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1037 [1036]

K. Henry. 8. A Table of persons abiured with their articles.

HItherto we haue run 

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Bishop Stokesley's persecution

This is largely an account of evangelicals, who were forced to abjuretheir beliefs and do pennance during a crackdown on heresy conducted jointly by Bishop John Stokesley and Thomas More, during his tenure as Lord Chancellor.There are two two notable insertions into this material. The first is an account ofWilliam Tracy, whose outspokenly evangelical will led to his posthumous convict-ion of heresy and the exhumation of his body. Foxe reprinted his copy of Tracy's will from the version in Hall's Chronicle (See Edward Hall, The union of the two noble and illustre famelies of Lancastre and York [London, 1548], STC 12721, fo. 211r-v) Foxe's account of Tracy, including a translation of his will into Latin, first appeared in the Rerum (pp. 125-6). The second is an account of Richard Bayfield's apprehension which Foxe found in the London court books.

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In fact, most of the material in this section was taken from London court books from the episcopates of Cuthbert Tunstall and John Stokesley. The fact that this was not joined to the main narrative of Bayfield's martyrdom (the material on Bayfield's background comes from a knowledgeable informant, probably based in London. However, the articles charged against Bayfield, his answers to them, the sentence of degradation imposed on him and the letter to the mayor and sheriffs of London, are taken from a now lost court book of Bishop John Stokesley.) is an indication that Foxe's search through the diocese of London archives was being made while this section of the first edition was being printed. Another indication of this is the list of names of the people who were forced to do penance in London - a list of names that includes the people described in this section - which appeared in the first edition. The list, without any of the details which appear in this section, indicate that Foxe only had time to scan this material in 1563. Most of these London court books are, now lost, but much of the detail in this section can be confirmed in other sources. (Pages from one register, relating to a visitation of the diocese in 1527 survive in Foxe's papers as part of BL, Harley MS 421; the visitation was by Geoffrey Wharton, the vicar-general of Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall of London and he uncovered a network of heretics in Colchester and its environs, particularly the villages of Boxted, Witham and Steeple Bumpstead. Much of this visitation was recorded in a register whosepages - apparently torn out by Foxe or his associates - form a significant portionof BL, Harley MS 421. Some pages of this register that now longer survive, were transcribed by John Strype, when he had custody of Foxe's papers and printed inhis Ecclesiaiastical Memorials.). One item also comes from the register of Bishop Tunstall (Guildhall MS 9531/10, fos. 136v-137r) and another comes from petition sent to Anne Boleyn (Anne Boleyn was marchioness of Pembroke from 1 September 1532 until her recognition as queen in March 1533. The accurate citation of Anne's title of marchioness helps to confirm that Foxe was drawing his information from a petition). Interestingly, Foxe only obtained this petition between 1576 and 1583. Some of Foxe's narratives are confirmed by contemporary chronicles (Thomas More, The Apology, ed. J. B. Trapp, CWTM 9 [New Haven, CT, 1979], p. 121 and 'Two London Chronicles', ed. C. L. Kingsford in Camden Society Miscellany XII, third series, 18 [London, 1910], p. 5).

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Foxe's unwillingness to describe the abjurations of Henrician evangelicals(and, earlier in his work, the Lollards) contrasts starkly with his desire to conceal such submissions in the case of the Marian martyrs. This an indication of the extent to which an earlier tolerance of recantations had eroded among Protestants, and alsoof Foxe's conviction that those born before the full onset of the Reformation had bothlesser spiritual knowledge and lesser obligations to God.

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Thomas S. Freeman

ouer (good reader) the names, the Actes and doyngs of them which haue susteined death and the torment of burning for Christes cause, through the rigorous proclamation aboue specified 
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See 1570, pp. 1959-60; 1576, pp. 991-2 and 1583, pp. 1019-20.

, set out (as is sayd) in the name of king Henry, MarginaliaThe kinges proclamatiō, Vid. supra. pag. 991. but in dede procured by the byshops 
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Notice that Foxe shifts the blame for persecution from Henry VIII to his bishops.

. Which proclamation was so straitly looked vpon and executed so to the vttermost in euery poynt, by the sayd popish Prelates, that no good mā habens spiramentum, wherof Esdras speaketh) Marginalia4. Esdr. 7. could peepe out with hys hed neuer so little, but he was caught by the backe, & brought eyther to the fire, as were these aboue mentioned: or els compelled to abiure. Wherof there was a great multitude, as well men as women: whose names if they were sought out through all registers in England, no doubt, it would make to long a discourse. Neuerthelesse omittyng the rest, it shal content vs at this present, briefly as in a short Table, to insinuate the names, with the speciall Articles, of such as in the diocesse of London vnder Bishop Stokesley, were molested and vexed, and at last compelled to abiure, as here vnder may appeare.

