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1150 [1149]

K. Henry. 8. Allegations against the vj. Articles. Priuate Masses. Priests mariage.

to apply any action or worke of Priest or of any other person, as meritorious of it selfe and conducible to saluation, to soules health or to remission of sinnes, it is Idolatry and derogatory to the Testament of God and to the bloude of Christ preiudiciall.

MarginaliaThe 4. rule. 4. To make Idoles of sacraments and to worship dūme thynges for the liuyng God, it is Idolatry. Fugite Idola. 

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Foxe is quoting I Cor. 10: 14 in the Vulgate.

&c. 1. Cor. 10. Marginalia1. Cor. 10.

MarginaliaThe 5 rule. 5. Euery good worke what so euer it be that a man doth, profiteth only hymselfe, and cannot be applied to other men, Ex opere operato, to profite hym vnto merite or remission, only the Actions of Christ except.

MarginaliaThe 6. rule. 6. No man can apply to an other the sacrifice of Christes death by any worke doyng: but euery man must apply it to hymselfe by his own beleuyng. Iustus ex fide sua viuet. 

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Foxe is quoting Hab. 2: 4 in the Vulgate.

Habacuc. 2.

MarginaliaThe 7, rule. 7. The Sacrifice of Christes death doth saue vs freely by it selfe, and not by the meanes of any mans workyng for vs.

MarginaliaThe 8. rule. 8. The Passion of Christ once done and no more, is a full and a perfecte oblation and satisfaction for the sinnes of the whole world, both originall and Actuall: by the vertue of which Passion, the wrath of God is pacified toward mankynd for euer. Amen.

MarginaliaThe 9. rule. 9. The Passion of Christ once done is onely the obiect of that fayth of ours whiche iustifieth vs and nothyng els. And therfore who soeuer setteth vp any other obiect, beside that Passion once done, for our fayth to apprehend and to beholde the same, teacheth damnable doctrine, and leadeth to Idolatrye.

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Agaynst all these rules, priuate Masses directly do repugne. For first beside that they transgresse the order, example, and commaundement of Christ (whiche diuided the bread and cuppe to them all) they also bryng the Sacramēt out of the right vse whereunto principally it was ordeined. For where as the vse of that Sacrament is principally instituted for a testimoniall, and remembraunce of Christes death MarginaliaThe Sacrament of the Lordes supper put out of his right vse by priuate masses. the priuate Masse transferreth the same to an other purpose, eyther to make of it a gasing Idoll, or a worke of application meritorious, or a Sacrifice propiciatory for remission of sinnes, or a commemoration for soules departed in Purgatory, accordyng as it is writtē in their Masse book: Pro quorum memoria corpus Christi sumitur. Pro quorum memoria sanguis Christi sumitur. &c. Where as Christ sayth contrary, Hoc facietis in meam commemorationem 

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Foxe is quoting Luke 22: 19 in the Vulgate.


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MarginaliaChristes memorie put out in dirige masses. Furthermore the Institution of Christe is broken in this, that where the communion was giuen in common the priuate Masse suffereth the Priest alone to eate and drinke vp all, and when he hath done, to blesse the people with the empty cuppe.

Secondly, whereas Sacramentes properly profite none but them that vse the sam in the priuate Masse the Sacrament is receaued in the behoufe not onely of hym that executeth, but of them also that stand lookyng on, and of them also whiche be farre of, or dead and in Purgatory.

MarginaliaApplication. Thirdly, when by the scripture nothyng is to be applied for remission of our sinnes, but onely the death of Christ, cōmeth in the priuate Masse as a woorke meritorious done of the Priest, whiche beyng applyed to other, is auayleable Ex opere operato, both to hym that doth it, and to them for whome it is done, ad remissionem peccatorum.

