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1059 [1058]

K. Henry. 8. Notes of Tonstals Sermon against the Popes supremacie.

edifice being builded, groweth vp to an holy temple in our Lord. &c. Here he saith þt they be builded, not vpon the fundation of Peter onely, but vpon the fuondation of the Apostles, so that all they be in the foūdation set vpon Christ the very rocke, wherupon standeth the whole Church.

In the xxj. chap. 

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Revelation 21.10-14.

also of the Apoca. the new Citie, and the heauenly Hierusalem of almyghty God is described of the holy Ghost, not with one foundation onely of Peter, but with xij. foundations, MarginaliaApoc. 21. after the number of the Apostles.

MarginaliaCypria. lib. De simplic Prelato. S. Cyprian Lib. De simplic. præl. giueth record likewise to the same, that the Apostles had equall power and dignitie giuen to them by Christ. And because all should preach one thing, therfore the begynning therof first came by one, which was Peter, who confessed for them all: That Christ was the Sonne of the liuyng God, saying further, MarginaliaEuery byshop hath his part wholy to hymselfe. that in the Church there is one office of all Byshops, wherof euery man hath a part allowed wholy vnto him. Now, if the Byshop of Rome may medle ouer all, where he will: then euery mā hath not wholy his part, for the Byshop of Rome may also medle in his part ioyntly, with him: so that now he hath it not wholly: which is agaynst Cyprian.

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MarginaliaAug. in Ioan. tractat. 50. S. Austen 

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St Augustine, Tractates (lectures) on the Gospel of John (no.50 on John 11:55-12). Augustine discusses, in part 12, the text of Matthew 16.19 as well, to highlight the power of the church as a whole. [See the on-line version of this tractate at].

likewise expoundyng the Gospell of Iohn, in the 50. treatie, speaketh there of the keyes of Peter. Which he sayth were giuen of Christ to Peter, not for hym selfe alonely, but for the whole Church.

MarginaliaCyrillus in vlt. cap Ioannis. Cyrillus expoundyng 

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This refers to the work of St Cyril of Alexandria, a church father of the late fourth and early fifth century.

the last chapter of Iohn, and there speakyng of the wordes of Christ spoken vnto Peter, Feede my sheepe. &c. thus vnderstandeth the same: That because Peter had thrise denyed Christ, wherby he thought himselfe he had lost his Apostleshyp: Christ to comfort hym agayne, and to restore him to his office that he had lost, asked hym thrise, whether he loued hym, and so restored hym agayne to his office, which els he durst not haue presumed vnto, saying to hym: Feede my sheepe. &c. MarginaliaPasce oues meas, maketh nothing for the popes vniuersall pastoralitie. With which exposition the auncient holy expositours of that place, do likewise agree: So that by these wordes of feedyng Christes sheepe, the Byshop of Rome can take no aduauntage to maintaine his vniuersall pastoralitie ouer all Christian dominions.

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Acts 20.28.

, where as the Byshop of Rome sayth, that Peter by these wordes of Christ spoken to hym, hath a preeminence aboue the other, S. Paule Actes 20. proueth the contrary: where he speakyng to the Byshops assembled at Milete, sayth to them: Take heede to your selues, and to all your flocke, in which the holy ghost hath put you to gouerne. &c. MarginaliaAct. 20.

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And Peter himselfe 

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I Peter 5.1-2.

likewise 1. Pet. 5. sayeth: Ye that be Priestes feede the flocke of God amongest you. &c.

MarginaliaScriptures wrongfullye alleaged for the popes supremacie. So that by 

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Tunstal's summing up of his interpretation of the meaning of Matthew 16.18 and John 21.17.

these Scriptures conferred together, it may appeare that neither the. xvij. chapter of Matthew nor the xxi. of Iohn do proue that Peter had power, authoritie, or dignitie giuen hym by Christ, ouer all the other, that they should be vnder him: and yet notwithstandyng his primacie, in that he first of all the Apostles confessed Christ to be the Sonne of the liuyng God (with the which his confession all the other Apostles dyd consent, & also preached the same) standeth still. Which confession first by Peter made, all other that wil be saued, must follow also, & be taught to confesse the same. And thus the Byshop of Romes power ouer all, which he would proue by those places wrongfully alledged for his purpose, vtterly quayleth, and is not proued. And thus much for the Scriptures and Doctours.

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Now farther procedyng in this matter, the sayd Tonstall commeth to Councels and examples of the primitiue Church, as followeth.

