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626 [626]

K. Richard. 2. Queene Anne Scripture in Englishe

stopher in London. MarginaliaLondiners agaynst the fryers.This when the faithfull Londoners 

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Walsingham identified the rioters as Lollards; Foxe identifies them as Londoners. The former is implying that Pateshull's supporters were heretics, the latter that they were an outraged citizenry.

did see, takyng grief hereat, were moued with great ire against the said Frier, thrusting him with his other brethren out of the churche, whom they not onely had beaten and sore wounded, but also folowed them home to their house, minding to haue destroied their mansiō with fire also, and so would haue done, had not one of the shriffes of London, with two of the Friers of the sayde house well knowen and reported amongest the Londoners, with gētle woordes mittigated their rage and violence. MarginaliaPeter Pateshul.After this, Peter Pateshull thus disturbed as is aforesayd, was desired by the Londoners (for so much as he could not well preach amōgest them) to put in writing that, whiche he had sayd before and other thinges more that he knew by the Friers: who then at their request writyng the same, MarginaliaThe fryers accused with horible crimes.accused the Friers of murther, committed against diuers of their brethren. And to make the matter more apparant & credible, he declared the names of thē that were murthered, with the names also of their tormentours. And named moreouer, tyme and place where and when they were murthered, and where they were buryed. He affirmed further, that they were sodomites & traitours both to the king & the realme wt many other crimes, whiche mine author for tediousnes, leaueth of to recite. And for the more confutation of þe sayd Friers, the Londoners caused this sayd bill, to be openly set vp at S. Paules churche doore in London, whiche was there read and copied out of very many. This was done in the yeare of our Lord. 1387. and in the x. yeare of kyng Richard second. MarginaliaEx Chron. D. Albani.Ex Chron. Monachi Albanensis, Cuius est exordium. Anno gratiæ millesimo. &c.

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Thus it may appeare by this and other aboue recited, how the Gospell of Christ preached by Iohn Wickleffe and others, began to spread & fructifie abroad in Lōdon, and other places of the realme: & more would haue done no doubt had not William Courtney, the Archbishoppe and other prelates with the kyng, sette them so forceably with might and mayne, to gaynstand the course therof. MarginaliaFew or none burned in king Richardes tyme.Albeit as is sayd before, I find none which yet were put to death therfore, duryng the raigne of this K. Richard the secōd. Wherby it is to be thought of this kyng, that although he cā not be vtterly excused for molestyng the godly and innocent preachers of that tyme, (as by his breues and letters afore mentioned may appeare) yet neither was he so cruel against them, as other that came after him: And that which he did semed to procede by the instigation of the pope and other Bishops, rather then eyther by the consent of his Parliamente, or aduise of his counsaile about him, or els by his owne nature. For as þe decrees of the Parliament in all his time, were constant in stoppyng out the popes prouisions, and in bridlyng his authoritie as we shall see (Christ willing) anone: MarginaliaKinges many tymes brought into much feare of the the nature of the kyng was not altogether so fiercely set, if that he folowyng the guydyng therof, had not stand so much in feare of the Byshop of Rome & his prelates, by whose importune letters and callyng on, he was continually vrged, to be contrary to that, whiche both right required, & will perhaps in him desired. MarginaliaCommendation of Queene Anne wyfe to kyng Richard.But howsoeuer the doinges of this kyng are to be excused, or not, vndoubted it is þe queene Anne his wife most rightly deserueth singular cōmendatiō: who at the same time lyuing with þe kyng, had þe Gospels of Christ in English, with the foure doctours vpon the same. This Anne was a Bohemian borne, and sister to Wincelaus kyng of Boheme before: Marginalia1394.
The maryage of Queene Anne to K. Richard.
who was maried to K. Richard about the fift (some say, the sixt) yeare of his reigne, and continued with hym the space of xi. yeares. MarginaliaThoccasion howe the doctrine of Wickliffe came to Bohemia.By the occasion whereof it may seme not vnprobable, that the Bohemians cōmyng in with her, or resortyng into this realme after her, perused and receaued here the bookes of Iohn Wickleffe, whiche afterwarde they conueyed into Bohemia, wherof partly mention is made before pag. 552. MarginaliaThe death of Quene AnneThe sayd vertuous Queene Anne, after she had lyued with kyng Richard about xi. yeares, in the xvij. yeare of his reigne chaunged this mortall life, and was buryed at Westminster. At whose funerall, Thomas Arundell then archbishop of Yorke, and Lord Chauncelour, made the sermon. 

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As Foxe declares, he obtained this sermon from a manuscript in Durham cathedral library, which he obtained from Matthew Parker.

