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553 [553]

K. Richard. 2. The history of Iohn Wickliffe Actes and Mon. of the church.

trary vnto the fayth, I am ready to reuoke and spedely to call them backe agayne.

¶ An exposition vpon the conclusions of Iohn Wicklef, exhibited by him to the Bishops. 
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Foxe's source for Wiclif's commentary on the articles attributed to him is the Fasciculi Zizaniorum (see Bodley Library MS, Musaeo 86, fos. 64v-66v). Foxe's version is an accurate reproduction of what is in the Fasciculi Zizaniorum.

MarginaliaExposition of Iohn Wickliffe vpon his conclusions.All the rase of mankynde, here in earth beside Christ, hath no power simply to ordayne, that Peter. &c.

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This conclusion of it selfe is euident, for as much as it is not in mans power, to stop the comming of Christe to hys finall iudgemēt, but he must nedes come, according to the article of our crede, to iudge both the quicke and dead. And then (as the scripture teacheth) shall surcease all ciuill and politicke rule here, I vnderstand the temporall and secular dominion, pertayning to men here dwellyng in thys mortall lyfe. For so do the philosophers speake of ciuill dominion. And although the thyng whych is terminable, and hath an ende, is called sometymes perpetuall: yet because in holye Scripture, and in vse of the church, and in the bokes of Philosophers most commonly that is taken to be perpetuall, which hathe no ende of tyme hereafter to come: accordyng to the whiche sense, the church syngeth Gloria patri, &c nunc & imperpetuū. I also after the same signification do take here this word (perpetually) and so is this conclusion consonante to the principles of the scripture, that it is not in mans power to ordaine the course and viage of the church, here perpetually to last.

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God can not geue to any man, &c.

Exposition of the second conclusion.
☞ To the second conclusion I aunswer, vnderstandyng ciuill dominiō, as in the conclusion before. And so I hold, that God, first by his ordinate power cannot geue to anye person ciuile dominion here for euer: Secondlye, by his absolute power it is not probable for him so to do. For so much as he cannot euer detayne his spouse in perpetuall prison of this life, nor alwayes differ the finall beatitude of his church.

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Marginalia3To the third conclusion. Many writynges or chartes inuented by men, as touchyng perpetuall hereditage ciuile, be vnpossible.

☞ The veritie of this conclusion is incident. For we must not canonize all maner of Chartes, what so euer, as catholike, or vniuersall: for thē it were not lawfull by any meanes to take away or sequester thyngs geuē by charte or charter whē any doth vniustly occupie þe same. And so, if that stand cōfirmed and ratified by the faith of the churche, great occasion therby should be ministred to men so chartered, to trust to their temporall chartes, and so might growe therby much libertie and licence to sinne. For like as by what supposition euery truth is necessary: so by the same supposition, euery false thyng is possible, as it is playne by the testimonie of scripture, and of holy doctours speaking of necessitie of thinges to come.

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In gratia gratificante finaliter.
Euery man beyng in grace iustifeing finally, hath not onely ryght vnto the thyng, but also for hys tyme hath right in dede, ouer all the good thynges of God.

☞ The veritie hereof is euident, by holy Scripture Matth. 24. Where veritie promiseth to euery man entring into his ioy: verely (sayth he) I tell you, he shall set and place him ouer all the goodes he hath. MarginaliaNote here he speaketh onely of the right of things in the countrey to come: and not in this exile.For the righte and title belongyng to the communion of saintes, in their countrey (he meaneth in the kyngdome of heauen) Fundatur obiectine super vniuersitatem bonoru Dei: That is: hath his relatiō, as vnto his obiect, to all the goods & possessiōs of God.

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Marginalia5A man can but onely ministratoriously, geue any temporall dominion or gift perpetuall, as well to his owne naturall sonne, as to his sonne by imitation.

☞ It is euident. For euery man ought to recognise him self in all his woorkes and doynges, as an humble seruaunt, and minister of God. As the woordes of Scripture doth teache vs. Let a man so esteme of vs as the ministers of Christ. Yea so Christ him selfe did teache his chief Apostles to minister, but in the countrey the saints shall geue vnto theyr felow brethren the dominion of theyr goodes vt patet de suis corporibus et bonis eis inferioribus in natura accordyng to the woordes of Luke 6. They shall geue you and put into your bosomes a good measure and perfect, wel filled and heaped vp, and runnyng ouer.

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Marginalia6Yf God be temporall Lordes may lawfully and meritoriously take away the goodes of fortune frō the church when they do offende, habitualiter?

☞ This conclusion is corelatiue with the first article of our faith: I beleue in God the father almighty &c. Where I vnderstād this worde (may in this conclusion after the maner of autentique scripture, whiche sayth and graunteth: that God is hable of these stones to rayse vp children to Abraham, for otherwise all Christiā princes were heretiques. For this conclusion, thus standeth the reason: If God be, he is omnipotent: and if he be almighty, he is able to commaund the Lordes temporall so to do: and if he may so commaund, then may they lawfully so take away such Gods &c. And so by the vertue of the same principle, Christiā princes haue practised þe sayd sentence vpon the churche men heretofore, as did Williā Rufus &c. But God forbid that any should beleue hereby my ententiō to haue been, that seculare Lordes may lawfully take awaye what goodes soeuer and by what meanes soeuer, by their owne naked authoritie at their pleasure: but onely by the authoritie of the churche may so do, in cases and forme limited by the law.

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Marginalia77 We know that it is not possible that þe vicar of Christ is able by hys pure bulles. &c.

