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1426 [1401]

Q. Mary. Comming of K. Phillip. His mariage with Queene Mary.

Marginalia1554. Iuly.had to Woodstocke, and there committed to the keepyng of MarginaliaSyr Henry Benefield.Syr Henry Benifield Knight of Oxeborough in Northfolke: who on the other side, both forgettyng her estate, and his own duty, (as it is reported) shewed him selfe more hard and straite vnto her, then either cause was geuen of her part, or reason of his owne part would haue led hym, if either grace or wisdome in him might haue sene before, what daunger afterward might haue ensued thereof. Wherof we haue to entreate more at large (the Lord willyng) hereafter in the story and life of Queene Elizabeth.

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Vpon the MarginaliaIuly. 20.Friday followyng, beyng the xx. of Iuly and S. Margaretes day, the prince of Spaine lāded at Southampton. 

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A brief account of Philip's arrival in England in the 1563 edition was expanded in later editions, with material probably taken from Foxe's lost chronicle source(s). The date of Philip's landing at Southampton is given as 'xix July' in 1563, p. 1004, but as 'xx July' in 1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1471. This could be a correction but other sources also give 19 July as the date, so this was probably a typographical error.

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MarginaliaK. Phillip ariueth at Southampton. The Prince him selfe was the first that landed: who immediately as he set foote vpon the land, drew out hys sword, MarginaliaK. Phillip caryeth hys sworde naked comming into England.and caried it naked in his hand a good prety way.

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Then met him without the Towne a little the Maior of Southamp.on wyth certaine Commoners, MarginaliaThe keyes of Southāpton deliuered to K. Phillip.who deliuered the keyes of the Towne vnto the Prince, who remoued his sword (naked as it was) out of his right hand, into hys leaft hand, and so receiued the keyes of the Maior without any word speakyng or countenaunce of thankefulnes, and after a while deliuered the keyes to the Maior agayne. At the Towne gate met hym the Earle of Arundell & Lord Williams, and so he was brought to his lodgyng.

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MarginaliaIuly. 25.Vpon the Wedensday followyng, beyng S. Iames day and the. xxv. of Iuly, Phillippe Prince of Spayne & Mary Queene of England, MarginaliaMariage betwene K. Philip & Q. Mary.were maryed together solemnely in the Cathedrall Churche at Winchester, by the Byshop of Winchester, in the presence of a great num- of noble men of both the Realmes. At the tyme of this mariage the Emperours Embassadour beyng presēt, openly pronoūced, that in cōsideration of that Mariage, the Emperour had graūted & geuen vnto his sonne, the kyngdome of Naples. &c.

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August 1 to September 3

Glosses in this section concentrate on political events detailing Phillip's progress and the forward march of the counter-reformation. Foxe uses the glosses to make relatively subtle attacks on the catholics: in contrast to the disputations, where the glosses often gave room to an adversarial voice, here narrative is used to shape events to favour a protestant interpretation. Thus glosses report the removal of English arms for Spanish at Windsor, linking this to Phillip's name, without mentioning the quick reversal of this change, or the fact that Phillip did not order the change, apparent from the text. Winchester is accused of not being able to abide 'Verbum Dei. The precision of the formulation is noteworthy: Foxe does not directly accuse him of hating scripture, but lets the ambiguity between what he reports (Winchester's anger at an image of Henry VIII holding Verbum Dei) and what he implies (Gardiner hates the Bible) go unresolved.

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A harsher note is sounded in calling the rood at St. Paul's Bonner's 'God'. The difference in tone is probably partly due to the fact that Bonner's violent temperament made him an easier target for opprobium; furthermore, it was polemically valuable to link the passionate lack of self-control Bonner later exhibits with the antichristian sensuality of idolatry. Frivolity and self-indulgence are also pointed to on the civic level with the reference to 'vayne pageants', although the Old Testament resonances of the self-indulgence of Israel are applicable.

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MarginaliaAugust. 1.Whereupon the first day of August folowyng, there was a Proclamation, that from that tyme forth, the stile of all maner of writynges should be altered, and this followyng should be vsed.

☞ Philip & Mary by the grace of God, Kyng & Queene of England, Fraunce, Naples, Ierusalem, and Ireland, defenders of the Fayth, Princes of Spayne and Cicill, Archdukes, of Austrich, Dukes of Millain, Burgūdie, and Brabant, Coūties of Haspurge, Flaunders and Tyroll.

