Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 45. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 46. John Aleworth 47. Martyrdom of James Abbes 48. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 49. Richard Hooke 50. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 51. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 52. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 53. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 54. Martyrdom of William Haile 55. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 56. William Andrew 57. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 58. Samuel's Letters 59. William Allen 60. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 61. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 62. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 63. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 64. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 65. Cornelius Bungey 66. John and William Glover 67. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 68. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 69. Ridley's Letters 70. Life of Hugh Latimer 71. Latimer's Letters 72. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed73. More Letters of Ridley 74. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 75. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 76. William Wiseman 77. James Gore 78. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 79. Philpot's Letters 80. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 81. Letters of Thomas Wittle 82. Life of Bartlett Green 83. Letters of Bartlett Green 84. Thomas Browne 85. John Tudson 86. John Went 87. Isobel Foster 88. Joan Lashford 89. Five Canterbury Martyrs 90. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 91. Letters of Cranmer 92. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 93. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 94. William Tyms, et al 95. Letters of Tyms 96. The Norfolk Supplication 97. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 98. John Hullier 99. Hullier's Letters 100. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 101. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 102. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 103. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 104. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 105. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 106. Gregory Crow 107. William Slech 108. Avington Read, et al 109. Wood and Miles 110. Adherall and Clement 111. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 112. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow113. Persecution in Lichfield 114. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 115. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 116. Examinations of John Fortune117. John Careless 118. Letters of John Careless 119. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 120. Agnes Wardall 121. Peter Moone and his wife 122. Guernsey Martyrdoms 123. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 124. Martyrdom of Thomas More125. Examination of John Jackson126. Examination of John Newman 127. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 128. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 129. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 130. John Horne and a woman 131. William Dangerfield 132. Northampton Shoemaker 133. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 134. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1961 [1922]

Quene Mary. The last examinations of B. Ridley and M. Latimer, Martyrs.

MarginaliaAn. 1555. October.Touchyng the memorable Actes and doyngs of this worthy mā, among many other this is not to be neglected, what a bold enterprise he attempted in sendyng to kyng Henry a present: the maner whereof was this. 

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This implausible story first appeared in an appendix to the 1563 edition (p. 1734) and was integrated into the section containing Latimer's letters in the 1570 edition.

There was then, & yet remayneth still, an old custome receiued from þe old Romanes, that vpon Newyeares day, beyng the first day of Ianuary, euery Bishop with some hādsome Newyeares gift should gratifie þe kyng: & so they did, some with gold, some with siluer, some with a purse full of money, & some one thyng and some an other: but M. Latimer beyng Byshop of Worcester then, among the rest presented MarginaliaM. Latymers Newyeares gift sent to K. Henry.a new Testament for his Newyeares gift, with a napkyn hauing this posie about it: Fornicatores & adulteros iudicabit Dominus. 
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A letter from Latimer to Mistress Wilkinson of London, quoting from Hebrews, 13. 4.
Foxe text Latin

Fornicatores & adulteros iudicabit Dominus.

Foxe text translation

Not translated.

Translation (Wade 2003)

God will judge fornicators and adulterers.

Actual text of Hebrews, 13. 4. (Vulgate)

fornicatores enim et adulteros iudicabit Deus.

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And thus hast thou, gētle reader, the whole lyfe, both of M. Rydley, and of M. Latymet, two worthy doers in the Church of CHRIST, seuerally and by them selues set forth and described with all their doynges, writynges, disputations, sufferynges, theyr paynfull trauails, faythfull preachynges, studious seruice in CHRISTES Church, their pacient imprisonment, and constant fortitude in that which they had taught, with all other their procedynges frō time to tyme, since their first springyng yeares, to this present tyme and moneth of Queene Mary, beyng the moneth of October. an. 1555. MarginaliaB. Ridley, & M. Latymer brought forth to examinatiō. MarginaliaOctober. 1.In the which moneth they were both brought forth together to their finall examination and execution. Wherfore, as we haue heretofore declared both their lyues seuerally and distinctly one from the other, so now ioyntly to couple them both together as they were together ioyned in one societie of cause and Martyrdome, we will by the grace of CHRIST prosecute the rest that remaineth concernyng their latter examination, disgradyng, and constant sufferyng, with þe order & maner also of the Cōmissioners, which were MarginaliaM. White B. of Lincolne M. Brokes B. of Glocester the Popes deputies.M. White Byshop of Lyncolne, M. Brokes Bishop of Glocester, with others: and what were their wordes, their obiections, their Oratiōs there vsed, and what agayne were the aunsweres of these men to the same, as in processe here foloweth to be seene.

