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K. Henry. 8. Anne Askew, Ioh. Lacelles, Ioh. Adams, Nich. Belenian, Martyrs.

HEtherto we haue entreated of this good woman. Nowe it remayneth that we touch somwhat as concerning her ende and Martyrdome 

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Foxe again adds to the information provided by his base text in providing details of Askew's execution. In the 1563 edition (681-82) he describes Askew's crippled state which made it necessary to bring her to the stake in a chair, and portrays her both 'stoutly' resisting Shaxton's attempt to 'make her turn' in the sermon of recantation that he gave at her execution, and refusing even to look at the royal pardon offered to her on condition of her own recantation. Foxe adds to these details in the 1570 edition; it is here that the reader learns the names of those notables in attendance and of Askew's interjections into Shaxton's sermon ('where he sayde well, confirmed the same: where he sayd amysse, there sayd she, he misseth, and speaketh without the book' (1570, p. 1420). It is also in this edition that the reader learns of Askew's response to the offer of a royal pardon - that 'shee came not thither to deny her Lord and Mayster' - and that, as she was offered her pardon first, the men burnt with her followed 'the constancie of the woman' in refusing theirs. Like Askew in the 1563 edition, they 'denyed not onely to receive them, but also to looke upon them'.

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Foxe's source for this additional information remains uncertain, but it is likely that this material came from eyewitnesses to her death, and Freeman and Wall suggest, as a source, Francis Russell, the second Earl of Bedford. As they note, Russell had provided Foxe with other information and documents for the 1570 edition of the Acts and Monuments, and John Russell, his father, was seated at the execution with Wriothelsey and other notables. It is possible that Francis, a young man at the time, was with his father at the execution. (See Thomas F. Freeman and Sarah E. Wall, 'Racking the Body, Shaping the Text: The Account of Anne Askew in Foxe's Book of Martyrs', Renaissance Quarterly 54 [2001], 1185).

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. After that she, beyng borne of such stocke and kynrede, that she might haue liued in great welth and prosperitie, if she would rather haue followed the world, then Christ, now had bene so tormented, that she coulde neither lyue long in so great distresse, neither yet by her aduersaries be suffered to die in secret: MarginaliaAnne Askew brought vnto the stake. the day of her execution beyng appointed, she was brought into Smithfield in a chaire MarginaliaAnne Askew lamed vpon the racke. because she could not go on her feete, by meanes of her great tormentes. When she was brought vnto the stake, she was tied by the middle with a chayne, that held vp her body. Whē all thinges were thus prepared to the fire, Doctor Shaxton, who was then appoynted to MarginaliaShaxton preached at Anne Askews burning. preache, beganne hys sermon. Anne Askew hearyng, and aunsweryng againe vnto hym, where he sayde well, confirmed the same: where hee sayd amisse, there sayd she he misseth, and speaketh without the booke.

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The Sermon being finished, the Martyrs standyng there tyed at three seuerall stakes redy to their martirdome, beganne their prayers. The multitude and concourse of the people was exceding, þe place where they stood beyng rayled about, to kepe out the prease. Vpon the bench vnder S. Bartelmew Church sate Wrisley, Chauncellour of England, the olde Duke of Northfolke, the olde Earle of Bedford, the Lord Mayor with diuers other moe. Before the fire should be set vnto them, one of the Benche hearing that they had gunpouder about them, and beyng afrayd least the fagots by strength of the gunpouder would come flying about their eares, began to be afrayd: but the Erle of Bedford declaryng vnto hym, how the gunpouder was not layde vnder the fagottes, but onely about theyr bodies, to rydde them out of their payne, which hauyng vente, there was no daunger to them of the fagottes, so diminished that feare. Then Wrisley Lorde Chauncellour, sent to Anne Askew letters, offering to her the kynges pardon, if she would recant. MarginaliaAnne Askew refuseth the kinges pardon. Who refusing once to looke vppon them, made this aunswer agayne: that she came not thither to deny her lorde and Maister. Then were the letters likewyse offered vnto the other, who in lyke maner followyng the constancie of the woman, denyed not onely to receyue them, but also to looke vpon them. Whereupon the Lord Mayor commaundyng fire to be put vnto them, cryed with a loud voyce, fiat iustitia. MarginaliaIustitia iniusta.

