Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Censorship Proclamation 32. Our Lady' Psalter 33. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain34. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 35. Bradford's Letters 36. William Minge 37. James Trevisam 38. The Martyrdom of John Bland 39. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 40. Sheterden's Letters 41. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 42. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 43. Nicholas Hall44. Margery Polley45. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 46. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 47. John Aleworth 48. Martyrdom of James Abbes 49. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 50. Richard Hooke 51. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 52. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 53. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 54. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 55. Martyrdom of William Haile 56. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 57. William Andrew 58. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 59. Samuel's Letters 60. William Allen 61. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 62. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 63. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 64. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 65. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 66. Cornelius Bungey 67. John and William Glover 68. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 69. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 70. Ridley's Letters 71. Life of Hugh Latimer 72. Latimer's Letters 73. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed74. More Letters of Ridley 75. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 76. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 77. William Wiseman 78. James Gore 79. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 80. Philpot's Letters 81. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 82. Letters of Thomas Wittle 83. Life of Bartlett Green 84. Letters of Bartlett Green 85. Thomas Browne 86. John Tudson 87. John Went 88. Isobel Foster 89. Joan Lashford 90. Five Canterbury Martyrs 91. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 92. Letters of Cranmer 93. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 94. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 95. William Tyms, et al 96. Letters of Tyms 97. The Norfolk Supplication 98. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 99. John Hullier 100. Hullier's Letters 101. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 102. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 103. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 104. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 105. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 106. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 107. Gregory Crow 108. William Slech 109. Avington Read, et al 110. