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231 [216]

K. Edward. The office of kinges. K. Edward K. Harold. Actes and Monum. of the Church.

states, that myne authors say: the people long after did rebell against their heades and rulers, to haue the same lawes agayne (beyng taken from them) and yet coulde not obtayne them.

MarginaliaEx Maathco parisiensi.
William Conqueror sworne to kinge Edwards lawes, yet went frō it.
Furthermore, I reade and finde in Math. Parisi. that when Willyam Conquerour at hys commyng in, dyd sweare to vse & practise þe same good lawes of Edward, for the common lawes of this realme: afterward (being established in hys kingdome) he forswore himselfe, and placed his own lawes in their roume, much worsse and obscurer then the other were. &c.

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Notwithstanding among the sayde lawes of Edward, and in the first chapter & beginning thereof, thys I finde amonge the auncient recordes of the Guild hall in London. The office of a king, with such other appurtenances as belong to the realme of Britaine: set forth and described in laten stile, whiche I thought here not vnmeete to be expressed in the English toung, for them that vnderstand no laten. The tenor and meaning wherof thus followeth.

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¶ De iure et appendiis Regni Britannia, et quod sit officium Regis.

REx autem quia vicarius summi regis est, ad hoc est constitutus, vt regnum terrenum et populum domini, et super omnia sanctam eius veneretur ecclesiam et regat, et ab iniuriosis defendat, et maleficos ab ea auellat et destruat, et penitus disperdat. Quod nisi fecerit, nomē regis non in eo cōstabit. Verum Papa, Ioāne testante, nomen regis perdit, cui Pipinus et Carolus filius eius nec dum reges, sed principes sub rege Francorum stulto scripserunt quærentes: si ita permanere deberent Francorum reges, solo regio nomine contenti A quo responsum est, illos decet vocare reges, qui vigilanter defendunt, et regunt ecclesiam dei & populum eius. &c. In English thus.

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MarginaliaEx libro Reg. antiquorum in prætorio Londinensi.
The office of a king described int he lawes of king Edward.
The kyng because he is þe vicare of the hyest kyng, is appointed for this purpose: to rule the earthly kingdom, and the Lordes people: & aboue all thinges, to reuerence his holy church: to gouerne it, and to defend it from iniuries: to plucke away wicked doers, & vtterly to destroye them. Which vnles he do, the name of a kyng agreeth not vnto hym, but he loseth the name of a kyng as witnesseth pope Ihon: to the whiche pope, Pipinus and Carolus his sonne (beyng not yet kyngs but princes vnder þe French kyng beyng not very wise) did write: demaūdyng this questiō, whether the kyngs of Fraunce ought so to continue hauyng but onely the name of a kynge. MarginaliaA king the vicare of God in earth.Vnto whom pope Ihon aunswereth againe, that it was conuenient to call them kynges which vigilantlye doe defende and gouerne the churche of God and his people, followyng the saying of king Dauid the Psalmograph. He shall not dwell in my house which worketh pride. &c. Moreouer, the kyng by right, and by his office: ought to defēd and conserue fully and wholy in all amplenes without diminution, all the landes, honors, dignities, rightes and liberties of the crowne of his kyngdome. And further to reduce into their pristine state, al such things as haue ben dispersed, wasted and lost, which apperteine to his kyngdome. MarginaliaThe lymits of the kyngdome of Englād how far they do extende.Also the whole and vniuersall land withall Ilelādes about the same vnto Norwey and Denmarcke, be apperteyning to the crowne of hys kingdome, and be of the appurtenaunces and dignitye of the king: making one monarchie and one kingdome, which somtime was called the kingdome of Britaines, and now the kingdome of England: suche bondes and limites as is aboue sayde, be appoynted and limited to the name of this kingdome.

