Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 45. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 46. John Aleworth 47. Martyrdom of James Abbes 48. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 49. Richard Hooke 50. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 51. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 52. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 53. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 54. Martyrdom of William Haile 55. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 56. William Andrew 57. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 58. Samuel's Letters 59. William Allen 60. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 61. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 62. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 63. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 64. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 65. Cornelius Bungey 66. John and William Glover 67. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 68. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 69. Ridley's Letters 70. Life of Hugh Latimer 71. Latimer's Letters 72. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed73. More Letters of Ridley 74. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 75. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 76. William Wiseman 77. James Gore 78. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 79. Philpot's Letters 80. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 81. Letters of Thomas Wittle 82. Life of Bartlett Green 83. Letters of Bartlett Green 84. Thomas Browne 85. John Tudson 86. John Went 87. Isobel Foster 88. Joan Lashford 89. Five Canterbury Martyrs 90. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 91. Letters of Cranmer 92. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 93. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 94. William Tyms, et al 95. Letters of Tyms 96. The Norfolk Supplication 97. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 98. John Hullier 99. Hullier's Letters 100. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 101. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 102. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 103. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 104. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 105. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 106. Gregory Crow 107. William Slech 108. Avington Read, et al 109. Wood and Miles 110. Adherall and Clement 111. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 112. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow113. Persecution in Lichfield 114. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 115. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 116. Examinations of John Fortune117. John Careless 118. Letters of John Careless 119. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 120. Agnes Wardall 121. Peter Moone and his wife 122. Guernsey Martyrdoms 123. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 124. Martyrdom of Thomas More125. Examination of John Jackson126. Examination of John Newman 127. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 128. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 129. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 130. John Horne and a woman 131. William Dangerfield 132. Northampton Shoemaker 133. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 134. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1797 [1758]

Quene Mary. The story and Examinations of Thomas Haukes, Martyr.

MarginaliaAn. 1555. Iune.neyther speake for hym selfe, nor did (as they sayd) sufficiently aunswer them by the other, to auoid the name of an heretick: first witnesses 

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In the 1563 edition, Foxe published these depositions; in all subsequent editions he simply listed the witnesses. This was another case where documents were elimated from the 1570 edition due to a shortage of paper.

were producted agaynst hym, whose names were MarginaliaWitnes against Ioh. Tooly.Henry Clarke Esquier, Thomas Way Keeper of the Marshalsey, Phillip Andrew Vndermarshall, William Holyngworth Fyshmonger, William Gellard, William Walton Chandelor, Richard Longman Marchant Taylour, Phillyp Brytten, Iohn Burton Bruer, Thomas Smith Sergeant. Then he was for an hereticke condemned, and so MarginaliaTooly geuen to the secular power.committed to the secular power, namely to the Sheriffes of London, which with like diligēce went about to execute theyr charge. Therefore receiuing the man being suspended, excommunicated, condemned as an hereticke, and besides that being dead, they layd him on the fier to bee burned, namely ad perpetuam rei memoriam, for a continuall remembraunce therof. This was done the. iiij. day of Iune. 
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This is Foxe's mistake; Tooley was (posthumously) condemned for heresy on 4 May 1555 (PRO, C/85/127, fol. 7r).

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Here followeth the story and martyrdome of the worthy seruant of Christ Thomas Haukes Gentleman, wyth hys examinations and aunswers had with B. Boner, recorded and penned with his own hand. 
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The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes

The Rerum contains an acccount of Haukes's background and life (p. 445), which is reprinted in all editions of the Acts and Monuments. The Rerum continues with a relatively brief account of Haukes's final examination by Bonner, his condemnation and his journey back to Essex to be burned (Rerum, pp. 445-46). This material was reprinted in the 1563 edition (on p. 1162) but dropped thereafter to be replaced by a more detailed account. The Rerum also contains an account of Haukes's execution, which was reprinted in all versions of the Acts and Monuments and his two 'private' examinations by Bonner (Rerum, pp. 446-62). All of this was fairly typical of the material Grindal assembled for the Rerum: a collection of documents, usually written by the martyr, supplemented with biographical material from oral sources. Two copies of Haukes's account of his 'private' examinations remain in Foxe's papers: BL, Lansdowne 389, fos. 13r-27r and 171r-182v.

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The account of Haukes in the 1563 edition was essentially a reprinting of the material in the Rerum, although the arrangement of this material was different and rather unusual: Haukes's examinations were printed before the details of Haukes's life and martyrdom were given. In the 1570 edition, Foxe rearranged the order of material, placing it in chronological order, with Haukes's life now followed by his examination and then by the details of his martyrdom. Foxe also replaced the public examinations of Haukes by Bonner, and the martyr's condemnation, with material drawn from Bonner's official record. (This material, probably kept in a court book, is now lost).