MarginaliaExamples of the primitiue church against the popes supremacie. Faustinus, Legate 

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The sixth council met in Carthage between 418-9. Tunstal was here referring to the so-called African council's reaction to the claims of Pope Zozimus and the encroachments of Rome into their traditional autonomy, as presented to the council by his legate, Bishop Faustinus of the Italian province of Picenum.

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to the Byshop of Rome in the. vj. Councell of Carthage, alledged that the Byshop of Rome ought to haue the ordering of all great matters in all places by his supreme authoritie, bringyng no Scripture for hym (for at that tyme no Scripture was thought to make for it) but alledgeth for him, and that vntruly, the first Councell of Nice 
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Faustinus alleged that canons of the first council of Nicaea supported the supremacy of Rome argument. Tunstal here points out that, in fact, the sixth canon from the first council of Nicaea make the reverse argument. The sixth canon upheld the 'ancient customs' of the bishops of Alexandria (in north Africa) as well as the provincial rights of the bishops of Rome and Antioch. Faustinus and Zozimus were appealing to a corrupted form of the canon, in that certain decisions from the non-ecumenical council of Sardinia (347) had been appended to the original Nicaean text in order to give disgruntled African churchmen an outlet against their provincial superiors through appeal to Rome. Only Rome ascribed to this variant reading. The controversy, the council of Carthage and its canons are extensively discussed at

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, to make for his purpose. After this, when the booke was brought forth, & no such article founde in it, but the cōtrary, yet the Coūcell at that tyme, sent to Constātinople, Alexandria, & Autioche, where the Patriarchal seas were, to haue the true copy of the Councell of Nice, which was sent vnto them. And an other copye also was sent frō Rome whether also they sent for the same purpose.

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MarginaliaThe supremacie of Rome reproued by the councell of Nice.
Vid. supr. pag. 13.
After that the copy was brought to them, and no such Article found in it, but in the fift 

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The canons of the first Council of Nicaea can be readily found on-line at Tunstal noted here that the fifth canon was actually contrary to the legate's purposes. The fifth canon dealt with provincial problems and their necessary resolution through frequent provincial synods. This was one of the Henricians strongest arguments that matters originating within a province not be appealed to Rome but settled with the province (referring to the annulment suit).

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chapter therof the contrary, that all causes Ecclesiasticall should either be determined within the Dioces, or els, if any were greued, then to appeale to the Councell Prouinciall, and there the matter to take full end, so that for no such causes men should go out of their Prouinces: the whole Councell of Carthage wrote to Celestine at that tyme beyng Byshop of Rome, that since the Councell of Nice had no such article in it, MarginaliaThe councell of Nice falsified by Faustinus the popes Legate. as was vntruly alledged by Faustinus, but the contrary, they desired him to absteine after, to make any more such demaūd denouncing vnto him, that they would not suffer any cause great or small, to be brought by appeale, out of their countrey, and therupon made a law that no man should appeale out of the countrey of Aphrike vpon payne to be denounced accursed. Wherwith the Byshop of Rome euer after helde hym content, and made no more busines with them, seeing he had naught to say for himself to the cōtrary. And at thys Councell S. Austen was present 
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St Augustine attended the Council of Carthage against his adversary Pelagius.

, and subscribed the same, read more hereof, pag. 10.

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MarginaliaThe sixt Article of Nicene councell.
The 4. chiefe patriarkes equall in power.
It was determined also in the sixt Article 

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This is an accurate reading of the sixth canon.

of the sayde Councell of Nice: that in the Orient the Byshop of Antioche should be chiefe: in Egypt the Byshop of Alexandria: about Rome, the Byshop of Rome, and likewise in other countreys, the Metropolitanes should haue their preheminence: so that the Bishop of Rome neuer had medling in those countreys.

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And in the next 

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This refers to the seventh canon of the council of Nicaea which refers to the authority of the bishop of Aelia (Jerusalem).

Article folowing, the Byshop of Hierusalem (which Citie before had ben destroyed, and almost desolate) was restored to his olde prerogatiue, to be the chiefe in Palestine and in the countrey of Iurie.

By this ye see how the Patriarcke of Rome during all this tyme of the primitiue Churche, had no such primacie preeminent aboue other Patriarkes, much lesse ouer kinges & Emperours, as may appeare 

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The sixth ecumenical council of the church was also known as the third council of Constantinople (680-81).

by Agatho Byshop of Rome long after that, in whose tyme was the sixt Councell generall. MarginaliaPope Agatho subiected to the Emperour. Which Agatho 
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This refers to the delay of Agatho's consecration as pope until the approval of then emperor Constantine IV Pogonatus could be obtained.

after his election, sent to the Emperour then beyng at Constantinople, to haue his election allowed before he woulde be consecrate, after the olde custome at that tyme vsed.