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¶ The order and maner of the examinatiō of Doctor Ridley and Master Latimer, had the. xxx. day of September. 1555. 
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The Final Examinations and Martyrdoms of Ridley and Latimer

There were relatively brief accounts of the examinations of Ridley and Latimer, on both 30 September and 1 October, in the Rerum (pp. 705-08). These accounts were clearly based on the commission to examine the two bishops, the articles on which they were interrogated and brief versions of their replies. Foxe obviously had copies of the first two documents in exile, supplemented with what may well have been a copy one of the notarial records of the examinations. Curiously, there was nothing in the Rerum on the condemnation and degradation of Ridley and Latimer and only a terse note of their executions (Rerum, p. 538).

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This deficiency was made good in the 1563 edition. The entire accounts of the examinations, condemnations, and executions of the two martyrs were first printed in this edition as well as the accounts of Ridley's degradation and his behaviour on his final night on earth. These accounts, apart from one famous, almost certainly apocryphal, remark first attributed to Latimer in the 1570 edition,were substantially unchanged in subsequent editions.

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What were Foxe's sources for this wealth of information? Ridley's examinations may have been written by Ridley himself; if not, they were certainly written by a co-religionist. But Ridley could not have recorded Latimer's examinations as he was not present at them; they were probably recorded by a sympathetic observer, quite possibly at Ridley's instruction. (They do not appear to have been written by Latimer himself; for one thing, the detailed descriptions of Latimer's dress and appearance suggest that the bishop did not describe his own examinations). Ridley's condemnation, degradation, behaviour in his final days and his execution were all recounted to Foxe by George Shipside, Ridley's devoted brother-in-law. (Shipside is specifically mentioned as being present on each of these occasions and the accounts frequently address a concern of his: Ridley's efforts to have leases bestowing property on Shipside's wife honoured by Mary). Augustine Bernher, Latimer's amanuensis, was very probably present at the bishops's execution and he may well have been a source for Foxe as well.

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MarginaliaThe last examination of B. Ridley & M. Latymer.FIrst, after the appearing of Tho. Cranmer Archbishop of Cant. before the Popes Delegate, and the Queenes Commissioners in S. Maries Church at Oxford, about the. xij. day of September, whereof more shall be sayd (by the Lords grace) when wee come to the death of the said Archbishop: shortly after, vpon the xxviij. day of the sayd moneth of September, was sent downe to Oxford an other Commission 

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From here down to the words 'all such heresy and schism' Foxe is clearly quoting from the commission to examine the bishops.

from Cardinall Pole Legate a latere,  
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There are three types of papal (personal representatives of the pope): a legatus natus, a nuncio and a legate à latere. A legatus natus is the holder of an office (e.g., the archbishopric of Canterbury before the reformation) which automatically confers legatine status on the officeholder. Today a numcio is a diplomatic representaive from the Holy See, but in the sixteenth century he was a papal official with the authority to collect revenue due to the papacy from a particular province. Legates à latere acted as deputies for the pope on important missions. They have full papal power in much the same way as a viceroy has royal powers. The trials of Ridley and Latimer were conducted under Cardinal Pole's legatine authority.

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to Iohn White, bish. of Lincolne, to Doct. Brokes bishop of Glocester, and to doctor Holyman, bishop of Bristow. The contentes & vertue of which cōmission was, MarginaliaThe effect of the Cardinals commission sent downe to Oxford.that the sayd Iohn of Lincolne, Iames of Glocester, and Iohn of Bristow, they or two of them, should haue full power and authority to ascite, examine, and iudge M. Hugh Latimer, and M. Doctor Ridley, pretensed 
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Mary's government refused to accept the validity of ordinations conducted under the 1550 ordinal, which included the episcopal ordinations of Latimer and Ridley.

