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212 [212]

King Edmund. Dunstane abbot. K. Edmund. Odo. false miracles.

in Fraunce, and there receaued the habite of a monke: MarginaliaThe origen of mōkary, how it fyrst began in England. 

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Foxe's account of Dunstan comes initially from Bale's Catalogus, p. 137, but it was supplemented with additional details from William of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum (J. S. Brewer, and C. T. Martin, 'William of Malmesbury: Gesta Regum.' In Reigistrum Malmesburiense. The Registor of Malmesbury Abbey, ed. by J.S. Brewer and C.T. Martin [London: Rolls Series, 1869-1880], book 2, ch. 145.

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Wherupon the first origine of this religion began, &c. But of this Oswald bishop of Yorke, and Dunstane bishop of Caunt. and Ethelwold, bishop of Wint. how they replenished diuerse monasteries, and cathedrall churches with monkes: and how they discharged maryed priestes & Chanons out of their houses, to plant in monkes in their celles: more shall be spoken (by þe grace of Christ) hereafter. Now let vs returne agayne to the matter where we left, of king Edmunde: who besides hys noble victories against his enemies, and recouering the cities aboue expressed into his owne handes: did also subdue the prouince of Cumberland. And after he had put out the eyes of the two sonnes of Dunmail king of Cumberland, he committed the gouernaunce therof to Malcolinus king of Scottes: vpō promyse of his trustie seruice and obedience, when the king should stand in any nede of hym. In the time of this king, Dunstane was net yet Archbishop of Caunterbury, MarginaliaDunstane abbot of Glastōburybut onely abbot of Glastenbury: of whom many fabulous narratiōs passe among the writers, importing more vanitie thē veritie. Wherof this is one of þe first: what tyme MarginaliaThe sonnes of K. Edmunde.Edgarus called Pacificus was borne, Dunstane being the same tyme abbot of Glastonburye (as the monkishe fables dreame) heard a voyce in the ayre of certaine Aungles singing after this tenor, and saying: Now peace commeth to the church of England, in þe tyme of this childe, and of our Dunstane, &c. This I thought to recite, that the christiā reader might the better ponder & note with himself, the impudēt and abhominable fictions of this romishe generation. MarginaliaThe impudent vanity of the popes church in forging false myracles.Out of the same mint also haue they forged, how the sayd Dunstane should heare þe Angles sing the Kyrieeleyson, vsed to be songe at euensong on Easterday in þe church. Guliel. de pontifi. lib. 1. Which is as true as that the harpe hanging in a womās house, at the presence of Dunstane, played by it self the tune of the Antheme, called Gaudent in cælis, &c. MarginaliaGuliel. lib. 1. de pont.What woulde not these deceauers fayne in matters something likelye, and easie to deceaue the people, which in thinges so absurde and so inconuenient, shame not to lye and to forge so impudently and also so manifestly. MarginaliaThe monastery of Glastonbury. Dunstine abbot of Glastōbury
This abbey of Glastenbury was fyrst builded by king Iue, by the coūcel of Adelmus After beyng destroied by the Danes.
Guliel. lib 2. de regib.
Through the motion of this Dunstane: king Edmunde builded and furnished the monasterye of Glacenburye, & made the sayd Dunstane abbot therof.

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Concerning the end and death of this king, sondrye opinions there bee. Alfridus and Marianus saye: that while this king Edmund endeuored himself to saue hys sewer from the daunger of hys enemies which woulde haue slayne him at Pulcherchurch: the king in parting of the fray was wounded, and dyed shortly after. But VVilliam de Regib. lib. 2. sayth, that the king being at a feast at Pulcherchurch, vpon the day of S. Austen: espyed a fellon sitting in the hall, named Leof, whom he before for hys felonye had exiled. And leaping ouer the table, did flie vpon him, and plucked the theefe by the heare of the head to the ground. In which doing, þe felon with a knife wounded the king to the death, and also with the same knyfe woūded many other of the kings seruants, and at length was all to hewen, and dyed forthwith.

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MarginaliaThe lawes of kyng Edmund touchyng as well the state spiritual as temporal.By the lawes of king Edmund (ordayned & set forth as well for the redresse of church matters, as also of ciuill regiment) it may appeare, that the state both of causes temporal, and lykewyse spiritual, appertayned then to the kynges right (the false pretended vsurpatiō of the bishop of Rome notwithstanding) as by these lawes is to be sene: where hee by the aduice and counsell of hys Lords and bishops, did enact and determine concerning the chastitie and pure life of ecclesiastical ministers, and such as were in the orders of the church, with the penalties also for them, which transgressed the same.

