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1321 [1320]

K. Ew. 6. The story, actes, and doing of Ste. Gardiner B. of Winchester.

to your discretions the maner of the proceding herein, if any thyng shall chaunce to arise there that in your opinions might otherwise then according to these instructions conduce you to the execution of your charge, whiche in one summe is to auoyde the vse of the priuate Masse, and other vnlawfull seruice, in the house of the said Lady Mary.

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Item, ye shall deuise by some meanes as you may, to haue vnderstanding after your departure how the order you geue is obserued, and as you shall iudge fit, to certifie hither.

E. S. W. W. I. W. I. B. W. N.
W. H. F. H. I. G. T. D. W. C.

The story of Steuen Gardiner B. of Winchester briefly collected, 
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Stephen Gardiner's letters

Stephen Gardiner's troubles with the Council sprang from the same root as Bonner's - an unwillingness to accept the changes of direction in religion which Cranmer was trying to introduce. Edward Vaughn was Captain of Portsmouth, and in the spring of 1547 it came to the bishop's attention that there had been an outbreak of iconoclasm in the town, and that this 'containeth an enterprise to subvert religion'. Gardiner subsequently preached in the town. There are accounts of this episode in Jordan, Edward VI: the Young King (London, 1968), p.155; James Muller, Stephen Gardiner and the Tudor Reaction (London, 1926), p.150; and Glyn Redworth, In Defence of the Church Catholic (Oxfrod, 1990), pp.255-6. In 1547 Gardiner was regarded as the principal champion of conservative values, and was also incarcerated in the Fleet for his opposition to the Injunctions. His delaying and evasive tactics during the autumn of 1547 were masterly, but ineffective. Having been forced into a show of conformity, he was released on the 20th February 1548, and retuned to his diocese (Redworth, In Defence of the Church Catholic, pp.255-69). This whole exchange was drastically reduced after the 1563 edition

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David Loades
University of Sheffield

the residue whereof concernyng his Actes and doyngs may further appeare in the booke of Actes and Monumentes in the first edition. page. 728.

MarginaliaThe story of Steuen Gardiner.
ALthough the first imprisonment of Steuen Gardiner Bishop of Wynchester, in order of tyme was before the depriuation of bishop Boner: yet for so much as he was not deposed from hys bishoprike till the next or second yere after, which was 1551. I haue therfore driuen of the history of the sayd Bishop of Winchester to this present place: intendyng neuertheles here not to extende and prosecute the explication of that busie matter with all circumstaunces and perticularities therof, so amply at full as I might, partly for that beyng done in my first volume of Actes and Monumentes, may here suffice and content the reader beyng disposed there to search and further to read touchyng the same: partly also consideryng how this present volume is grown already very large and great, I thought not to pester the same with any more superfluitie, then nedes must, and therfore leauyng out hys idle letters, hys long processe of Articles and examinations, hys tedious talke with the multitude of depositiōs brought in against hym, and other hys Actes and interlocutories superfluous, MarginaliaFor the ful tractation of Ste. Gardiners story, read in the booke of Actes and Monumētes of the first edition, pag. 728. I mynde here (the Lord willyng) briefly and summarely to excerpe onely the principall effects, as to the story may seme most appertenent, referring the residue to be searched (if any reader so list to do) to the booke of Monumentes aforesayd, begynning in the page. 728.

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Briefly therfore, as touchyng the Actes, doynges, deseruings and misdemeanours of this stoute Prelate, and Bishop of Winchester: first we will set before the reader the copy of a certayne writte or euidence agaynst the said Bishop, wherin as in a briefe summe generally is described þe whole order and maner of hys misordred demeanour, copied out of the publike recordes in maner as followeth.

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¶ The copie of a writte or euidence touching the order and maner of the misdemeanour of Winchester, with declaration of the faultes wherwith he was iustly charged.

