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778 [778]

K. Henry. 5. Iohn Claydon. Richard Turnyng martyrs.

After these thyngs thus declared and discoursed concernyng the history of Iohn Hus, & Hierome of Prage, the order of place and countrey next would require, cōsequently to inferre and comprehend the great troubles and perturbations, whiche happened after and vppon the death of these men in the countrey of Boheme: but the order of time calleth me backe, first to other matters here of our owne countrey, whiche passed in the meane tyme, with vs in England. Whiche thynges beyng taken by the way, and finished, we will (Christ willing) afterward returne to the tractation herof, to prosecute the troubles and conflictes of the Bohemians, with other thinges beside perteinyng to the latter end of the Councell of Constāce, and chosing of Pope Martin, as the order of yeares and tyme shall require.

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MarginaliaVide supra pag. 700.Ye heard before pag. 700. col. 2. how after the death of Thomas Arundell Archbishop of Canterbury, MarginaliaHenry Chichesly Archb. of Cant.succeded Henry Chichesley. an. 1414. and satte 25. yeares. In whose tyme, was much trouble, and great affliction of good men here in England: of whom many were compelled to abiure, some were burned, diuers were driuen to exile. Wherof partly now to entreat, as we finde thē in registers and histories recorded, wee will first begyn with Iohn Claydon Currier of London, and Richard Turming, whom Roberr Fabian, doth falsely affirme to be burned in the yere, wherin Sir Roger Acton, and M. Browne suffered: who in dede suffered not before the second yeare of Henry Chichesley beyng Archbyshop of Canterbury, which was. an. 1415. The history of which Iohn Claydon, in the Registers is thus declared.

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¶ The story of Iohn Claydon Currier, and of R. Turmyng Baker. 
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John Claydon and  Richard Turming, death of Oldcastle

In the Commentarii (fo. 62v), Foxe had a brief account of 'William' Claydon, which describes him being burned in 1414 as a heretic. This brief, account, including the erroneous first name of the victim, was taken from College of Arms MS Arundel 7. (See Thomas of Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, 2 vols., Rolls Series 28 [London, 1863-64], II, p. 307). In the Rerum (p. 60), Foxe repeated this account, although he corrected Claydon's first name to John. Later in the Rerum (p. 109), however, Foxe gave an account of the burning of John Claydon and Richard Turmyn, for which he cited Fabyan's chronicle as the source. (And, in fact, was clearly did draw this information from Fabyan; see Robert Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], STC 10664, p. 390). In the 1563 edition, Foxe dropped the brief entry taken from Walsingham and reprinted the notice taken from Fabyan. In 1570, Foxe greatly expanded his account of the unfortunate pair by drawing on the register of Archbishop Chichele for Claydon's background, trial and examination. (See The Register of Henry Chichele, ed. E. F. Jacob, 4 vols. [Oxford, 1943-47], IV, pp. 132-8). He also printed Arcbishop Chichele's proclamation against the Lollards from the same source (Chichele Register, III, pp. 18-19). Foxe also delved deeply into Chichele's register for other accounts of accused heretics being imprisoned, questioned and being forced to recant (Chichele Register III, pp. 15-16, 25, 44, 187- 208 and IV, pp. 138-40, 155-8, 192-3, 203-4 and 297-301). Claydon and Turmyn were the only accused heretics among this group who were executed, but these additional episodes, no matter how inconsequential, provided evidence that there were members of the True Chuch before Luther and that the Catholic clergy were zealous in persecuting them. It should also be remembered that the episodes Foxe lists (although Foxe does not make this clear) extended over thirteen years.

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Foxe intensified the theme of persecution by recording, with these other prosecutions, the arrest and execution of Sir John Olcastle. In the 1563 edition this consisted of an account of these events, previously printed in the Rerum (pp. 106-7), which was based on The Chronicle of Fabian (pp. 390 and 389 [recte 397]). To this Foxe added the account of Oldcastle's execution, which was taken from John Bale, A brefe Chronycle concerning the examination and death of the blessed martir of Christ sir Johan Oldcastel (London, 1548?), STC 1278, sigs F8v-G1r. In the 1570 edition, however, Foxe replaced this account of Oldcastle's martyrdom with a defence of him against the charge made by Nicholas Harpsfield that Oldcastle had been a traitor.

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There were no further changes made to any of this material in subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments.

Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaThe history of Iohn Claydon skynner of London, & of R. Turmyng Baker.
Ex Regist. Cant.
THe. 17. of August. 1415. did personally appeare Iohn Claydon Currier of London (arrested by the Maior of the said Citie, for the suspition of heresye) before Henry Archbishop of Canterbury, in saint Paules church: MarginaliaIohn Claydon examined.which Iohn (being obiected to him by the Archbishop, that in the City of Londō and other places of the prouince of Canterbury, he was suspected by diuers godly and learned men for heresye, and to be contrary to the catholike fayth, and determination of the churche) did openlye confesse and denied not, but that he had bene for the space of. xx. yeares suspected both aboute the Citye of London, and also in the prouince of Canterbury, and specially of the common sorte, for Lollardye and heresie, and to be contrary to the catholicke fayth and determinatiō of the church of Rome, and diffamed of þe same all the time aforesaid: MarginaliaIohn Claydon first imprisoned by Robert Braybroke bishop of London.In somuche that in the tyme of mayster Robert Braybroke bishop of London deceased, hee was for the space of. ij. yeares commaunded to the prison of Conwey, for the aforesayd diffamation and suspiciō, and for the same cause also he was in prison in the fleete for three yeares. MarginaliaIohn Claydon before abiured.Out of which prison he (in the raygne of kyng Henrye the fourth) was brought before Lord Iohn Scarle, then Chauncellour to the king, and there did abiure all heresie and errour. And the sayd Iohn Claydon being asked of the sayd Archbishop, whether he did abiure the heresy of which he was suspect, before anye other: did confesse that in a conuocation at London in Paules churche before Thomas Arundell late Archbishop deceased, he hid abiure all such doctrine which they called heresy and errour contrarye to the catholike fayth and determinatiō of the church, and that he had not onelye left suche articles and opinions, wherin he was diffamed, but also did abstaine from all company that were suspected of suche opinions, so that he should neither geue ayde, help, counsel, nor fauour vnto them. MarginaliaEnglishe bookes.And moreouer, the said Iohn was asked by the sayd Archbishop, whether he euer had in his house since hys abiuration, in his keepyng, any bookes written in Englishe. Whereunto he confessed þt he woulde not denye, but that he had in his house, andin his keeping many English bookes: for he was arested by the Maior of the Citye of London, for suche bookes as he had, which bookes (as he thought) were in the Maiors keeping. MarginaliaThe iudgemēt of the Maior of London.Vpon the which, the Maior did openly confesse that he had such bookes in his keeping, which in his iudgement were the woorst and the most peruerse that euer hee dyd reade or see, and one booke that was well bounde in red leather of partchment, written in a good English hand: and among the other bookes found wyth the sayde Iohn Claydon, the Maior gaue vp the sayde booke afore the Archbishop. MarginaliaClaydon bestowed muche money vpon Englishe bookes.Whereupon the said Iohn Claydon being asked of the Archbishop if he knewe that booke, did openly confesse that he knewe it verye well, because he caused it to be wrytten of hys owne costes and charges, for he spent much mony thereupon since hys abiuration. Then was hee asked who wrote it. He did answer, one called Iohn Grime. And further, being required what the sayd Iohn Grime was, he answered, he could not tell. MarginaliaIohn Claydon could not read.Agayn, being demaunded whether he did euer reade the same booke, he did confesse that he could not reade, but he had heard the fourth part thereof read of one Iohn Fuller. And being asked whether he thought the contentes of that booke to be catholicke, profitable, good and true, he aunswered that many thinges which he had hearde in the same booke, were both profitable, good and healthfull to his soule: and as he sayd, he had great affection to the sayde booke, for a sermon preached at Horsaldowne, that was written in the sayd booke. MarginaliaRichard Turmyng Baker.And being further asked, whether, since the time of hys sayd abiuration, he did commune wyth one Rich. Baker of the City aforesayd, he did aunswer yea: for the said Richard Baker did come often vnto his house to haue communication with him: And being asked whether he knew the sayd Richard to bee suspected, and diffamed of heresy: MarginaliaThis Turming belyke, was then in prisonhe did answer agayn þt he knew well that the sayd Richard was suspected and diffamed of manye men and women in the Citye of London, as one whom they thought to be an hereticke. Which confession being made, did cause the sayd bookes to be deliuered to Maister Robert Gilbert, doctor of diuinitye: MarginaliaWilliā Lyndwode doct of both William Lyndewood doctor of both lawes, and other Clarkes, to be examined, and in the meane time Dauid Beard, Alexander Phillip, & Balthasar Mero, were taken for witnesses against him, and were cōmitted to be examined, to maister Iohn Escourt generall examiner of Canterbury. This done, the Archbishop cōtinued his Session tyll Monday next in þe same place. Which monday being come, which was the. xx. of the sayde moneth, the sayd maister Escourt openly and publikelye exhibited the witnesses, being openlye read before the Archbyshop and other bishops: which being read, thē after that were read diuers tractations, found in the house of the sayd Iohn Claydon: out of the which, being examined, diuers poyntes were gathered and noted for heresies and errours, and speciallye out of the booke aforesayd: MarginaliaAn Englishe booke entituled: The Lanterne of lyght.whiche booke the sayd Iohn Claydon confessed by hys owne costes to be writtē & bounde, which booke was intituled, the Lanterne of light. In þe which & in the other examined, were these articles vnder written cōtained.

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Marginalia1.First, vpon the text of the Gospell, howe the enemy did sow tares, there is sayd thus that wicked Antichrist: i. the Pope hath sowed among the lawes of Christ, hys popishe and corrupt decrees, which are of no authority strength, nor valure.

Marginalia2.That the Archbishops and Bishops, speaking indifferently, are the seates of the beast Antichrist, when he sitteth in thē and rayneth aboue other people in the darke caues of errours and heresies.

Marginalia3.That the Bishops licence for a man to preache the worde of God, is the true caracter of the beast. I. Antichrist, and therefore simple and faythfull priestes may preach whē they will against the prohibition of that An-

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