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Item for tythes to be payed of euery christian man, and for the church fees, and almes fees, &c.

Item for deflouryng of women professed, whych we call Nunnes. &c.

Item for euery bishop to see hys churches repayred, of hys own proper charge, and boldlye to admonish the king, whether þe houses of God wer wel mayntayned. &c.

Item for fleing into the church for sanctuary, &c.

Item concerning cases and determinatiōs spousall, or matrimoniall. &c.

Al which constitutions declare, what interrest kings had in those dayes in matters as well ecclesiasticall, as other, within their dominion: and that not onelye in disposing the ordinances and rites, such as appertayned to the institution of the church: but also in placing and setting bishops in their sees, &c.

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MarginaliaVlstanus archbish. of Yorke
Odo archb. of Caunterbury.

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Foxe's account of Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury (including his epistle to the clergy), comes from William of Malmesbury's Gesta Pontificium (N. E. S. A. Hamilton, ed. William of Malmesbury. Willemesbiriensis Monachi De Gestis pontificium Anglorum [...] [London: Rolls Series, 1870], book 1, ch. 14, p. 27). However, Foxe varied it with some alternative phrases on the battle from the Polychronicon (J. R. Lumby, ed. Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden monachi Cestrensis: together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century [London: Rolls Series, 1879], book 6, ch. 6).

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In the tyme of this Edmund, was Vlstanus Archbishop of Yorke, and Odo archbishop of Cant. which Odo being a Dane borne (as is before touched) was promoted to that sea, by kyng Ethelstane, for that (as they say) he beyng fyrst bishop of Witone, and present with king Ethelstane in the field agaynst Analafus, before mentioned, what time the sayd Ethelstane had lost his sword: he through his intercession vp to heauen, did see a sword from heauen, come downe into the sheath of the kyng. Whereof relation being made to the kyng by the foresayd bishop Ethelstane, vpon the same was so affected toward Odo: that no onely he counted him for a patrone of his lyfe, but also made him primate of Canterburye after the decease of Vlfelmus. MarginaliaGuliel. de pontifi. lib. 1.
Polychro. lib. 6. cap. 6.
This Odo was the first from the comming of the Saxons tyll hys tyme, whych was archbishop of Cant. being no monke. For all the other before him, were of the profession of Moonkes, of whom a great parte had been Italians, vnto Berctualdus. MarginaliaOdo made monke at Floriake after he was archbish. of CaūterburyNotwithstandyng this Odo, beyng also a straunger borne, after he was elected into the bishoprick, to answer to the old custom of others before him, sayled ouer into Fraunce, and there at Floriake (after the vsual maner aboue mencioned of English men) receaued the profession and habite of Monkish religion, as saith my foresayde autor. MarginaliaGuliel. de pontifi. lib. 1.And lyke as the sayde Odo first being no Monke, was made archbishop of Canterbury: So also Vlstanus the same tyme, being bishop of Yorke and of Woceter, differed from diuers his predecessors before him, in professiō and in habite: of whom the forenamed autor thus writeth in his. iij booke, MarginaliaGuliel. lib. 3. de pont. Ebor.speaking of Vlstanus, qui sanctitate discrepabat et habitu, that is: he differed in sanctimony and in habite. MarginaliaThe difference of habite & garments among men of the church.Wherby is to be collected, that in those dayes was a difference in habite and garment: not onely betwene Monkes and bishops, but also betwene one bishop and an other. Albeit what difference it was yet I do not fynde. But I returne agayne to Odo: who by the description of his manners, myght seeme not to be the worst that occupied that place, were it not that our lying histories faining false myracles vpon him (as they do of other) make hym in deede to seme worsse thē he was. MarginaliaFalse and lying miracles noted vpon Odo.As where they imagine that he shuld see from heauen a sword fall into the scabberd of kyng Ethelstan. Item where he should couer and defende the church of Canterbury wyth hys prayers from rayne. And also where he should turne the bread of the aultar (as the wryter termeth it) into lyuely flesh, and frō flesh into bread agayne: to confirme the people which before doubted in the same. MarginaliaA note to the reader.Where note again (good reader) þt albeit this myracle were true, as no doubt it is vntrue: yet it is to be be vnderstande, that in those dayes was a great doubt among Englishe men, of the popish sacrament, MarginaliaTransubstantiation not yet receyued.& that transubstantiation was not receiued into the Christian crede. The like iudgement is to be geuen also of that, where our English writers testifieng of the same Odo, say that he shoulde prophecye long before of Dunstan, to be his successor in the church of Canterbury. But to let these phantasies and idle stories passe, this which we fynde of Odo: hys own writing is certayne,

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