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Fourthly, priuate Masses and al other Masses now vsed, of the Sacrament make an Idoll of commemoration, MarginaliaAdoration. make adoratiō in stead of a receauyng, make a deceauyng, in place of shewyng foorth Christes death, MarginaliaOblation. make new oblation of his death, and of a cōmunion, make a single sole supping. &c.

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MarginaliaMeriting for other. Fiftly, whereas in this general frayltie of mans nature, no man can merite by any worthynes of workyng for hym selfe, the Priest in hys priuate Masse taketh vpon him to merite both for him selfe, and for many other:

Sixtly, it standeth agaynst Scripture, that the Sacrifice and death of Christ can bee applyed any other wyse to our benefite and iustification, then by fayth: Wherfore it is false that the Action of the Masse can apply the benefite of Christes death vnto vs MarginaliaOpus operatum. Ex opere operato, sine bono motu vtentis vel sacrificantis.

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MarginaliaPriuate Masses agaynst the free grace of God. Seuenthly, wher as the benefite of our saluation and iustifiyng standeth by þe free gyft and grace of God through our fayth in Christ: contrary the application of these Popyshe masses stoppeth the freenes of Gods grace and maketh that this benefite must first come through the Priests handes and hys opus operatum, vnto vs.

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The eight contrarietie betwene priuate Masse, and gods worde, is in this: That where the Scripture sayth 

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Heb. 10: 14.

: Vnica oblatione consummauit eos, qui sanctificantur in perpetuum. MarginaliaHeb. 10. With one oblation he hath made perfecte thē that be sanctified for euer: agaynst this rule the priuate Masse procedeth in a contrary doctrine, makyng of one oblation a dayly oblation, and that which is perfectly done and finyshed, new to be done agayne: And finally, that which was instituted onely for eatyng and for a remembraunce of that oblation of Christ once done, the Popishe Masse, maketh an oblation and a new satisfaction dayly to be don, for the quick and the dead.

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MarginaliaPriuate Masses turne our fayth frō Christes body crucified, to Christ sacrificed in their Masses. To conclude these both priuate and publicke Masses of Priestes, turne away the obiecte of our fayth from the body of Christe crucified, to the body of Christ sacrificed in their Masses. And where as God annexeth no promise of iustification, but onely to our fayth in the body of Christe crucified: they do annexe promise of remission a pœna et culpa, to the body in their Masses sacrificed, by their application: besides diuers other horrible and intolerable corruptions which spryng of these their priuate & publicke Masses, whiche here I leaue to other at theyr leysure further to cōceaue and to consider. Now let vs procede to the other Articles folowyng.

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The iiii. and v. Articles of vowes and Priestes Mariage. 
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Now Foxe turns to defending the marriage of priests and he does so largely by historical example. Here he draws very heavily on Bale's Catalogus and Flacius's Catalogus testium veritatis, but also on documents published by Matthew Parker and even medieval charters (Foxe is reprinted 18 charters to demonstrate that there were married priests as late as the early fourteenth century. Foxe acquired 11 of these charters from a student at the Inner Temple named John Ford (who may not only have provided Foxe with the eleven charters, but he may also have provided the knowledge of English law displayed at points in this 'allegation'), while seven of came from John Hunt of Little Bradley, Suffolk (lord of the manor of Little Bradley Suffolk). Hunt was John Day's brother-in-law, the latter of whom was the printer of the Acts and Monuments.).

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MarginaliaThe 4. and 5. article of vowes and priestes maryage. As we haue discoursed before by hystoryes and order of tyme, the antiquitie of the iij. former Articles aboue mentioned, to witte, of transubstantiation, of the halfe communiō and of priuate Masses, so now commyng to the Article of vowes and of priestes mariage, the reader will looke perchance to be satisfied in thys likewyse, as in the other before, and to be certified from what continuance of tyme these vowes and vnmaried lyfe of priestes haue continued. Wherin although sufficient hath bene sayd before in the former proces of this history, MarginaliaRead afore pag. 197. as in the lyfe of Anselmus, pag. 197. MarginaliaRead afore pag. 176. also of Pope Hildebrand, pag. 176. &c. yet for the better establishing of the readers mynd agaynst this wicked article of priestes mariage, it shalbe no great labour lost, here briefly to recapitulate in the tractation of this matter, either what before hath bene sayd, or what more is to be added.