☞ Thys is manifest by the catholique fayth, forasmuch as the church doth fully beleue that the ablyng of any man, ought fyrst to procede and come of God: wherfore, no mā being Christ his vicar, hath any power in thys matter but onely as vicar in the name ofthe Lord so farre forth as he is enabled of the Lord, to notifie vnto the church whom God hath enabled. Wherfore if any man doe any thyng not as vicar in the name of the Lorde, whom he ought to forethinke to be hys author and head: It is a presūption of Lucifer, for somuch as Christ by his Apostle sayth 1. Cor. 3. all our habilitie or sufficiencye commeth of God. And so consequently, it commeth not purely by the ministery of his vicarship, that he is enhabled, but the hablenes or vnablenes of him being þe vicar of Christ, commeth to hym an other way from aboue.

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Marginalia8A man can not be excommuicate to hys hurt or vndoing, excepte he be excommunicate fyrst and principally of him selfe.

☞ It is euident, forasmuch as all such excommunication oughte to procede and beginne originally of hys owne sinne which is damnified: Wherupon Augustine sayth De verbi domini, Sermone 51. Do not thou conculcate thy selfe, and man ouercommeth thee not. And moreouer the fayth of the church doth teach, quod nulla ei nocebit aduersitas, si nulla dominetur iniquita, þt is to say, No aduersitie shall hurt if no iniquitie haue the vpper hande. And yet notwithstanding, euery excommunication for many causes is also to be feared although that the excommunication of the church to the humble mā being excōmunicated, be not damnable but wholesome.

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Marginalia99 No man ought but in Gods cause alone to excommunicate, suspende, &c.

☞ It is clere, forasmuch as euery iuste cause is the cause of god, whose respecte ought chieflye to be wayed & pondered. Yea the loue of the person excōmunicate ought to surmount the zeale of reuengement and the desire of all temporall goods whatsoeuer, for otherwyse he that doth excommunicate, doth damnifye hym selfe. To this. ix. conclusion notwithstanding it is congruent, that a prelate may excommunicate in the cause also of man, so that his principall respect in so doyng be had to the iniury done to hys God, as appeareth, 13. quest. 4. cap. Inter quærelas.

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Marginalia10No curse or excommunication can bynde simplye, but in case it be geuen out agaynst the aduersary of Christes law.

☞ And it appeareth thus, because that God doth bynde simplye euery one that is bounde, who cannot excommunicate, but onelye for transgression of hys law. Whereunto it is consonant notwithstanding, that the cēsure of the church doth not bynde simply, but secondarely in that case and respect, as it is denounced agaynst the aduersary of the members of the church.

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Marginalia11There is no example of Christ which geueth power to his disciples to excommunicate any subiect (especially for denying of any temporalties) but contrary.

☞ Which is thus declared by the fayth, wherby we beleue þt God is to bee beloued aboue all thinges, and our neyghbour and enemy are to be beloued aboue all temporall goods of thys worlde necessaryly, for the law of God cannot be contrary vnto it selfe.

Marginalia12The disciples of Christ haue no power by any ciuill coaction, to exacte temporal thinges by their censures.

☞ Thys appeareth by the fayth of the scripture. Luke. 23. wher Christ dyd forbyd hys Apostles ciuilly to raygne or to beare anye lordship. The kynges (sayth he) of the Gentyles beare rule ouer them, but you not so. And after thys sence it is expounded of saint Bernard of S. Chrisostome, and other holy men: whych conclusion notwithstanding, yet may they exact temporall thyngs by ecclesiasticall censures incidently, if case be that it appertayne to the reuengement of their God.

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Marginalia13It is not possible by the absolute power of God, that if the Pope or any other Christian do pretend to bynd or lose at theyr pleasure, by what meanes so euer, that therby he doth so bynde and lose.

☞ The contrary of this conclusion wyll destroye the whole catholike fayth, importing no lesse but him to be a blasphemer which so vsurpeth such absolute power of the Lord. And yet by this conclusion I entend not to derogate from the power of the Pope or of any other prelate of the church, but that he maye by the vertue of the heade so bynde and lose. But do vnderstand the condicional of thys negatiue (to be impossible) after thys sense: that it cannot be that the Pope or any other prelate of the churche can pretende by himselfe to bind or lose (how and after what maner he lyst himself) except in such sort, that he do in dede so bynde and lose before God as he doth pretende to do.

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Marginalia14We ought to beleue, that the vicare of Christe doth at such tymes onely bynde and loose, when as he worketh conformably by the law, and ordinaunce of Christ. &c.

☞ The reason therof is this, because otherwyse it is vnlawfull for him so to doo, except he should do it in the vertue of that law, and so consequently, vnles it bee conformable to the lawe and ordinaunce of Christ.

The power of al priests toward God equal.
Ordo sacerdotalis non suscepit maius & minus. Potestas ordinis. Potestas regiminis.
To this conclusion, this oughte vniuersally to be beleued, that euery priest ryghtly and duely ordered, hath power accordyng to his vocation, &c.

☞ The reason hereof is this, because that the order of priesthoode in his owne nature and substaunce, receaueth no such degrees, eyther of more, or of lesse. And yet notwithstandyng, the power of inferiour priestes, in these dayes be vpon due consideration restrayned, and some tymes agayne in tyme of extreme necessitie released. And thus accordyng to the doctours, A prelate hath a double power, to witte, the power of order, And the power of iurisdictiō or regimēt. And accordyng to this second power, the prelates are in an hygher maiestie, and regiment.

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Marginalia16Yt is lawfull for princes and kynges (in cases by the

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