MarginaliaThe writte or euidence geuen out agaynst Ste. Gardiner B. of Winchester. WHere as the kynges Maiestie by the aduise of the Lord Protector and the rest of his highnes priuye Counsell thinking requisite for sundry vrgent considerations to haue a generall visitation throughout the whole Realme, did about x. monethes past addresse forth Commissions, and by þe aduise of sondry Bishops and other the best learned men of the Realme, appointed certayne orders or Iniunctiōs to be generally obserued, whiche beyng such as in some part touched the reformation of many abuses, and in other partes concerned the good gouernaunce and quiet of the Realme, were (as reason woulde) of all men of all sortes obedientlye receiued and reuerētly obserued and executed, sauyng onely of the Byshop of Winchester. Who aswell by conference wt other, as by open Protestation and letters also, shewed such a willfull disobedience therin, as if it had not bene quickely espyed, might haue breed much vnquietnes and trouble, vpon the knowledge wherof he beyng sent for, MarginaliaWinchest. misusing himselfe before the Counsell. and his lewde procedynges layd to his charge, hee in the presence of the whole Councell so vsed himselfe (as well in denying to receiue the said orders & Iniunctiōs as otherwise) as he was thought worthye most sharpe punishement, and yet consideryng the place he had bene in, MarginaliaWinchester cōmitted to the Fleete. hee was onely sequestred to the Fleete, where, after he had remayned a certayn time, as much at his ease as if hee had bene at his owne house, vpon his promise of conformitie he was both set at libertie agayne & also licenced to repayre MarginaliaWinchester deliuered out of the Fleete and set at liberty. & remaine in his dioces at his pleasure where when he was, MarginaliaWinchester forgetteth himselfe agayne in his Dioces. forgettyng his dutye and what promise hee had made, hee began forthwith to set forth such matters as bred agayne more strife, variance, and contention in that one small Citie and Shyre, then was almost in the whole Realme after: besides that the Lord Protectors grace and the Counsayle were enformed, that to withstand such as he thought to haue bene sent from their grace and Lordships into those parties, he had caused all his seruauntes to be se- cretly armed and harnesed: and moreouer when such preachers as beyng men of godly lyfe and learnyng were sent into that Dioces by his grace and Lordship to preache the word of God, had appointed to preach, the Byshop to disapointe and disgrace them and to hinder his maiesties procedynges, did occupye the Pulpite him selfe, not fearyng in his Sermon to warne the people to beware of suche newe preachers, & to embrace none other doctrine then that which he had taught them (then the whiche woordes none coulde haue bene spoken more perillous and seditious:( MarginaliaWinchester sent for agayne by the Counsaile. wherupon beyng eftsoones sent for and their grace and Lordships obiectyng to him many particular matters wherwith they had iust cause to charge him, they did yet in the end vpon his secōd promise leaue him at lebertie, MarginaliaWinchester commaūded to keepe hys house. onely willing him to remayne at his house at London, because they thought it most meete to sequester him from his Dioces for a tyme, and beyng cōmen to hys house, MarginaliaWinchester agayne breaketh promise wyth the Counsayle. hee began a freshe to ruffle and meddle in matters wherein he had neither Commission nor authority part wherof touched the kynges maiestie: wherof beyng yet once agayne admonished by his grace and their Lordships, he did not onely promise to conforme him selfe in all thinges like a good subiect, but also because hee vnderstode that hee was diuersly reported of, and many were also offended with him, MarginaliaWinchester promiseth to shewe his conformitie openly in preaching. he offered to declare to the world his conformitie, and promised in an open Sermon so to open his minde in sondry articles agreed vpon, þt such as had bene offended should haue no more cause to bee offended, but well satisfied in all thinges: declaryng further that as his owne conscience was well satisfied and liked well the kynges procedinges within this Realme, so would he vtter his conscience abroade to the satisfactiō and good quyet of others, and yet al this notwithstandyng, at the daye appointed hee did not onely most arrogantly and disobediently, and that in the presence of his Maiestie, their grace and Lordshyps, and of suche an audience as the lyke wherof hath not lightly bene seene, MarginaliaWinchest. in his sermon swarueth from hys owne promise & the kinges commaundement. speake of certayne matters contrary to an expresse commaundement geuen to him on his Maiesties behalfe both by mouth and by letters, but also in the rest of the articles, wherunto hee had agreed before, vsed such a maner of vtteraunce as was very lyke euen there presently to haue sturred a great tumulte, and in certayne great matters touching the policie of the Realme, handled him selfe so colourably as therein hee shewed himselfe an open great offender and a very sedicious mā: for as much these his procedynges were of such sort, as being suffred to escape vnpunished might breed innumerable inconueniences, and that the clemency shewed to him afore by their grace and Lordships, did worke in him no good effect but rather a pride & boldnes to demeane him selfe more and more disobediently agaynst his Maiestie and his graces procedinges: MarginaliaWinchest. for his seditious disobedience had to the Tower. it was determined by their grace and Lordships that he should be committed to the Tower and be cōueyed thether by Syr Anthony Wingfield, and that at the tyme of his Commission Syr Rafe Sadler and William Hunninges Clerke of the Counsayle shoulde seale vp the doores of such places in his house as they shoulde thinke meete: all which was done accordyngly.