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Foxe reprinted the 1570 account of Haukes without any significant alteration in the third and fourth editions of the Acts and Monuments.


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Thomas Hawkes

Many of the glosses draw attention to stages in the narrative and also matters under discussion; indeed Hawkes' is one of the more disputational lives, and the margins reflect this fact. Some of the glosses take specific points made by Hawkes in arguments with his interrogators and draw out the general principles inherent in them ('Fecknam maketh euery act spoken of in the new Testament to be a ceremony'; 'The wordes of Christ are to be vnderstand, not as he spake , but as he ment thē'). The gloss 'Other doctrine taught in the Church of Rome then euer Paule taught' makes Hawkes' point clearer for the reader, and there are also glosses highlighting poor attempts at exegesis by Bonner and Fecknam ('See how Boner proueth holy water by the scripture'; 'Elizeus put salt in the water, not to washe away sinne, but onely to make the water sweete'; 'Boner proueth holy bread by the 5. loaues and 3. fishes'; 'Fecknams reason lyeth in Paules Breches'). In short, Foxe's margins are in some respects similar to those we find in the Oxford disputations sections; he also includes a comment of his own about the sacrament that is not indicated by the text ('It is his sacramentall body, or the Sacramēt of his body, but not his true body'). Bonner gets his usual criticism, his pride and anger both drawing marginal comments ('Boner looked to be curtised'; 'Boner in a fume with Thomas Haukes'), while another gloss uses the disparaging term 'coniure' in relation to his persuasion of Baget ('Boner taketh Baget with him aside to coniure him'). A gloss emphasises his assertion that he is no preacher ('B. Boner iudgeth other men by his own sore'). The limitations of papist debating skills are highlighted ('Boner whē he can not ouercome by doctrine, goeth about to oppresse by authoritie'; 'Fecknam falleth out of his matter to rayling'). The solidity of Hawkes' profession is emphasised in the use twice of the gloss 'Thomas Haukes builded his fayth vpon no man'. The gloss 'Thomas Haukes standing at the stake reasoneth with the Lord Rich' uses the surprising term 'reasoneth' to describe Hawkes' mode of speaking at the stake: a more biblical term might have been expected. There are various errors of placing, with 1570 (as is usual) more accurate in comparison to later editions.

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MarginaliaThe story of M. Thomas Haukes, Martyr.YMmediatly after the story ofD. Tailour, pag. 1705. MarginaliaRead before pag. 1705. mention before was made of. vj. men brought and cōuented before Bishop Boner vpon the. viij. day of February. The names of which Martyrs were Steuen Knight, William Pigot, Tho. Tomkins, Iohn Laurence, William Hunter. In which number was also Thomas Haukes, and condēned lykewyse wyth them the. ix. day of the foresayd moneth of February. But because hys execution did not so shortly folow with theirs, but was prolonged to this present. x. day of the moneth of Iune, wherewith wee are now in hand, it followeth therfore now consequētly to enter tractation thereof, fyrst begynning briefly wyth hys godly conuersation and institution of lyfe, then shewing of hys troubles, also of his examinations and conflictes with the bishop and other aduersaries, according as the order of story doth require.

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As touching therefore hys education and order of lyfe, MarginaliaThe lyfe and conuersation of Tho. Haukes.fyrst he was of the countrey of Essex, borne of an honest stocke, in callyng and profession a Courtier, brought vp daintely from hys chyldhoode, and lyke a Gentleman. Besides that, he was of such comelynes and stature, so well endued wyth excellent qualities, that he myght seeme on euery side a man (as it were) made for the purpose. But hys gentle behauiour toward other, and especially hys feruent study and singular loue vnto true religion and godlynes dyd surmount all þe reast. Wherin as God did singularly adorne hym: euen so he beyng such a valiant Martyr of God, may seeme to nobilitate þe whole cōpany of other holy Martyrs, and as a bright starre, to make the church of God and hys truth, of them selues bright and cleare, more gloriously to shyne by hys example. For if MarginaliaThe victory of Martyrs, is the triumph of Christ. Ambrose.þe conquests of Martyrs are the triūphes of Christ (as S. Ambrose doth notably and truely wryte) vndoubtedly Christ in few men hath eyther conquered more notably, or triumphed more gloriously, then in thys yong man: hee stoode so wysely in hys cause, so godly in hys lyfe, and so constantly in hys death.