Bishops of Worcester and London, for diuers and sundry erronious opinions, which the sayd Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley dyd hold and mayntaine in open disputations had in Oxford in the monethes of May, Iune, and Iuly, in the yeare of our Lord. 1554, as long before in the time of perdition,  
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The period between Henry VIII's break with Rome and Mary's accession.

and sithen. The which opinions if the named persons would now recant, geuyng and yelding them selues to the determination of the vniuersal and catholicke church, planted by Peter in the blessed sea of Rome, that then the deputed Iudges by the sayd authority of their commission should haue power to receyue the sayd penitent persons, and forthwyth minister to them the reconciliation of the holy father the

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Pope: but if the sayd Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley would stoutly & stubburnly defend and mayntayne these their erronious assertiōs, that then the said Lords by their commission, should proceede in forme of iudgement according to the law of Heretickes, that is, degrading them from their promotion and dignity of Bishops, Priestes, and all other ecclesiasticall orders, shoulde pronounce them as Hereticks, and therefore cleane to cut them of from the Church, and so to yelde them to receaue punishment, due to all such heresye and schisme.

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MarginaliaD. Ridley & Master Latymer ascited to appeare, the last of Septemb.Wherfore, the last of September, the said two persons Nicolas Ridley and Hugh Latimer were ascited to appeare before the sayd Lords, in þe diuinitie schoole at Oxford, at. viij. of the clocke. At what tyme thyther repayred the Lordes, 

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The bishops trying Ridley and Latimer: Bishop White of Lincoln, Bishop Brooks of Gloucester and Bishop Holyman of Bristol.

placing them selues in an hygh seate, made for publicke lectures and disputations, according to the vsage of that schole, being then fayre set, and trimmed with cloth of Tissewe and cushynges of veluet: and after the sayd Lords were placed and set, the sayd Latimer and Ridley were sent for: and fyrst appeared M. Doctour Ridley, and anon M. Latimer. But because it seemed good seuerally  
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to examine them, M. Latimer was kept backe, vntyll Doctor Ridley was throughly examined. Therefore soone after the comming of D. Ridley into the schoole, the Commission was published by an appointed Notary, and openly read. But Doct. Ridley standing bare headed, humbly expecting the cause of that his appearance, MarginaliaB. Ridley putteth on hys cap, at hearing of the Popes name.eftsones 
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as he had heard the Cardinall named and the Popes holynes, put on hys cap. Wherefore after the commission was published in forme and sense aboue specified, the B. of Lincolne spake in sense following.

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MarginaliaThe wordes of the Bishop of Lincol. to Doctor Ridley, for not putting of his cappe.Linc. M. Ridley, although neyther I, neither my Lordes here in respect of our own persons do looke for cappe or knee, yet because we beare and represent such persons as we do, that is, my Lord Cardinalls grace, Legate a latere to the Popes holynes, as well in that he is of a noble parentage, and (therewith M. Rydley moued his cap with lowely obeysaunce) descending from the regall bloud, as in that he is a man worthy to bee reuerenced with all humility for his great knowledge and learning, noble vertues, and godly lyfe, and especially in that hee is here in England Deputy to the Popes holines, it should haue becommed you at hys name to haue discouered your head. Wherefore except you will of your owne selfe take the paines to put your hand to your head, and at the nomination, as well of the sayd Cardinall, as of the Popes holines vncouer the same, lest that this your contumacy 

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Contempt, disrespect.

exhibited now before vs should be preiudiciall to the sayd most Reuerend persons (which thing wee may in no case suffer) you shall cause vs to take the payne to cause some man to plucke of your cap from you. To whom M. Ridley makyng his petition for lycence, aunswered.

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MarginaliaAnswere of Doctor Ridley, to the B. of Lincol.Rid. As touching that you sayd (my Lord) that you of your owne persons desyre ne cap ne knee, but onely requyre the same in consideration that you represent the Cardinals graces person, I do you to wit, and therupon make my protestation, that I did put on my cap at the naming of the Cardinals grace neyther for any contumacy that I beare towardes your own persons, neither for any derogation of honour toward the Lord Cardinalls grace. For I knowe him to bee a man worthy of all humility, reuerence, and honour, in that he came of the most regall bloud, & in that he is a man endued with manifold graces of learning and vertue: and as touching these vertues and poyntes, MarginaliaDoctor Ridley reuerēceth the person of the Cardinall, but not his Legacie.I with all humility (therewith he put of his cap, and bowed his knee) and obeysaunce that I may, will reuerence and honour his grace: but in that he is Legate to þe Bishop of Rome (and therewith put on his cap) whose vsurped supremacy and abused authority I vtterly refuse and renounce, I may in no wyse giue any obeysaunce or honour vnto hym, lest that my so doing and beha-

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