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By this euidence aboue mencioned, fyrst here is of the reader to be noted, how lewdly and disobediently the sayd Ste. Gardiner misused him selfe in the kyngs generall visitation in denying to receaue such orders and Iniunctions, as for the whiche hee iustlye deserued much more seuere punishement. Albeit the kyng with his Vncle the Lorde Protectour, more gently procedyng with him, were contented onely to make him taste the Fleete. In the whiche house, as his durance was not long, so his entreating and orderyng was very easie. Out of the whiche Fleete diuers and sondry letters hee wrote to the Lorde Protectour and other of the Counsayle, certayne also to the Archbyshop of Canterbury, and some to M. Ridley Byshop of London: MarginaliaFor the letters of Winchester, read in the booke of Actes & Monumentes of the first edition, pag. 732. the particulars were to long here to rehearse, consideryng how this booke is so ouer charged, as ye see, already: and especially seyng the same bee notified in our firste edition sufficiently, as is aforsayde. Wherfore omitting the rehearsall of the said letters, and referryng the reader to the booke aforesayd, I will onely repete one letter of the sayd Byshop with the aunsweres of the Lord Protectour vnto the same: the contentes wherof be these as foloweth.

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¶ A Letter of Winchester to Maister Vaughan. 
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Gardiner's letter to Edward Vaughan was printed by Foxe from a lost original, and reprinted by James Muller (Letters of Stephen Gardiner (Cambridge, 1933), pp.272-6). The letter to Somerset of 28 February [1547] is similarly printed by Muller, citing Foxe as his source (pp.264-7). The same is true of his letter of 21 May, although Muller notes (p.276) that 'a sixteenth century copy of the last twelve lines is in BL, Add.MS 28,571, f.21'. Muller identifies no MS source for the letter of 6 June (pp.286-295), again quoting Foxe as his source. The letters of 10 June and 'after 12 June' concerning the homilies, are similarly reprinted by Muller from Foxe (pp.296-7, 297-8). When Gardiner wrote again to Somerset from the Fleet in October 1547, Foxe edited the version which he had in front of him. About 40% of the original survives in BL Harley MS 417, fols 84-9 (one of Foxe's manuscripts) and most of the rest in a sixteenth century copy (BL Cotton MS Vespasian D.XVIII, ff.138-45). Foxe edited a good deal out of the original, but is the only source for the last paragraph, which does not appear in the other versions. The letter which follows, whish is not dated, but which Muller ascribes to the 27 October, is again known only from Foxe's version (pp.402-10). Muller's order of printing thereafter differs from Foxe's. That appearing on pages 746-7 is dated by Muller to the 20 November, and appears on pp.419-23, while that appearing on p.748, and tentatively dated 'shortly after 4th November' appears on p.410. In each case, Foxe is used as the source, although in respect of the letter appearing on pp.748-9, it is noted that the first twelve lines can also be found in BL Add.MS 28,571, f.14. The 'certaine additions' and the 'summe and conclusyon' appear to be Foxe's own composition. The letter to Nicholas Ridley, criticising a sermon which he had preached at court, which appear here on pp.751-4, is placed by Muller in its correct chronological place (February 1547), and appears on pp.255-63. Foxe is once again the only source. The originals of Somerset's side of the correspondence do not appear to have survived at all, and no scholar has so far collected the Protector's letters. John Strype in his Ecclesiastical Memorials (London, 1809 edition), 2, p.785, prints a version of Gardiner's letter to the Protector concerning the Book of Homilies, taken from BL Cotton MSS Vespasian D. XVIII, f.139, with the comment 'I remit the reader for the rest of this letter to Winchester's ninth letter in Foxe's Acts, the former part of the letter which is now exposed to view having been by him ommitted'. Partial drafts of the same letter are to be found in Harleian MS 417, ff.8 and 9, and these appear to have been Foxe's source.

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The 'copie of a writte or evidence' which appears in the 1570 edition (p.1521) may be an edited version of a Council letter, or it may be Foxe's own work.

MarginaliaA letter of Ste. Gardiner to Captaine Vaughan. MAister Vaughan , after my right harty commendations: In my last letters to my Lord Protector, signifying according to the generall commaundement by letters geuen to all Iustices of peace the state of this Shire, I declared (as I supposed true) the Shire to be in good order, quiet, and conformitie, for I had not then heard of any alteration in this Shire, which the sayd letters of commaundement did forbid. Now

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