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And to the entent that the worlde may see and iudge the sayd lawe and decree of Priestes single sole lyfe, to MarginaliaPriestes maryage first forbidden by Anselmus in England. be a doctrine of no auncient standyng here within this realme, but onely since the tyme of Anselmus, I will first alledge for me the wordes of Henr. Huntyngton. lib. 7. De historia Anglorum Here folowyng. 

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Foxe takes this quotation, not from Henry of Huntingdon, but from John Bale, Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae Catalogus (Basel, 1557), p. 169.

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Eodem anno ad festum Michaelis tenuit Anselmus Archiepiscopus Concilium apud Londonias: In quo prohibuit sacerdotibus Anglorum, vxores antea non prohibitas. Quod quibusdam mundissimum visum est, quibusdam periculosum: ne dum mundicias viribus maiores appeterent, in immundicias horribiles ad Christiani nominis summum dedecus inciderent. &c. MarginaliaEx Henr. Huntingt. lib. 7. De historia Anglorum. That is. MarginaliaRead afore pag. 192.
The wordes of Huntington,
The same yeare at the feast of S. Michaell, Anselme the Archbishop of Caunterbury held a Synode at London: MarginaliaPriestes not restrayned from their wiues before Anselmus tyme. In the which Synode he forefended Priestes here in England to haue wyues, which they were not inhibited before to haue. Which constitution seemed to some persons very pure and chaste. To other some agayne it semed very daungerous, lest while that men should take vpon them such chastitie more then they should be able to beare, by that occasion they might happily fall into horrible filthines, which should redound to the excedyng slaunder of christian profession. &c.

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Albeit I deny not but before the tyme also of Anselmus, both Odo, and after hym Dunstane Archb. of Canterbury, and Ethelwold B. of Winchester, and Oswold B. of Worceter in the dayes of kyng Edgar, an. 963. as they were all monkes them selues, so were they great doers agaynst the mariage of priests, placyng in monkes in churches and Colledges & putting out the maried priests, MarginaliaRead afore pag. 154. as ye may read before pag. 154. 

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See 1570, p. 202; 1576, p. 154 and 1583, p. 153.

Yet notwithstanding neither was that in many Churches, and also the priestes then maried were not constrayned to leaue theyr wyues, nor theyr roumes, but onely at theyr own choyse. For so writeth Malmesbery 
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There is no such passage in William of Malmesbury's life of Dunstan.

in Vita Dunstani: Itaq; clerici multarum Ecclesiarum, data optione, vt aut amictum mutarent, aut locis valedicerent, cessere, &c.
MarginaliaMalmesb. in vita Dunstani. That is: Therfore diuers & sondry clerkes of many churches, being put to their choice, whether to chaunge their weede, or to part from theyr places, went their wayes. &c. So also Elfricus after them (of whome mention was made before) was somewhat busie in setting forward the single lyfe of Priestes, and Lanfrancus lykewyse. MarginaliaPriestes first restrayned frō their wiues, generall in England. But yet this restreynt of Priestes lawfull mariage was neuer publickely established for a law here in the church of england, before þe comming of Anselme in þe dayes of Wil. Rufus, & kyng Henry. 1. writing in these wordes: Boldly I commaund by the authoritie which I haue by my Archbishoprike, not only within my Archbishoprike but also throughout England, that all priestes that keepe women, shall be depriued of their churches, & al ecclesiastical benefices. &c. MarginaliaRead afore pag. 197. As ye may read more at large before. pag. 197 
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See 1570, p. 251, 1576, p. 197 and 1583, p. 195.

. which

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