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1147 [1146]

K. Hen. 8. Allegations against the vj. Articles. Transubstantiation.

MarginaliaThe grosse opinion of Lanfrancus and the Papistes concerning the Sacrament.Priest, to be conuerted vnspeakably, incomprehensibly, and miraculously by the operation of Gods mighty power, into the essence of the Lordes body, the outward formes onely of the thinges themselues, and certaine qualities reserued, and that for two respects: The one lest the sight of the raw and bloudy flesh might otherwise make men to abhorre from eating therof: The other, for that they which beleue the thing they see not, might haue the greater merite for their beliefe. The conuersion of which earthly substaunces into the essence of the Lordes body notwithstanding, yet is the selfe same body of the Lord in heauen, and there hath his essentiall beyng at the right hand of his father immortal inuiolate, perfect, vndeminished, and vncorrupted: so that truly it may be affirmed, the selfe same body both to be receiued of vs, and yet not the selfe same. The selfe same, I meane, as touching the essence, propertie, and vertue of hys true nature: & yet not the selfe same as touching the formes of bread and wyne, and other outward qualities incurryng to our outward senses. &c. And thus haue ye the confession of Lancfranke Archb. of Cant.

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MarginaliaThe impious & grosse opinion of Guimundus, of transubstantiation. From this confession of Lancfranke, the opinion and assertion also 

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This quotation from Guitmund comes from De veritate corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Iesu Christi, ed. Johann Vlimmer (Louvain, 1561), fo. 34r.

of Guimundus 
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I.e., Guitmund, bishop of Aversa, who was a well-known contemporary critic of Berengar's teachings on the Eucharist.

Archb. of Auersane, doth nothing differe in grossenes and impietie, but rather passeth the same, thus affirmyng and defendyng: That the body of Christ is pressed, and torne with teeth euen lyke as it was felt and touched with the handes of Thomas.

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And moreouer the sayd Guimundus (if his boke be not rather counterfeited at Louaine) 

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This is a reference to De veritate corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Iesu Christi, ed. Johann Vlimmer (Louvain, 1561), Foxe's source for Guitmund of Aversa's writings.

in the same place 
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This quotation is from De veritate corporis et sanguinis Domini nostril Iesu Christi, ed. Johann Vlimmer (Louvain, 1561), fo. 34v.

answeryng to an obiection put out, that it is not lawfull for Christ to be torne in pieces with teeth, doubteth not to pronounce that whether we take tearyng for hard bityng, or softe bityng, it is not repugnant nor disagreeyng, but þt (by the wil of God agreyng therunto) the body of Christ may be touched with handes, bitten with mouth, crushed, yea and deuided in pieces, with hard or soft pressing of the teeth: and that as he was brused vpon the crosse, according to the prophete saying: He was brused for our iniquities. &c. MarginaliaEsay [illegible text] so the same body for the health of the faythfull, may deuoutly be torne and rent with theyr teath any thyng to the contrary notwithstandyng. &c. Guimund. lib. Sacram. fol 30. Iudge now al good studious readers, what is to be thoughte of this kynd of doctrine, and how this opinion cohereth with the infallible voyce of gods word sayinge Exod. And of him ye shall not breake a bone. &c.

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This rude and mishapen doctrine of these monkes concerning transubstantiation, as ye haue heard, when and by whom it began first to be broched: MarginaliaThe greate confirmatiō of this doctrine of transubstantiatiō was by miracles. so if ye would now know by what learnyng and scriptures they did confirme & establish the same, ye must here thinke and vnderstande, how their chiefest groundes and substance to persuade the people was at this tyme, certayne miracles by them forged, & published both in their writings and preachinges, MarginaliaA miracle to proue transubstantiatiō wherof one was the same of Odo aboue recited, which Osberne, or some other monkish legend inuented of him, how he should shew vnto certayn the host turned into the lykenes of flesh & bloud droppyng into the chalice for the conuersiō of those clerkes, which before would not beleue it.

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MarginaliaEx Osberna lib. 2. De vita Dunstani. An other lyke miracle 

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Fascinatingly, although most of the miracles which Foxe proceeds to deride in the next few paragraphs were used to support the doctrine of transubstantiation, this one does not. Foxe appears to be repeating it for the slightly digressive purpose of undermining tales of miracles themselves.

is also told by the sayd Osberne of Dunstane in this order 
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This story is taken from Osbern of Canterbury's hagiography of Dunstan. (See 'Vita Sancti Dunstani' in Memorials of St. Dunstan, archbishop of Canterbury, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series 63 (1874), pp. 135-6. One copy of Osbern's hagiography, BL, Arundel MS 16, is heavily annotated by John Joscelyn and he was probably Foxe's source for this story.