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And thus the good Anne Askew with these blessed Martyrs, being troubled so many maner of wayes, and hauyng passed through so many tormentes, hauing now ended the long course of her agonies, being compassed in with flames of fire, as a blessed sacrifice vnto God, she slept in the Lord. an. 1546. leauyng behynde her a singular example of Christen constancy for all men to follow.

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¶ Iohn Lacels, Iohn Adams, and Nicholas Belenian.

MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Anne Askew, Io. Lacelles, Io. Adams, Nich. Belenian. THere was at the same tyme also burnt together with her, one Nicolas Belenian priest of Shropshyre, I. Adams a Taylor, and Iohn Lacels Gentleman of the Courte and houshold of king Henry.

It happened well for them, that they died together with Anne Askew. For albeit that of thēselues they were strōg and stout men, yet thorough the example and exhortation of her, they being the more boldened, receiued occasion of greater comfort in that so painfull and doleful kind of death: who beholdyng her inuincible constancie, and also stirred vp thorough her perswasions, did set apart all kynde of feare.

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Thus they confirming one an other with mutuall exhortations taried lookyng for the tormentor and fire, which at the last flaming round about them, consumed their blessed bodies in happy martirdome, in the yeare of our saluation. 1546. about the month of Iune.

There is also a certayne letter extant, which the said I. Lacels briefly wrote beyng in prison, touchyng the Sacrament of Christes body and bloud: wherein he doth both confute the errour of them, which not being contented with the spirituall receiuyng of the sacrament, will leaue no substāce of bread therin, and also confuteth the sinister interpretation of many therupon. The tenor of which letter is as here vnder followeth.

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¶ The copy of the letter of Iohn Lacels written out of prison 
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John Lascelles's letter is not included in the Bale editions of the Examinations.


MarginaliaThe letter of M. Iohn Lacelles, written out of prison. SAint Paule because of sectes & dissension among the Corinthians, wrote his epistle vnto thē: and in lyke case pertainyng to my conscience, I do protest my whole hart in the blessed supper of the Lord, wherin I trust in God to bryng nothyng for me, but I shall be able with Gods holy worde to declare and manifest the same. And herein I take occasion to recite the saying of S. Paule in the sayd Epistle the xi. chapter. That which I deliuered vnto you, I receiued of the Lord. For the Lord Iesus, the same night in whych he was betrayed, tooke breade, gaue thanks and brake it, & sayd: take ye, eate ye, thys is my body, which is broken for you. Marginalia1. Cor. 11.

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Here me semeth, S. Paule durst not take vpon hym hys Lord and maisters authoritie. Wherfore, as at Gods hand the breaking of the most innocent and immaculate body and bloud of Christ, is the quietnes of all mens consciences, the onely remedye of our sinnes, and the redemptiō of mankynde which is called in the scripture the daily offring: MarginaliaThe blasphemy & wickednes of the Masse. so the Masse which is the inuention of man (whose author is the Pope of Rome, as it doth appeare in Polydore Virgill & many others) is the vnquietnes of all Christendome, a blasphemy vnto Christes bloud, and (as Daniell calleth it) MarginaliaA prophesie. the abominable desolation, as the scripture shall hereafter more manifest it. MarginaliaS. Paule dyd not take vpon hym in the person of Christ, to say: Hoc est corpus meum, as our priestes doe. S. Paule was belyke, to learne of the Romaines Church, the maner of the consecration (as they call it) with the breathing ouer the hoste and other ceremonies besides, that he durst not take vpon hym, to say: Hoc est corpus meum. But this I will admit: it was the Lord Iesus that made the supper, which also did finishe it, and made an end of the onely acte of our saluatiō, not onely here in this world, but with his father in heauē, as he declareth hymselfe: that he will drinke no more of this bitter cup, tyll he drinke it new in his fathers kingdome, where all bitternes shalbe taken away.