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Persons abiured, with their Articles.

MarginaliaMē abiured. Geffrey
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These articles are taken from Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall's register (Guildhall MS 9531/10, fos. 136v-137r).

HIs Articles were these: For ha-
uing and dispersyng certain bokes
of Luther. Item, for translating cer-
tayne chapters of his
booke De bonis
For holding that faith wt-
out workes, is sufficient to bryng vs
to heauen. That Christen men ought
to worship God only and no saintes
That Christen men should not offer to
images in churches, ne set any lyght
before them. That pardons graunted
by pope or Bishop do not profite man.

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Sygar Ni-
colson, Sta
tioner of

His Articles were lyke: and more-
ouer for hauing in hys house certain
bookes of Luther and other prohibi-
ted, and not presenting them to the
The handling of this man was to
too cruell, if the report be true, that he
should be hanged vp by thoses partes,
which nature well suffreth not to be
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Thomas More, defending himself from charges of torturing accused heretics, admitted that Nicholson had been detained in his house for four or five days. More also admitted that there were reports that Nicholson was whipped and otherwise tortured while he detained him. More indignantly denied these reports and declared that Nicholson was physically unharmed during the entire time thathe was More's involuntary guest (Thomas More, The Apology, ed. J. B. Trapp,CWTM 9 [New Haven, CT, 1979], p. 121). Foxe is probably refering here to wilder versions of these stories, although he must have known of More's denialof these stories. As a result, Foxe is being disingenous here by repeating the charges, but not endorsing them and not naming More.

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Iohn Ray-
mund, a Dutchman. 
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John Raimund (or more correctly, Hans von Ruremond) was aFlemish printer who had already been convicted in 1525 for printing hereticalworks in 1525. Ae appears to have moved permanently to London and wasstill active there in 1535 under the alias of John Holibusch (see Fines).


For causyng fyftene hundreth of
Tyndals new Testamēts to be prin
ted at Antwarpe, and for bryngyng
fyue hundreth into England.

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Paule Lu-
ther Gray Frier, and
warden of
the house
at ware.

Hys Articles: For preachyng &
saying that it is pytye, that there bee
so many Images suffered in so ma-
ny places, where as vndiscret and
vnlearned people bee: for they make
theyr prayer and oblations so intirely
and hartely before the Image, that
they beleue it to be 7#254;e very self sainct
in heauen. Item, that if he knew his
father & mother were in heauen, he
would count thē as good as Sainct
Peter or Paule, but for the payne
they suffred for Christes sake. Item
that there is no nede to go on pilgri-
mage. Item, that if a man were at
the poynt of drownyng or any other
daunger: he should call onely vppon
God, and no Sainct, for Sainctes in
heauē can not help vs, neither know
no more what men doe here in thys
worlde, thē a man in >the North coū-
trey knoweth what is donne in thee
South countrey.

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Roger Whaplod was the son-in-law of Richard Hunne and like Hunne, he was markedly anti-clerical in his sympathies. A few years after the incident described below, he was in even more serious trouble with the authorities, as one of the ringleaders of a riot that occurred at St. Paul's cathedral in 1531. Whaplod was one of five men arrested and he was imprisoned for an unknown length of time. In 1538, his wife appealed to Thomas Cromwell for her husband's release. Whether or not the appeal was successful is unknown and Whaplod's subsequent fate is unclear. He was dead by August 1560 (W. R. Cooper, 'RichardHunne', Reformation 1 [1996], pp. 234-5). Roger's son Dunstan would supply Foxe with records of the Hunne affair.

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Roger Whaplod sent by one Tho.
Northfolke vnto Doct. Goderyge 
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Foxe's syntax makes this passage unclear. Whaplod sent Norfolk to Goderidge, not the other way round.

MarginaliaA bill read by the preacher at the Spittell.this Bill followyng to be read at hys
Sermon in the Spittel 
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Roger Whaplod, who was Richard Hunne's son-in-law and he had successfully petitioned to have Hunne's property restored to his family and tohave compensation paid to them for his death. Whaplod, moreover,continued to twist the knife. The bill Goderidge read was hardly hertetical, but,by announcing that money used from Hunne's estate would be used to pay for repairs to the Fleet conduit, it was a reminder of Hunne's former standing as a leading andphilanthropic citizen. The request to pray for Hunne's soul was particularly provocative, since he had been convicted of heresy. The choice of the venue forthis announcement was also calculated and inflamatory: St Mary Spital had been the parish church of Charles Joseph, the gaoler who was believed to have murdered Hunne.

