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572 [572]

K. Richard. 2. Iohn Wickliffe Burning of Wickliffes dead bones.

Besides these articles to the number of xlv 

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Actually 44 in Ortwin Gratius and the Rerum, and, thanks to deletions, 41 in all editions of the Acts and Monuments.

, condemned (as is sayd) by the councell of Constance: Other articles also I finde diuersly collected or rather wrasted out of the bookes and writinges of Wickleffe: MarginaliaW. Wodford, Tho. Walden, Tyssingtō writers against Iohn Wickliffe.some by William Wodford, some by Walden, by Frier Tyssington and other, whom they in their bookes haue impugned, rather then confuted. In the number of whom, William Wodford especially findeth out these Articles, & writeth agaynst the same, to the number of xviij. as here vnder follow 
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Woodford's articles against Wiclif come from Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculis rerum expetendarum et fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535), fo. 95v. These are reprinted in the 1570 and subsequent editions, with no significant alterations to the original.


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MarginaliaArticles against Wickliffe by W. Woodford
The bread remaineth in his owne substance, after the consecra-cration therof vpon the altare, and ceaseth not to be bread still.

Marginalia2As Ihon was figuratiuely Helias, and not personally: so the bread figuratiuely is the body of Christe, and not naturally. And that without all doubt, this is a figuratiue speache, to say: this is my body, as to say: This Iohn, is Helias.

Marginalia3In the decree, Ego Berengarius, the court of Rome hath determined that the sacrament of the holy Eucharist, is naturally true bread.

Marginalia4They which we affirme, that the infantes of the faythfull departing without the sacrament of baptisme, are not to be saued: be presumptuous, and fooles in so affirming.

Marginalia5The administration of the sacrament of confirmation, is not only reserued to byshops.

Marginalia6In the tyme of S. Paule, onely ij. orders of clerkes dyd suffice in the church: priestes, and Deacons. Neyther was there in the tyme of the Apostles any distinction of popes, Patriarches & archbyshops, & bishops, but these the Emperours pryde dyd finde out.

Marginalia7Such as in tymes past eyther for couetousnes of temporall lucre, or of hope of mutuall succour by kindred, or for cause to excuse theyr luste (although they dispeyred of issue) were maried: were coupled together, not by true matrimonye.

Marginalia8The causes of diuorcement, eyther for spirituall consanguinitie or for affinitie, be not founded in scripture, but are onely ordinaunces of men.

Marginalia9These wordes I will take thee to wife, are rather to be taken in contracte of matrimonie, then these wordes I do take thee to wife. And the contracte with any party by the words of þe future tence, ought not to be frustrate for the contracte with any partie afterward made, by the wordes of the present tyme.

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Marginalia10There be xij. disciples of Antichrist. Popes, Cardinalls, Patriarches, Archbishops, Bishops, Archdeacons, Officialls, Deanes, Monkes, Chanons, Fryers, and Pardoners.

Marginalia11In the booke of Nomb. the. xviij. chap. and in Ezechiel. xliiii. chap. it is commaunded simply, that neither the priestes of Aaron, nor the Leuites should haue any part of inheritaunce wyth other tribes, but should liue merely of tithes and oblations.

Marginalia12There is no greater hereticke or Antichrist, then that Clercke which teacheth that it is lawfull for priests and Leuites of the law of grace, to be indued with temporall possessions. And if there be any heretikes, Apostates, or blasphemers, these clarkes be such.

Marginalia13It is not onely lawfull for the Lordes temporall to take awaye goods of fortune from the churchmen, sinning vsually: but also are bound so to do, vnder paine of eternall damnation.

Marginalia14He that is the more humble and more seruiceable to the church, and more enamoured with the loue of Christ, he is in the churche militant, the greater and the more nerest vicar of Christ.

Marginalia15If corporall vnction or aneling were a sacrament (as nowe it is fayned to be) Christ and his Apostles woulde not haue left the ordinaunce thereof vntouched.

Marginalia16Vnto the true dominiō secular, is required vertuous lyfe of him that ruleth.

Marginalia17All thinges that happen, do come absolutely of necessitie.

Marginalia18What so euer the pope or his Cardinals can deduce clearely out of the holy Scripture: that onely is to be beleued, or to be done at their monition: and whatsoeuer otherwise they do commaūd is to be condemned as hereticall.