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Now if any man be able to finishe the acte of our Sauiour, in breaking of his body and sheddyng of hys bloude here, and also to finishe it with the father in heauen, then let him say it. But I thinke that if men will looke vpō Saint Paules wordes well, they shalbe forced to say, as S. Paul saith: MarginaliaNone but Christ can say: Hoc est corpus meum: And he sayd it once for all. the Lord Iesus sayd it, and once for all, which onely was the fulfiller of it. For these words: Hoc est corpus meum, were spoken of hys naturall presence (which no man is able to denye) because the acte was finished on the crosse as the storye doth playnely manifest it to them that haue eyes. Now thys bloudy sacrifice is made an end of, the supper is finished forasmuch as Christ hath once suffered for sinnes, the iust for the vniust, to bryng vs to God, and was killed as pertayning to the fleshe: Marginalia1. Pet. 3. and hath entred in by his owne bloud once for all, into the holy place, and founde eternall redemption. MarginaliaHeb. 9.

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Here now foloweth the administration of the supper of the Lord whiche I will take at Christes handes after the resurrection, although other men will not bee ashamed to bryng the wicked Councels of foolish inuentions for them. And it came to passe as Christ sat at meate with them, he tooke bread, blessed and brake it, and gaue it to them, and their eyes were opened and knew him, and he vanished out of their sight. MarginaliaLuke. 24. And the Apostles did know hym in breaking of bread.

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MarginaliaThe right vse of the supper in the Apostles tyme. Here also it seemeth to me the Apostles to folow their Maister Christ, and to take the right vse of the sacrament, and also to teach it to those that were conuerted to Christ, as mention is made in the Actes of the Apostles: where as is said: They cōtinued in the Apostles doctrine & felowship in breaking of bread & praier, and they cōtinued dayly with one accord in the temple, & brake bread in euery house, and did eate there with gladnes and singlenes of hart, praysing God, & had fauour with all the people. MarginaliaActes. 2. And S. Paule following the same doctrine, doth playnely shew the dutie of the Minister, and also of them that shall receiue it: s oft as you shall eate this bread, and drinke this cup, ye shall shew the Lords death vntill he come. Marginalia1. Cor. 11.
How farre the power of the minister extendeth in consecratyng the supper.
Here I do gather that þe Minister hath no farther power and authoritie, then to preach and pronounce the Lordes death, or els to say the Lord Iesus sayd it, which did fulfill it on the crosse.

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MarginaliaHow the fleshe of Christ is eatē in the supper. Furthermore I do stedfastly beleue, that where þe bread is broken according to the ordinaunce of Christ, the blessed and immaculate Lambe is present to the eyes of our fayth & so we eate his flesh, & drinke his bloud, which is to dwell wt God, & God with vs. And in this we are sure we dwell wt God, in that he geueth vs his holy spirit, euen as the forefathers that were before Christes cōming did presently see þe Lordes death, and did eate his body and drinke his bloud.

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MarginaliaPopish Priestes take vpon them to doe more then euer Christ did. In this do I differ from the Popes Church, that the Priestes haue authoritie to make Christes naturall presence in the bread, for so doth he more then our Lord & Sauiour did: As the example is manifest in Iudas, which at Christes handes receiued the same wyne and breade, as the other Apostles did. But the Pope and his adherentes, are euen they whom Daniell speaketh of, saying: MarginaliaDan. 11. He shall set men to vnhalow the sanctuary, and to put downe the dayly offering, and to set vp the abominable desolation. Yea, he (of Rome) shall speake maruaylous thynges against the God of heauen, and God of all Gods, wherin he shall pro-

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