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, MarginaliaAn other miracle to proue transubstantiation. how the sayd Dunstane appeared to a certayne lame crepill in the night, willyng hym to resort vnto hys tombe, to haue his lymnes againe restored. Which crepil, according as he was willed, after he had there continued praying for health a long tyme, and could not obtayn, began to returne home agayn after long tarying, without all hope of recouery. To whom the sayd Dunstane appearyng again by the way, asked from whence he came, & whether he would. The crepi answering, declared how he came thether vpon hope of helth, where he had long taried, and because he could find no recouerie, therfore he now was returning home. To whom then said Dunstane: I am (sayhe) Dunstan the fellow seruaunt of all gods seruantes, and haue bene occupied with certaine necessary busines for the which I could not be present there with my children. For Elfricke (sayd he) otherwise surnamed Bata hath attempted to disherite my church 
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Foxe assumes that the Aelfric mentioned here was both Aelfric of Eynsham and Aelfric, the archbishop of Canterbury. In fact, it was neither. Nor is this figure to be confused with Aelfric Bata, a Benedictine monk and author. It actually was Aelfric, the ealdorman of Hampshire and Wiltshire, who had despoiled Glastonbury Abbey, where Dunstan had been abbot.

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, MarginaliaBy thys it appeareth that Ælfrike the translator of the Saxon sermon was Archbyshop of Canterb. but I haue so stopped him, that he could not preuayle.

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Many other fabulous miracles of the lyke stampe are ryfe in popish stories, conterfeited and forged vnder diuers and sondry names, some referred to Gregory 

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Legends of miracles of Gregory the Great in support of the doctrine of transubstantiation are to be found in De veritate corporis yet sanguinis Domini nostri Iesu Christi, ed. Johann Vlimmer (Louvain, 1561), fo. 74v.

, some to Paschasius 
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Paschasius Radbertus lived about two centuries before Berengar and his teachings on the Eucharist were strongly criticized by Ratramnus of Corbie, but they formed the basis for the doctrine of transubstantiation.

, and to other moe, which to recite all, would fill a whole sea full of lyes and fables. Among many, one is thus inuented of Paschasius. There MarginaliaAn other lying miracle of Pascasius to proue trāsubstantiation. was a Priest, sayth he 
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Foxe's wording makes it appear that his source for this story was Paschasius Radbertus. In fact, the story is being taken from William of Malmesbury, De gestis regis Anglorum, ed. R. A. B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson and M. Winterbottom, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1998-99), I, pp. 519-21.

, of Almain, named Plegildus, who did see and handle with his handes visibly the shape of a child vpon the aulter, and so after he had embraced and kissed hym, it returned again into the lykenes of bread, as he should come to the receauyng therof. This miracle when it was obiected against Berengarius, he merily deridyng the blynde fable, aunswered in these wordes: Speciosa inquit, pax nebulonis, vt cui [illegible text] præberet basium, eo dentium inferret exitium. That is, A goodly peace (quod he) of a false verlet, that whome he before kissed with hys mouthe, by and by he goeth about to teare him with hys teeth.

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MarginaliaAn other Monkishe miracle to proue transubstātiation. An other miracle is reported 

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This legend is taken from William of Malmesbury, ed. R.A.B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson and M. Winterbottom. 2 vols. (Oxford, 1998-99), I, p. 521.

of a Iew boy, who vpon a tyme entring into the Churche, with an other Christian lad which was his play felow, saw vpon the altar a litle childe broken & torne in peeces, and afterward by portions to be distributed among the people. Whiche sight when the young Iew comming home had told vnto his father to be true and certaine, he was for the same, condemned to be burned. Thus he being inclosed in a house, and the doore fast where he should be burned, he was founde and taken out frō thence by the christians not onely alyue, but also hauing not one heare of his head blemished with the flames about him. Who then being of the Christians demaunded how he was so preserued from the burning fire: there appeared (sayd he) to me a beautifull womā sitting on a chaire, whose sonne the childe was, whiche was before diuided and distributed in the Churche among the people, who reached to me her hand in the burning flame, and with her gowne skyrtes kept the flames from me, so that I was preserued thereby from pearishing. &c. Belyke these Monkes lacked miracles among the Christians, when they were fayne to borow such figmentes of the Iewes to proue their feyned transubstantiation.

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And these commonly were then the argumētes of these Monkes, wherwith they perswaded the people to beleue theyr transubstantiation. But to leaue these monkes fictions, and to returne agayne to Berengarius, thus Malmesbery of hym reporteth 

Commentary  *  Close

These passages on Berengar of Tours' supporters and Hildebert's verses praising him are from William of Malmesbury, De gestis regis Anglorum, ed. R.A.B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson and M. Winterbottom. 2 vols. (Oxford, 1998-99), I, pp. 514-16.

, MarginaliaEx VV. Malmesb. that after he had once or twise recanted (as is aforesayd) yet notwithstandyng this doctrine of the Sacrament still remayned in the mynde of his hearers. And how so euer the tirāny of the Pope did driue him thorough feare to denye his opinion, and wrought him muche trouble, yet notwithstandyng after hys death he lacked not hys well wyllers. In the number of whom was Hildebertus Bishop Cenomanensis, whose verses in commendatiō of his maister, I thought here not vnworthy to be preserued, beyng otherwise rare peraduenture to be found in our story writers.