MarginaliaTractatus frat. W. Wodford contra trialogū Wickleui.Besides this W. Woodford a fore mētioned, diuers other there wer which wrote agaīst these articles of Wicleffe aforesayd, mayntainyng þe Popes parte, as semeth for flattery, rather thē folowing any iust cause so to do, or shewyng forth any reason or learning in disprouing þe same. Notwithstāding, on the contrary part some there were again both learned & godly, which takyng the part of Wickleffe, without all flattery defended the most of the sayd Articles, openly in scholes and other places, as appeareth by þe workes of Iohn Hus: who in his publike determinations in the vniuersitie of Prage, stode in defence of the same agaynst all his aduersaries. Whose reasons and disputacions because they aske a long tyme here to discourse, I shall therefore referre the reader to the first Edition of these actes and monumentes, where the contentes thereof are to be founde more fully and at large set forth.

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Wherfore cuttyng of the tractation hereof, because the matter hath been hādled already in the former booke,we will now returne to the sayd coūcell of Constance agayn, declaring what cruelty they vsed not only against þe bookes & articles of I. Wickleffe, but also in burnyng his body and bones, commaunding them to be taken vp 41.yeares after he was buried, as appeareth by the decree of the sayd Sinode, the forme wherof we thought hereunto to annexe as foloweth.

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¶ The decree of the Synode of Constance touching the taking vp of the body and bones of Iohn Wickleffe to be burned 41. yeares after he was buryed in his own parishe church at Lutterworth 
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This decree is taken from Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculis rerum expetendarum et fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535), fos. 150v-151r. It was reprinted in the Rerum (pp. 22-23) and translated in all editions of the Acts and Monuments.


MarginaliaThe decree of the councel for the burning of Wickliffes dead bones.FOrsomuch as by the authoritie of the sentence and decree of the councell of Rome, and by the commaūdement of the church and the Apostolicke see after due delayes being geuē, they proceded vnto the condemnation of the sayd Iohn Wickleffe, and his memorie: hauing first made proclamation, and geuen commaundement to call forth who soeuer woulde defende the sayd Wickleffe, or hys memorye (if there were any such) but there did none appeare, which would either defend him or hys memory. MarginaliaEx Actis concilij Constant.And moreouer witnesses being examined by Commissioners appoynted by Pope Ihon and thys councell, vpon the impenitencie and finall obstinacie and stubbernes of the said Iohn Wickleff (reseruing that, which is to be reserued, as in suche busines, the order of the law requireth) and hys impenitencie and obstinacie euen vnto hys end, being sufficiently proued by euident signes and tokens, and also by lawfull witnesses of credit, was lawfully geuē therunto. Wherfore at the instance of the steward of þe treasury, proclamation being made to heare and vnderstād the sentence against this day: the sacred Sinode declareth, determineth, and geueth sentence, that the sayd Iohn Wickleff was a notorious obstinate hereticke, and that he dyed in his heresie, cursing & condemning both him and hys memorye.

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This Sinode also decreeth and ordaineth, þt the body and bones of the sayd Iohn Wickleffe, if it myghte be decerned and knowen from the bodies of other faythful people, to be taken out of the ground, and thrown away farre frō the buriall of any church, according vnto the Canon lawes and decrees. Which determination and sentence definitiue being red and pronounced, the Lord president, and the foresayd presidents of the iiij. nations, being demaunded and asked whether it dyd please them or no? They all answered (& first Hostiensis the president and after hym the other presidentes of the nations) that it pleased them very well, and so they allowed and confirmed all the premisses. &c.

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¶ What Heraclitus woulde not laughe, or what Democritus would not weape, to see these so sage and reuerend Catos, to occupie theyr heades to take vp a poore mans body, so long dead and buried before, by the space of xli. yeares: and yet peraduenture were not able to finde his ryght bones, but tooke vp some other body, & so of a catholike made an heretike. Albeit, herein Wickleffe had some cause to geue thē thankes, þt they would at least spare hym so longe, til he was dead: And also to geue him so long respite after hys death xli. yeres to rest in his sepulcher before they vngraued him, & turned him from earth to ashes: which ashes also, they toke & threw into þe riuer. And so was he resolued into three elemētes, earth, fire, and water, thinkyng therby vtterly to extinct and abolish both the name and doctrine of Wickleffe for euer. Not much vnlyke to the example of the old Phariseis & sepulcher knightes, whiche when they had brought the Lord vnto the graue, thought to make hym sure neuer to rise agayne. But these and all other must know, that as there is no counsell agaynst the Lorde so there is no kepyng down of veritie: but it will spryng and come out of dust and ashes, as appeared right well in this mā. For though they dygged vp his body, burnt his bones,

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