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If there by any well disposed per-
son willyng to doe any cost vppon the
reparation of the cundette in Flet-
street, let him or them resort vnto the
administrators of the goods and cat-
tell of one Rich. Hunne, late Mar-
chaunt Taylor of London, which dy
ed intestate, or els to me, & they shall
haue toward the same vj. li. xiij. s. iiij.
d. and a better penny, of the goodes of the sayd Richard Hunne: vpō whose
soule and all Christen soules Iesu
haue mercy.
Persons abiured, with their Articles.

For the which Byl both Whaplod
and Northfolke were brought and
troubled before the Byshop 
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Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall, not Bishop John Stokesley.

and also
MarginaliaIt was the manner at thys time to take money for reading of billes at sermons. Doct. Goderige, which toke a groate
for readyng the Byll, was suspēded
for a tyme, from saying Masse, & a
lso was forced to reuoke thee same at
Paules Crosse, readyng this Byll as foloweth.

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The reuocation of Doct. Wil. Goodrige read at Paules Crosse.

MarginaliaEx Regist. Lond.
Doct. Godrige reuoketh his praying for the soule of Richard Hunne.
M Aisters, so it is that where in my late sermon at S. Mary spittle, the Tewsday in Easter weke last past, I did pray specially for the soule of Richard Hunne, late of Londō merchant Tailor, an heretike by the lawes of holy Churche iustly condemned, by reason wherof I greatly offended god and hys church and the lawes of the same, for the which I haue submitted me to my Ordinary and done penance therfore: for as much as peraduenture the audience that was there offended by my said wordes, might take any occasion therby to thinke that I did fauour the sayd heretike or any other, I desire you at the instance of almighty God to forgeue me, and not so to think of me, for I did it vnaduisedly. Therfore here before God and you, I declare my selfe that I haue not fauoured hym or any other heretike, nor hereafter intend to do, but at all tymes shall defend the Catholike fayth of holy church, accordyng to my profession to the best of my power.

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Foxe's source for the account of Robert West is almost certainly a now lost court- book of Bishop Cuthbert Tunstal of London. Robert West was also - according to a record not consulted by Foxe - charged with eating meat on Friday and having committed adultery (London Metropolitan Archive, DL/C/330, fo. 175v)

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Abiured for bookes and opinions
contrary to the proclamation.

White of
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In 1536, a Nicholas White of Winchelsea was charged with opposing veneration of the Virgin Mary, pilgrimages, offerings to saints, prayers for the dead, and he was also charged with denying the existence of Purgatory (L&P XI, p. 569). On 19 January 1557, a Nicholas White (whose age and place of residence are not given by Foxe) was burned at Canterbury (1563, p. 1571; 1570, p. 2107; 1576,p. 1872; 1583, p. 1930). The two Nicholas Whites may be the same person or they may be relatives.

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Hys Articles: For speakyng a-
gaynst the Priestes saying of Mat-
tens. For speakyng against praying
for them that be dead: Agaynst pray-
ing to God for small trifles, as for þe
cow caluing, the henne hatchyng. &c.
For speakyng agaynst the relicke of
S. Peters finger: Agaynst oblati-
ons to Images: Agaynst vowyng
of Pilgrimage: Agaynst Priesthode:
Agaynst holy bread & holy ater. &c.

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Rich. Kit-
chin, priest.
Hys Articles: That pardōs graū
ted by the Pope, are naught, & that
men should put no trust in them, but
onely inthe Passion of Christ. That
he beyng lead by the woordes of the
Gospell: Mat. 7. De MarginaliaVia lata, via augusta. Via lata, & an
& also by the epistle of þe Masse
beginnng: Vir fortissimus Iudas, had
erred in the way of the Pope, and
thought, þt there were but ij. wayes
and no Purgatory. That men ought
to worshyp no Images, nor set vp
lyghtes before them. That Pilgre-
mage doth nothyng auayle. That þe
Gospell was not truely preached for
the space of three hundreth yeares
past. &c.

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Wil. We-
gen priest
at S. Mary
His Articles: That hee was not
bounde to say his Mattins nor other
seruice, but to sing with þe Queereþetill they came to pryme,and thē say-
ing no more seruice, thought he might
well go to Masse. That he had sayd
Masse oftētimes, & had not said hys
Mattins and hys diuine seruice be-
fore.That he had gone to Masse wt-
out confessiō made to a Priest That
it was sufficient for a man beynge in
deadly sinne, to aske God mercy onel-
y for hys synne, with out farther
cōfession made to a Prieste. That hee
helde agaynst Pylgremages, and cal
led Images stockes and stones and
witches. Item, that hee beyng sicke
went to the Roode of S. Marge-
rete Patens, and sayde before him xx.
Pater nosters, and when he saw him
selfe neuer the better, then hee sayd,

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a soule
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