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Verses in prayse of Berengarius. 
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Verses in praise of Berengarius
Foxe text Latin

QVem modo miratur ... mea sorte sua.


J. Barrie Hall

The famous Berengarius whom the world now admires and will always admire, has died never to die: while he possessed the highest eminence in the holy faith, the final day, daring an outrage, finally carried him off. A day of ruin and treason to the world was that day on which there was grief and the uttermost ruin of things; on which the estate of the church, the hope and the glory of the clergy, the cultivator of justice was brought down with the bringing down of justice. Whatsoever philosophers, whatsoever poets have sung, has been surpassed by his intellect and his eloquence. A more holy and a greater wisdom, undertaking a greater scheme, filled his hallowed breast and mouth with God. His heart desired wisdom, his voice brought it forth, and his action put it into effect: thus each separate thing lent its support to its Maker. A man of holiness and wisdom, whose fame grows by the hour: whoever is the greatest of men is less than he. He who made wealth held on to few honours: to him the pauper was preferable to the rich man, and justice preferable to gain. To him ample circumstances did not impart sloth or luxury; many high honours did not make him proud. He turned his eyes neither to silver nor to gold, but grieved whenever he lacked someone to give these things to. He did not cease to lend support to the resourceless in their ruin, until he himself by giving was poor also. His care was to follow nature, to make use of the laws, and to deny his mind to vices and his mouth to deceits, to set virtues before wealth, truth before falsehood, to say and do nothing empty of sense, to harm no one, to do good to everyone, to drive away from mind and hand favour and popular gain. His clothes were of rough weave, he took no drink before he was thirsty, no food before he was hungry. Chastity made her abode in him, and, as lust conquers the impure, so he conquered lust. Our parent nature, he said, has pitted chastity against the world, and, while others degenerate from it, it is born to me. Justice, which used to wander and had almost abandoned the world, he enclosed in his holy breast. A man holy from boyhood, he as much surpassed his own fame as fame surpasses the world. His fame is less than his merits, and, though it fly through all the world and though it always increase, it will yet not equal them. A man pious and serious, a man so modest in both that envy could gnaw at him in neither. For envy bewails him whom it had previously carped at, and it did not so carp at and hate him as it now praises and loves him. As previously it groaned for his life, so now it groans for his death, and complains that his days have quickly departed. A man truly wise, and blessed in every respect, who enriches heaven with his soul and the earth with his body. May I after death, I pray, live and take my rest with him, and my portion could not be more blessed than his portion.

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MarginaliaVerses in commendation of Berengarius. QVem modo miratur, semper mirabitur orbis,
Ille Berengarius non obiturus obit:
Quem sacræ fides fastigia summa tenentem,
Tandem extrema dies abstulit ausa nefas.
Illa dies damnosa dies, & perfida mundo:
Qua dolor & rerum summa ruina fuit.
Qua status ecclesiæ, qua spes, qua gloria cleri,
Qua cultor iuris iure ruente ruit.
Quicquid Philosophi, quicquid cecinere Poetæ,
Ingenio cessit eloquioque suo.
Sanctior & maior sapientia, maius adorta,
Impleuit sacrum pectus & ora Deo.
Pectus eam voluit, vox protulit, actio prompsit:
Singula factori sic studuere suo.
Vir sacer & sapiens, cui nomen crescit in horas:
Quo minor est quisquis maximus est hominum.
Qui census peperit pancos, seruauit honores.
Cui potior pauper diuite, iusq̀ lucro.
Cui nec desidiam, nec luxum res dedit ampla:
Nec tumidum fecit multus and altus honos.
Qui nec ad argentum, nec ad aurum lumina flexit:
Sed doluit quotiens cui daret hæc aberat.
Qui non cessauit inopum fulcire ruinas,
Donec inops, dando pauper & ipse fuit.
Cuius cura sequi naturam legibus vti,
Et mentem vitijs, ora negare dolis:
Virtutes opibus, verum præponere falso,
Nil vacuum sensu dicere vel facere:
Lædere nec quemquam, cunctis prodesse, fauorem
Et populare lucrum pellere mente, manu.
Cui vestis textura rudis, cui non fuit vnquam,
Ante sitim potus nec cibus ante famem.
Quem pudor hospitium statuit sibi, quamq̀ libido
Incestos superat, tam superauit eam.
Quem natura parens cum mundo contulit, inquit,
Degenerant alij, nascitur iste mihi:
Quæque vagabatur & pene reliquerat orbem,
Inclusit sacro pectore iustitiam.
Vir sacer a puero, qui quantum præminet orbi
Fama, adeò famæ præminet ipse suæ.
Fama minor meritis cum totum peruolet orbem,
Cum semper crescat, non erit aqua tamen.

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