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194 [194]

King Ethelwulfus. K. Ethelwulf. Ludouicus Pius. Frider. B.

ward beyng the onely sonne of Egbert was made king through the dispensation (as Fabian sayth) of Pope Pascalis, but þt can not be: MarginaliaA place in Fabian to be amēdedfor Paschalis thē was not Bishop: wherby by þe cōputation of time, it should rather seme to be Gregory the iiij. MarginaliaGuilise. lib. de gestis. pont. Anglor. sayth this Pope was Leo. iiii.This Athelwulph (as beyng himself once nuselled in that order) was alwaies good & deuout to holy church and religious orders. In somuch that he gaue to thē the tythe of all his goods & lands in Weastsaxonie, with libertie and fredome from all seruage and ciuil charges. Wherof, his charte or instrument beareth testimony, after this tenour proceding: much like to þe donatiō of Ethelbald9 king of þe Merciās, aboue mētioned.

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¶ The priuilegies and donations geuen by king Ethelwulfus, to the clergie.

Priuileges & tēporalities graunted to the church by kyng Etheluffe.
Ex Flor. hist.
REgnante Domino nostro imperpetuū. 

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Charter of Ethelwolf
Foxe text Latin

REgnante Domino nostro imperpetuū ... aliqua parte leigamus. &c.

Cattley-Pratt, Vol. II, page 15 has in addition to the Foxe text

Placuit autem episcopis ecclesiæ Scireburnensis Alstano, et Winton Switheno, cum suis abbatibus et Dei servis, viris scilicet et fœminis religiosis quibus supradicta collata sunt beneficia, consilia inire, ut omnes fratres et sorores omni hebdomada, die Mercurii, hoc est Wednesday, in unaquaque ecclesia cantent psalmos 50 et unusquisqu presbyter duas missas, unam pro rege, et aliam pro ducibus ejus in hunc modum consentientibus, pro salute et refrigerio delictorum suorum. Postquam autem defuncti fuerimus, pro rege defuncto singulariter, et pro ducibus communiter. Et hoc sit firmiter constitutum omnibus diebus Christianitatis, sicut libertas constituta est, quamdiu fides crescit in gente Anglorum. Scripta est autem hæc donationis charta, anno gratiæ 855 indictione quarta quinto nonas Noveb. in urbe Wentana ante majus altare beati Petri apostoli.

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[Ex Flor. Hist. (Lond. 1570, p. 307; Francof. 1601, p. 158. The Latin in the text is according to the printed copies, from which Foxe a little varies.]


John Wade, University of Sheffield

Our Lord Jesus Christ ruling for ever, in our times through the fires of wars, and the plunderings of our wealth, and also the most cruel depredations of barbarous enemies causing devastation, and the multiple tribulations of pagan nations afflicting us for our sins to our utter destruction, we see dangerous times pressing upon us. Therefore, I Ethelwulf, king of the West Saxons, together with the council of my bishops and chieftains, have affirmed a sound plan and uniform remedy: to grant some portion of my land to be held in everlasting right by God and the Blessed Mary and all the saints, namely a tenth part of my land, that it may be safe from burdens and free from all secular services, including greater and smaller royal payments, or taxes, which we call Witteredden: and may be free of all matters, for the remission of souls and my sins, to the service of God alone, without a campaign, the construction of a bridge, and the fortification of a citadel, so that they may the more diligently utter prayers without ceasing for us to God, by which we may in some way lighten their service. Moreover, it has pleased the bishops of the church, Alstan of Sherborne and Swithen of Winchester, with their abbots and servants of God, namely the religious men and women upon whom the above named benefits have been conferred, to devise plans, so that all the brothers and sisters each week on the day of Mercury, that is Wednesday, in each and every church should sing 50 psalms and each priest two masses, one for the king and the other for his leaders agreeing on this manner, for the salvation and consolation of their transgressions and, after we have died, individually for the dead king, and all together for the leaders. And let this be firmly established for all the days of Christianity, just as liberty has been established, for as long as the faith increases in the nation of the English. This charter of gift is written in the year of grace 855, in the fourth indiction, on the 1st November in the city of Winchester in front of the high altar of St Peter the Apostle.

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Dum in nostris temporibus per bellorum incēdia, et direptiones opum nostrarum, nec non et vastantium crudelissimas depredationes hostium, barbararum, paganarumq̀ gentium, multiplices tribulationes ad affligendum vsq̀ ad internecionem, tempora cernimus incumbere periculosa. Quamobrē, ego Ethelwulfus Rex occidentalium Saxonum cum consilio Episcoporum et principum meorum, consiliū salubre, et vniforme remedium affirmaui: vt aliquam portionem terrarū hæreditariam, Deo & sanctæ Mariæ, & omnibus sanctis iure perpetuo possidēdā cōcedā, scilicet partē terræ meæ, vt sit tuta et immunis ab omnibus secularibus seruicus, nec non regalibus tributis maioribus et minoribus siue taxationibus, quod nos dicim9 witereden: sitq̀ libera, omniq̀ rerū, pro remissione animarū et peccatorū hostrorū, ad Deo soli deseruiēdū sine expeditione, et pontis cōstructione, et arcis munitione: vt eo diligentius pro nobis ad Deum preces sine cessatione fundāt, quo eorum seruitutem in aliqua parte leuigamus. &c. Marginaliapro remis.
Note the blind ignorance & erroneous teaching in these dayes.

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Hereby may it appeare, how & when the churches of England, began first to be indued wyth temporalities & landes: also with priuilegies and exemptions enlarged. Moreouer (& that which specially is to be considered & lamented) what pernicious doctrine was this, wherewith they were led: thus to set remission of theyr sinnes, & remedy of their soules, in this donation & such other dedes of their deuotion, contrary to the information of Gods worde, and no small derogation to the crosse of Christ.