In whiche sermon (as remaineth in the librarie of Worceter recorded) MarginaliaEx fragmento Libri cuiusdā Wigornensis bibliothecæ
Ex accommodato D. Math. archb. Cant.
he entreating of þe commendation of her, sayd these woordes: that it was more ioye of her, then of any woman that euer he knew. For notwithstandyng that she was an Alien borne, she had in Englishe all the iiij. Gospels, with the Doctours vpon them: affirmyng moreouer and testifeing, that she had sent the same vnto hym to examine. And he sayd they were good and true. And further with many wordes of prayse dyd greatly commended her, in that she beyng so great a Lady, and also an Alien, would study so lowly so vertuous bookes. And he blamed in that sermon sharpely the negligence of the prelates, and other men. In so much that some sayd, he would on the morow, leaue vp the office of Chauncelour, and forsake the worlde, and geue hym to fulfill hys pastorall office, for that he had seen and read in those bookes. And thē it had been the best sermon that euer they hard. Hæc ex libro VVigor. In the whiche sermon of Thomas Arundell, iij. pointes are to be considered, first the laudable vse of those old tymes receaued to haue the scripture and doctours in our vulgare Englishe toung. Secondly the vertuous exercise and also example of this godly Lady, who had these bookes not for a shew hangyng at her gyrdle: but also semeth by this sermon to be a studious occupyer of the same. The thyrd thyng to be noted is, what frute þe sayd Tho. Archbishop declared also hym self to receaue at þe hearyng & reading of þe same bookes of hers in the English toung. MarginaliaTho. Arundell, Archb. breaketh hys owne promys.Notwithstanding, the same Thomas Arundell, after this sermon and promise made, became the most cruel enemy that might bee agaynste Englishe bookes, and the authors thereof as foloweth after in his story to be seen.

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MarginaliaThomas Arundell and the B. of London, go to Ireland to the king to complain of the fauorers of Godes worde.For shortly after the death of queene Anne, the same yeare (the kyng beyng then in Ireland) this Thomas Arundell Archbyshop of Yorke, and Byshop of London, Robert Braybrocke (whether sent by the Archbyshop of Canterbury, and the clergy, or whether goyng of theyr owne accorde) crossed the seas to Ireland, to desire the kyng in all spedy wise to returne and helpe the faith and church of Christ, agaynst such as holding of Wickleffes teachyng, went about (as they sayd) to subuert all theyr procedynges, and to destroy the canonicall sanctions of their holy mother churche. At whose complaint the kyng hearyng the one part speake, and not aduising the other, was in such sorte incensed: that incontinent leauyng all hys affaires incomplet, he sped his returne toward England. MarginaliaEx histor. D. Albani.Where he kept his Christenmas at Dublyne, in the whiche meane tyme, the begynnyng of the nexte yeare folowing, whiche was an. 1395. a Parliamēt was called at Westminster, by the commaundement of the kyng. MarginaliaConclusions offered vp in the parliament house.In whiche Parliament, certeine Articles or Conclusions were put vp by them of the Gospell syde, to the number of 12. 

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Book of Conclusions

The 'book of Conclusions' or The Twelve Conclusions, as they are more generally known, were posted to the doors of Westminster Hall and also St. Paul's in London during the session of Parliament in the first months of 1395. Foxe's source for the background to these events was the brief account in College of Arms MS Arundel 7 (a version of Thomas of Walsingham's Chronica majora - see Thomas of Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, 2 vols., Rolls Series 28 [London, 1863-4], II, P. 216). Foxe drew on the Latin version of this text in the Fasciculi Zizanniorum (see Bodley MS e Musaeo 86, fos. 87r-89r), which was reprinted exactly in the Commentarii (fos. 108-115v) and the Rerum (pp. 76-9). The points contained in The Twelve Conclusions - attacks on clerical wealth, compulsory clerical celibacy, the 'feigned miracle' of transubstantiation, prayers for the dead, pilgrimages and auricular confession - caused Foxe no discomfort and, as a result, his versions of the text follow this close quite closely, apart from minor deletions to the last conclusion. The conclusions were translated in the 1563 edition. In the 1570 edition, Foxe collated this version with a version of one of the copies of Roger Dymmock's Liber contra duodecim errores et hereses Lollardorum. The 1570 version of the twelve articles was reprinted, without change, in 1576 and 1583.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

Whiche conclusions moreouer were fastened vp vpon the churche doore of S. Paul in London, and also at Westminster: The copy of which cōclusions with the wordes & contentes therof, here vnder ensueth.

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¶ The booke of Conclusions, or Reformations, exhibited to the Parliamēt holden at Londō, and set vp at Paules doore and other places, in the xviii. yeare of the raigne of kyng Richard the second, and in the yeare of our Lord M.iii.C.xcv.

MarginaliaConclusions exhibited in the parlament.THe first conclusion, when as the churche of England began first to dote in temporalities after her stepmother the great churche of Rome, and the churches were authorised by appropriations: fayth, hope, and charitie, began in diuers places to vanishe and flye away frō our churche, for so much as pride with her most lamentable

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