Of this Mariage, as the Papistes chiefly seemed to be very glad, so diuers of them after diuers studyes, to shewe forth their inward affections, some made Interludes and Pagentes, 

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Block 29: August 1 to September 3

In the case of Latin poems, written by John White, the marian Bishop of Lincoln, elegising the marriage of Philip and Mary as well as two sets of verses attacking the marriage and responding to White (1563, pp. 1004-05). The author of the first set of verses is identified as 'James Caufield' in the 1563 edition; this is altered to 'J. C.' in subsequent editions (cf. 1563, p. 1005, with 1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1472). 'Caufield' was probably James Calfhill, the celebrated Elizabethan divine, whose name is variously given as 'Calfill,' 'Calfeld,' or 'Calfilde' (see Foster). The author of the second set of verses, identified as 'I. F.' in the 1563 edition (p. 1005) was almost certainly Foxe himself.

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White's verses celebrate the common ancestry of Philip and Mary through John of Gaunt, ancestor of both the Tudors and the monarchs of Castille. (Interestingly, White anticipated by four decades Robert Person's arguments that Philip III, not James VI, was Elizabeth's rightful heir). In an effort to counter English xenophobia, White maintained that this common ancestry meant that Philip was really English. Those who opposed this marriage were foreigners such as the French and the Scots, and traitors such as Northumberland and Wyatt, 'the Catiline of our age'.

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Calfhill's response denounced the polluting of English royal blood with Spanish and claimed that the marriage was God's punishment for the sins of the English. Northumberland was a hero and Wyatt fought valiantly against the papacy. Interestingly, Foxe in his verses said nothing about Northumberland or Wyatt and emphasised that the marriage was not God's will. Cruelly, Foxe also mocked Mary's childlessness and the failure of her marriage.

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In the 1570 edition, Foxe added two poems by John Parkhurst. Although the poems were added to the 1570 edition, their content makes it clear that they were written at the same time as White's verses. Parkhurst denounced Philip as a foreigner, he denounced Charles V and he was lavish in praise of both Wyatt and Dudley.

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Most unusually, Foxe never provided a translation for these verses. It is not difficult to see why poems praising rebels and discussing the foreign marriage of a queen and the royal succession should remain in the relative obscurity of Latin. It was probably the very topicality of these verses, however, that led Foxe to include, and later increase, them. A Hapsburg marriage was a real possibility in the 1560s and there is some evidence that Foxe discreetly opposed this, and any other marriage of Elizabeth to a catholic. These verses allowed Foxe to attack such a marriage safely. Foxe may also have been happy to take advantage of the opportunity these verses gave him to rehabilitate Wyatt.

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some drew forth Genealogyes, deriuyng hys petigrue from Edward the thyrd and Iohn of Gaunte, some made Verses. Amongest all other Maister Whyte, then Byshop of Lyncolne (his Poeticall vayne being drunken with ioye of the Mariage) spued out certaine Verses: the copy wherof we haue here inserted.

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¶ Phillippi & Mariæ Genealogia, qua ambo principes ex Iohanne de Gandauo, Edwardi tertij, Angliæ, Franciæque; Regis filio descendisse ostenduntur, Whito Lincolniense Authore.

ILle parens regum Gandaua ex vrbe Iohannes
Somersetensem comitem profert Iohannem.
Somersetensis venit hoc patre dux Iohannes,
Qui Margaretam Richemundi habuit Comitissam.
Hæc dedit Henricum, qui regni septimus huius
Henrico octauo solium regale reliquit.
Hoc patre propitio, & fausto quasi sydere nata
Iure tenes sacram, teneasq; Maria coronam.

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¶ Verses of M. White Bishop of Lyncolne, concernyng the Mariage of Philip and Mary.

N Vbat vt angla anglo, regina Maria Philippo,
Inq; suum fontem regia stirps redeat,
Noluit humani generis dæmon vetus hostis,
Sed Deus Anglorum prouida spes voluit.
Nollet Scotus inops, timidusq; ad prælia Gallus,
Cæsar, & Italia, & Flandria tota volet.
Noluit Hæreticus (stirps Caiphæ) pontificum grex.
Pontficum sed grex Catholicus voluit.
Octo vxorati Patres in dæmone nollent:
Quinq; Cathenati pro pietate, volent.
Noluit Iohannes Dudley Northumbrius vrsus,
Sed fidum regni Consilium voluit.
Noluit ætatis nostræ Catelina Viatus,
Sed proceres & plebs & pia turba volet.
Nollet Graius dux, & Cantia terra rebellans:
Nos quoniam Dominus sic voluit, volumus.
Clarior effectus repetat sua limina sanguis,
Cum sit Philippo iuncta Maria viro.