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These thinges thus done within the realme, then the sayd Ethelulfus the kyng, takyng hys iorney to Rome with Alured his yongest sonne, committed hym to the bringyng vp of pope Leo the iiij. where he also reedified the English schole at Rome: which beyng foūd by kyng Offa, or rather by Iue kyng of Mercians (as is in the flouers of hist. is affirmed) was lately in þe tyme of kyng Egbert hys father, consumed with fier. MarginaliaPeter pē through the whole realm graūted to Rome.
Money bestowed to burne day lyght.
Farther and besides, this kyng gaue and granted there vnto Rome, of euery fire house a peny to bee payed through his whole land, as kyng Iue in his dominion had done before. Also he gaue and graūted yearely to be payed to Rome 300. marks, þt is to the mainteinyng of the light of s. Peter. c. markes: to þe light of s. Paul. c. marks: to þe vse of þe pope also an other hūdreth. This don, returnīg home through Fraunce, maried ther Iudith the daughter of Carolus Caluus, the Frēch king: whō he restored afterward, contrary to the lawes of Westsaxōs, to the title and throne of a quene. For before, it was decreed emōg þe Westsaxons (by the occasiō of wicked Ethelburga, who poysoned Brigthricus her owne husbande) that after that, no kings wife ther should haue þe name or place of a quene.

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And for somuch as I haue here entred into the mention of Iudith, daughter of Carolus Caluus: the occasion therof putteth me in memory, here to insert by the way, a matter done: although not in thys Realme, yet not impertinent to thys ecclesiasticall historye. And first to deduce the narration hereof, from the first originall. The father of thys Carolus Caluus, whose name wasLudouicus, first of that name, called Pius King of Fraunce, had two wiues: wherof by the fyrst, hee had iij. sonnes, Lothary, Pepyn, and Lewes. Which three sonnes vnnaturallye and vnkindlye conspyring against theyr father, and hys second wife, with her sonne, their youngest brother, persecuted hym so: that through a certayne councel of Lordes spirituall and temporall: MarginaliaNote here the holy and holsome counsails and doyngs of the spirituall Lordes.they deposed the same their naturall and ryght godlye father, dispossessing and discharging him of all rule and dominion. Moreouer caused hym to renounce hys temporall habite, inclosing hym in the Monasterye of S. Marke, for a Monke or rather a prisoner. All which done, they deuided hys Empyre and kingdome amonge themselues. Thus was MarginaliaLudouicus Pius, Emperor & kyng of Frāce.Ludouicus Pius, of impious sonnes left desolate. But the power of God, which worketh whan all earthly power ceaseth, of hys diuine mercye so ayded and recouered hym out of all thys tribulation to hys imperiall dignitie agayne: that it was to all his enemyes confusion, and to all good men a miracle. But thys by the waye. By hys second wyfe whose name was Iudith, he had thys Charles the Balld here mentioned. Which Iudith was thought and so accused to the Pope, to be within such degree of alliaunce: that by the Popes lawe, shee might not continue hys wife without the Popes dispensation. It so fell out in the meane tyme, that thys Ludouicus the Emperour, had promoted a young man named MarginaliaFriderike bish. of Vtrike.Frederike to be bishop of Vtrike: and to hym had geuen sadde and good exhortation, that he remembryng and following the constancie of hys predecessors, woulde maintaine right & truth without all exception of any person, and punishe misdoers with excommunication, as well the riche as the poore, with such like words of godly coūsaile. Frederike hearing the king thus to say, sitting at dinner with him, as the maner was being newly inuested, in these words aunswered to the Emperour agayne. I thanke your maiestie sayth he, which with your so wholesome exhortation putteth me in minde of my profession. But I beseche you of your benigne fauour and pacience, that I may freely disclose, that which hath long encōbred and pearced my conscience. To whome leaue being geuen, thus he began: MarginaliaBishop Friderike openly admonisheth the Emperour at the table.I pray you (Lorde Emperour) to shewe me herein your minde (poynting to the fishe before him) whether is it more according to attame this fishe here present, beginning fyrst at þe head or at the tayle. What a tale is thys, quod the Emperour, of the taile, and of the head: At the head quod he. Then Frederike taking therof hys occasion, proceedeth: Euen so let it be (Lorde Emperour) sayth he, as you haue sayd. Let Christian fayth and charitie fyrst beginne with your self, as with the head, admonishing you to cease from your fact, and errour: þt your subiectes by your example, be not boldened to followe your misdoing. Wherfore first foresake you, your vnlawfull wedlocke which you haue made with Iudith MarginaliaNote, there wer ii. Iudiths one the mother of Carolus caluus, the other his daughter, whom K. Ethelwulf dyd marry.your neare kinswoman. These wordes of the new Byshop, although they moued Ludouicus the Emperour not a litle: yet he, with a gentle modestie, and modest silence was contented, suffering the Byshop to go home in peace. But the word being vttered in such an audience coulde not so be concealed, but spred and braste out in much talke in the whole court: and especially among the bishops, cōsulting earnestly with them selues about the matter. Through whose counsaile and labour so at length it fell, that the Emperour was constrayned to leaue the companye of hys wife, till he had purchased a licence of the Bishop of Rome, to reteine her agayne: who then forgaue the sayd Bishop all that was paste. But the woman, hyred two Knightes þt slew hym in his vestmentes, when he had ended hys Masse. MarginaliaFriderike bishop of Vtrike iudged of som a Martyr.Ranulfus, and Guliel. Libro de pontificib geue forth thys storye in hys greate commendation to dye a Martyr. Wherof, I haue not to iudge, nor here to pronoūce: but

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