaking of bread. Luke 24 proueth not the receiuing vnder one kinde'; 'Argument. Linus and Anacletus were good men. Ergo the Pope is the supreame head of all Churches'). Some glosses are out of position in the 1583 edition.

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MarginaliaApril. 24 George Marsh, Martyr.THe sayd George Marsh was borne in the parish of Deane, in the Countie of Lancaster, and was well brought vp in learning and honest trade of liuing by hys Parentes, who afterwardes about the. xxv yeare of hys age, tooke to wyfe an honest mayden of the countrey, with whom he continued earning their liuing vpon a farme, MarginaliaGeorge Marsh first a farmer. hauing chyldren betwene them lawfully begotten: and then God taking hys wyfe out of thys world, he being most desirous of godly studies (leauyng hys household and children in good order) went vnto the Vniuersitie of Cambridge, where he studied and much encreased in learning and godly vertues, and was a MarginaliaGeorge Marsh made Minister.Minister of Gods holy word and Sacramentes, and for a while was Curate to Laurence Saunders, as he him selfe reporteth. 
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Marsh was also the curate of Laurence Saunders' other living at All Hallow's Bread Street, London. Clearer evidence that Marsh's career was being fostered by powerful Edwardian protestants could not be desired.

In which condition of lyfe, hee continued for a space, earnestly settyng forth Gods true Religion, to þe defacyng of Antichristes false doctrine by hys godly readynges and Sermons, as well there and in the Parish of Deane, as els where in Lanckeshyre. Whereupon at length by detectiō of certeine aduersaries he was apprehended and kept in close prison by MarginaliaD. Cotes Byshop of Chester, a persecuter.George Cotes,

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MarginaliaGeorge Marsh detected.thē Bishop of Chester, MarginaliaGeorge Cotes Bishop of Chester persecuter. in streit prison in Chester, within the precinct of the Byshops house, about the space of iiij. monethes, beyng not permitted to haue relief and comfort of his frendes: but charge beyng giuen vnto the Porter to marke who they were that asked for him and to signifie their names vnto the Byshop, as by the particular description of his story testified and recorded with his own penne, more euidently may appeare in the processe here vnder folowyng.

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¶ The handlyng, intreatyng, and examination of George Marshe, beyng sent first by the Earle of Derby to Doct. Cotes Byshop of Chester.

MarginaliaThe examination of George Marsh, written with his own hand.ON the Monday before Palme Sonday, which was the xij. day of March, it was told me at my mothers house that Rog. Wrinstone with other of M. Bartons seruauntes did make diligent search for me in Bolton, 

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It becomes clear, later in this account, that the earl of Derby ordered that a determined search be made for Marsh. This suggests that Marsh had been quite active preaching in the area of Bolton, Lancashire, where he clearly had friends, family and a network of supporters.

and when they perceiued that I was not there, they gaue straite charge to Roger Ward and Rob. Marsh to find & bring me to MarginaliaM. Barton Gentleman, a persecutour.M. Barton the day next folowing, with others, to be brought before the honorable Earle of Darby to be examined in matters of Religiō. &c.

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I knowing this by relation of diuers of my frendes, was diuersly affected, MarginaliaGeorge Marsh aduertised by his frendes to mother and other my frēdes aduertising me to flye and to auoyde the perill, which thing I had intended afore after a weeke then next ensuyng, if this in the meane while had not chaunced, seing, that if I were takē and would not recant in matters of Religion, (as they thought I would not, and as God strēgthening & assistyng me with his holy spirite I neuer wil) it would not onely haue put thē to great sorrow, heauines, & losses, with costes & charges, to their shame and rebuke in this worlde, but also myne own self after troublous & painfull prisonmēt, vnto shamefull death.

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This considered, they aduised and counselled me to depart and flye the countrey, as I had intended to haue done if this had not happened. MarginaliaG. Marsh in a perplexity whether to flye or to tary.To whose counsell my weake flesh would gladly haue consented, but my spirite did not fully agree: thynking and saying thus to my selfe: that if I fled so away, it would be thought, reported, and sayd, that I did not onely flye the countrey and my nearest and dearest frendes: but much rather frō Christes holy word, accordyng as these yeares past I had with my hart, or at least with myne outward liuyng professed, & with my mouth & word taught, accordyng to the small talent giuen me of the Lord. I beyng thus with their aduise and counsell, and the cogitations and counsailes of myne owne mynde drawen, as it were, diuers wayes, went from my mothers house, saying I would come agayne at euenyng.

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In the meane tyme I ceased not by earnest prayer to aske and seeke counsaile of God MarginaliaGeorge Marsh consulteth with God. (who is the geuer of all good giftes) and of other my frendes, whose godly Iudgementes and knowledge I much trusted vnto. After this I mette with one of my sayd frendes on Deane Moore about sūne goyng down: & after we had consulted together of my busines, not without harty prayer kneelyng on our knees, we departed, I not fully determining what to do, but takyng my leaue with my frend, sayd I doubted not but God (accordyng as our prayer and trust was) would geue me such wisedome and counsaile, as should be most to his honour and glory, the profite of my neighbours and brethren in the world, and obtainyng of myne eternall saluation by Christ in heauen.

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This done, I returned to my mothers house agayn, where had bene diuers of M. Bartons seruauntes seeking after me: who when they could not find me, straitly charged MarginaliaMarshes brethren charged to seeke brother and William Marsh to seeke me that night, & to bring me to Smethehilles the next day: who beyng so charged were gone to seeke me in Adderton, or elswhere I know not. Thus intendyng afore to haue bene all night with my mother, but then considering that my tarying there would disquiet her with

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