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But to the declaration of the matter: first thys Haukes, following the guise of the Court, as he grew in yeares, MarginaliaTho. Haukes first in seruice with the Earle of Oxford.entred seruice wyth the Lord of Oxforde, where he remayned a good space, beyng ther ryght wel esteemed and loued of all the houshold, so long as Edward the sixt lyued. But he dying, al thinges began to go backward, religion to decay, godlynes not onely to waxe colde, but also to bee in daunger euerywhere, and chiefly in the houses of great men. Haukes mysliking the state of thinges, and especially in such mens houses, rather then he would chaunge the profession of

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true godlynes which he had tasted, thought to chaūge the place: and so MarginaliaHaukes compelled to leaue the the Earle of Oxfords house.forsaking the noble mans house, departed home to hys own home, where more freely hee might geue him self to God, & vse hys own conscience.

But what place in this world shall a man finde so secrete for hym selfe, whether that old wycked Serpent 

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I.e., the Devil.

can not creepe, whereby hee may haue some matter to ouerthrow þe quietnes of the godly? Now in the meane season (as it happened) Haukes keeping hys house at home, had borne vnto hym a young sonne, MarginaliaHaukes child. iv. weekes vnchristened.whose baptisme was differred to the thyrd weeke, for þt he would not suffer hym to be baptised after þe papisticall maner. Which thing the aduersaries not able to suffer, laying handes vpon hym, did MarginaliaHaukes brought before the Earle.bring hym to the Earle of Oxford, there to be reasoned wyth, as not found in religion, in that he seemed to contemne the Sacraments of the Church.

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The Earle eyther not intending not to trouble him selfe 

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This sentence marks the beginning of Haukes's own account of his 'private' examinations. In the 1570 edition, Foxe rewrote this material slightly by changing the narrative from the first person to the third.

in such matters, or els seing hym selfe not able to weigh with hym in such cases of religion, MarginaliaHaukes sent vp by the Earle to Byshop Boner.sent hym vp to London, wyth a Messenger and letters, and so wylling to cleare hys own handes, put hym in the handes of Boner bishop of London: the contentes of which hys letter sent to Boner be these.

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¶ A letter of the Earle of Oxford to Boner. 
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This letter was part of Haukes's narrative does not come from any official archive.

MarginaliaThe Earles letter to Boner.MOst reuerēd father in God, be it knowen vnto you that I haue sent you one Thomas Haukes, dwelling in the Countie of Essex, who hath a child that hath remained vnchristined more thē three weekes, who beyng vppon the same examined, hath denyed to haue it Baptised, as it is now vsed in the Church: wherupon I haue sent him to your good Lordship to vse as ye thinke best, by your good discretion.

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When the Byshop had perused this letter, and afterward read it to M. Haukes, he hearyng the same, thought with hym selfe that he should not be very well vsed, seyng he was put to his discretion. Then wrote the Byshop a letter agayne to him that sent the prisoner, with many great thankes for his diligence in settyng forth the Queenes proceedynges. Then began the Bishop to enter communication with M. Haukes, first askyng what should moue hym to leaue his child vnchristened so long. To whom M. Haukes aunswered thus agayne as foloweth.

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MarginaliaPriuate talke or conference betwene Maister Haukes and Bish. Boner.Haukes. Because we be bound to do nothyng contrary to the word of God.

Boner. Why? Baptisme is commaunded by the word of God.

Haukes. His institution therin I do not deny.

Boner. What deny ye then?

Haukes. I deny all thynges inuented and deuised by man.

Boner. What thynges be those that be deuised by man, that ye be so offended withall?

Haukes. Your MarginaliaMans inuentions added to Baptisme.Oyle, Creame, Salt, Spettle, Candle, and coniuryng of water. &c.

Boner. Wil ye deny that, which all þe whole world, and MarginaliaThe forfathers.your father hath bene contented withall?

Haukes. What my father and all the whole world haue done, I haue nothyng to do withall: but what God hath commaunded me to do, to that stand I.

Boner. The Catholicke Church hath taught it.

Haukes. What is the Catholicke Church?

Boner. MarginaliaThe Catholicke Church.It is the faythfull congregation where soeuer it be dispersed throughout the whole world.

Haukes. Who is the head therof?

Boner. Christ is the head therof.

Haukes. Are we taught in Christ, or in the Church now.

Boner. Haue ye not read in the. viij. of Ioh. where he sayd, he would send his cōforter which should teach you all thynges?

Haukes. I graunt you it is so, that he would send his comforter, but to what end? forsooth to this ende,

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