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¶ Answere by the reuerend Byshop of Norwich, to the Bishop of Lyncolne.

EXterno nubat Maria vt regina Philippo,
Vt sint pulsa suis sceptra Britanna locis:
Vult Dæmon generis nostri antiquissimus hostis,
Anglorum non vult anchora sola Deus.
Nolunt hoc Galli, nolunt Scoti armipotentes,
Vult Cæsar, Flandrus, vult Italus Golias.
Vult grex Pontificum, stirps Caypha, turba bicornis,
Non vult sanctorum sed pia turba patrum.
Nolunt octo, quibus sunt vincla iugalia curæ,
Quinq̀; cathenati Dæmonis arte volunt.
Hoc neq; tu prorsus Dudlæ animose volebas:
Inuitum regni Consilium voluit.
Dedecus hoc non vult fortissimus ille Viatus,
Inuitus populus, sic proceresq; volent.
Vos vultis, quoniam semper mala cuncta voletis:
Non vult Graius Dux, nec pia turba volet.
Quot tulit Hispanus rex ergò commoda secum,
Reginæ socias cum dedit ille manus?

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¶ An other aunswere by the sayd Author.

HIspano nubat Maria vt regina Philippo,
Extirpetur stirps vt quoq; Nobilium:
Vult pater id vester disturbans omnia Dæmon,
Non vult Anglorum sed pater Altitonans.
Non vult bellipotens Gallus, non vult Scotus acer,
Vult Cæsar, Flandrus, Papicolasq; volunt.
Grex mitratorum vultis, Cayphæ ipsa propago:
Non vult sanctorum sed pius ordo patrum.
Nolunt octo, pios qui iure colunt hymenæos,
Quinq; cathenati pro impietate volunt.
Dudlaus minimè voluit Northumbrius Heros:
Cui sua perchara est patria, nemo volet.
Libertatis amans non vult bonus ille Viatus,
Non proceres, non plebs, nec pia turba volet.
Vos vultis, pietas qui vultis vt exulet omnis,
Non Graius, sed nec Cantia turba volet.
Ergò magis clarus qui fit (rogo) sanguis auitus,
Quando iugalis sit iunctus vterq; thoro?

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¶ Other verses answering to Byshop White, made by I. C.

QVamlibet Anglorum stirps ementita Philippo,
Et Maria Hispana de genitrice fuit:
Vt tamen Hispano, confusi sanguinis Angla
Nuberet in gentis dedecus atq; patris,
Noluit Anglorum priscæ virtutis amator,
Sed Deus in nostram perniciem voluit.
Noluit in nostram, nisi conspirata, salutem
Turba: quid ad nos si gens inimica volet?
Pontifices fati, quasi Cayphas, omina dantes
Nolebant: at grex cacolucos voluit.
Elegere pij connubia talia nolle:
Velle quidem demens hæresis illa fuit.
Consilium multo præstantius octo mariti,
Quinq; cathenatis ob malefacta, dabant.
Noluit hos iungi thalamos Northumbrius heros.
O consultores, qui voluere, malos.
Noluit haud æquo confligens marte Viatus,
Solaq;, quæ voluit, turba Papalis erat.
Nolebat Graius, neq; terra Britanna volebat:
Nos, quoniam Dominus sic voluit, tulimus.
Sed tulimus pariter fata infœlicia, quando
Infœlix Maria est nupta Philippe tibi.

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¶ Other verses aunsweryng likewise.

NVbat vt Hispano Regina Maria Philippo
Dic age Whyte mihi, quos voluisse vides
Noluit aut voluit quid inanis turba, refert nil,
Velle & nolle Dei est: quid volet ille, refert.
Hoc quoniam voluit (inquis) Dominus, voluistis:
Quid voluit, quoniam nescis inepte, scias.
Scilicet hoc voluit, vates vt vanus & augur,
Et mendax Whitus pseudopropheta foret.
Regi non regi nupsit, non nupserat, Angla est,
Non Angla est, grauida est, non grauida est, grauis est.
Parturit atq; parit, sic vos voluistis ouantes,
Nil tamen illa parit: hoc voluit Dominus.
Duxerat ad paucos menses, mox deserit idem:
Sponsa est, mox vidua est: hoc voluit Dominus.
Irrita frustrentur semper sic vota malorum
Perniciem patriæ qui voluere suæ

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Sit nomen domini benedictum.

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