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Moreouer, in þe foresaid lawes of this king Edward it followeth in the same booke where the foresayde Edward describing þe office of a king, addeth in these wordes. MarginaliaThe office of a king farther describedA king saith he, ought aboue all things to feare God: to loue & to obserue hys cūmaundements: & cause thē to be obserued through his whole kingdō. He oughtalso to keepe, cherish, mayntayne and gouerne the holy churche within his kingdome, with al integritie and libertie, according to the constitutions of his aunciters & predecessors: and to defend þe same agaynst all enemies, so that God aboue all thinges be honored, and euer be before his eyes. He ought also to set vp good lawes and customes, such as be wholsome and approued: suche as be otherwyse, to repeale them, and thrust them oute of hys kingdome. Item he ought to do iudgement and iustice in his kingdome, by the counsel of the nobles of his realme. All these thynges ought a king in his owne person to do, taking his othe vpon the Euangelist, and the blessed reliques of Sayntes, swearing in the presence of the whole state of hys realme (aswel of the temporaltie, as of the spiritualtie) before he be crowned of the Archbishops and bishops. MarginaliaThre slaues & seruantes a king oght to haue vnder his subiection.Three seruantes the king ought to haue vnder hym as vassalles: fleshly lust, auarice, & gredy desire. Whom if he keepe vnder as his seruants and slaues, he shall raygne well and honorably in hys kingdome. All thinges are to be done with good aduisement and premeditatiō: and that properly belōgeth to a king. For hastie rashnes brinketh all thinges to ruine, according to the saying of the Gospell: Euery kingdome deuided in it selfe, shalbe desolate. &c.

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After the duty and office of princes thus described, consequentlye followeth the institution of subiectes declared in many good and necessary ordinances, very requisite and conuenient for publicke gouernment. Of the which lawes W. Conquerour was compelled, thorow the clamor of the people to take some: but the most part he omitted, contrary to his owne othe at his coronation, inserting & placyng the most of hys owne lawes in hys language, to serue his purpose: & which as yet to this present day in the same Normand language do remayne. Now (the Lorde wylling) let vs procede in the story, as in order followeth.

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¶ King Harold. 
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For the coronation of Harold and his early contest with the king of Denmark and Tostig, Foxe could have utilized any of a number of sources, though his account most closely resembles that of Fabian's Chronicle (R. Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], book 6, chs. 216-217). For the interesting list of the succession to the archbishopric of Canterbury from Elphegus to Lanfranc, which concludes this section, Foxe relied on William of Malmesbury's Gesta Pontificium (N. E. S. A. Hamilton, ed. William of Malmesbury. Willemesbiriensis Monachi De Gestis pontificium Anglorum [...] [London: Rolls Series, 1870], book 1, chs 21-24).

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Harold last king of Saxons.
HArold the second sonne of earle Godwyn, and last king of the Saxons: notwithstanding that diuers of the nobles went with Edgar Adeling, the next heyre after Edmund Ironside: yet he through force & myght, contemning the yong age of Edgar, and forgetting also hys promise made to Duke William, tooke vpon him to be king of England. an. 1066. When Harold Harefager, sonne of Canutus, king of Norway & Denmark, heard of the death of king Edward: he came into England with. 300. ships or mo: who, then ioyning with Tostius, brother to the sayd Harold king of Englande: entred into the North partes, & claymed the land after the death of Edward. But the Lordes of the country arose & gaue them battayle: notwithstanding, the Danes had the victory. And therefore Harold king of England, prepared toward them in all hast, and gaue them an other strong battayle, and there had the victorye, MarginaliaHarold king of Dēmarke & Tostius slayne.where also Harold the Dane was slayne, by the hand of Harolde king of England. And Tostius was also slaine in the battayle. After this victory, Harold waxed proud and couetous: and would not diuide the prayes to hys knights that had well deserued it, but kept it to himselfe: wherby he lost the fauour of many of his knightes and people.

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In this meane tyme, William Duke of Normandy sent Ambassades to Harold king of England, admonishing him of the couenantes that were agreed betwene them: which was, to haue kept the lande to his vse after the death of Edward. But because that the daughter of Duke William (þt was promised to Harold) was dead: Harold thought him therby discharged, and saide, that such a nise foolish promise ought not to be holdē (concerning an others land) without the consent of the Lordes of the same: and especially for that he was therunto, for neede or for dread, compelled.

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