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MarginaliaPope Vitalianus subiect to the Emperour.
63. Dist. Agatho.
In like sort, an other Byshop of Rome called Vitalianus did the same, as it is writtē in the Decrees the lxiii. Distinct. cap. Agatho.

Marginalia63. Dist. cum longe The lyke did S. Ambrose 

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This refers to St Ambrose and St Gregory … Tunstal discusses this at p. 55 of the 1823 edition of the sermon.

, and S. Gregory, before thē, as it is written in þe chap. Cum longe, in the same Distinct. During all which time the Bishops of Rome folowed wel the doctrine of S. Peter and S. Paule lefte vnto them, to be subiectes and to obey their Princes.

MarginaliaBishop Tonstall a right Lutherane. Thus, after that Byshop Tonstal playing the earnest Lutheran, both by scriptures and auncient Doctours, also by examples sufficient of the primitiue church, hath proued and declared, how the Byshops of Rome ought to submit themselues to their higher powers, vnder whom God hath appointed euery creature in this world to obey: now let vs likewise see how the sayd Bishop Tonstal describeth vnto vs his disobedience intolerable, his pride incomparable, & his malignant malice most execrable.

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MarginaliaThe disobenience the pride & the malice of the pope described. And first speaking 

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Tunstal takes up the discussion of disobedience at p. 44 of the 1823 edition of the sermon (referring to the events of Genesis 3).

of the disobedience of Adam & Eue, then of the pride of Nabugodonosor 
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Tunstal here discusses Isaiah 14.12-16, referring to the Babylonian king Nabuchodonosor II. At verse 12 he is called the 'bright morning star' which also alludes to Lucifer (also the 'morning star').

, & of Lucifer 
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In essence, Christian identification of Lucifer, the fallen angel (thrown out of Heaven for disobedience), Satan, the Devil and the serpent of Eden, draws upon interpretation of Revelation 12 (verses 4, 7, and 9 in particular).

, at length he compareth the Byshops of Rome to them all. Who first for disobedience refuse to obey Gods commaundement, but contrary to his word, will be aboue their gouernours, in refusing to obey them.

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MarginaliaThe pride of the pope described. Secondly, beside 

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Foxe paraphrases much of the text of pp. 50-2 of the 1823 edition.

this rebellious disobedience in these Byshops of Rome not sufferable, their pride moreouer so farre exceedeth all measure, that they will haue their princes, to whom they owe subiection, prostrate vpō þe ground, to adore them by godly honour vpon the earth, and to kisse their feete, as if they were God, where as they be but wretched men, and yet they looke that their princes should do it vnto them, and also all other christen men owing them no subiection, should do the same.

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MarginaliaThe pope compared to Lucifer. And who be these I pray you, that men may knowe them? Surely (saith he) the Byshops of Rome be those whom I do meane. Who followyng the pride of Lucifer their father, make themselues fellowes to God, and do exalte their seate aboue the starres of God, and do ascende aboue the cloudes, and will be lyke to almyghtie God. The starres of God be ment the Aungels of heauen, for as stars doe shewe vnto vs in part, the lyght of heauen, so do Aungelles sent vnto men, shewe the heauenly lyght of the grace of God, to those to whome they be sent. And the cloudes signified in the olde Testament the Prophetes, and in the newe doe signifie the Apostles and preachers of the worde of God. MarginaliaThe pope exalted aboue the cloudes and the starres of heauē For as the cloudes do conceaue and gather in the skye moysture, which they after poure downe vpon the grounde to make it thereby more fruitfull: so the Prophets in the olde Testament, and the Apostles and Preachers in the newe, doe poure into our eares the moysture of their heauenly doctrine of the worde of God, to make therewith by grace, our soules beyng seere and drye, to brynge forth fruite of the spirite. Thus doe all auncient expositours, and amongest them 

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The psalm, which is set in the scene of a wedding, is generally considered an analogy for the church and Christ or subjects and king (for bride and bridegroom).

S. Augustine, interprete to be ment in Scripture, starres and cloudes, in the exposition of the xlv. Psalme.

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MarginaliaApoc. 19. 22. But S. Iohn 

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Tunstal here refers to Revelation 19.10 & 22.9 (the reaction of John to the appearance of the angel).

the Euangelist writeth in the xix. chap. of the Apocalips, & in the xxij. also, that whē he would haue fallen downe at the Aungels foote that did shew hym those visions there written, to haue adored him with godly wor-

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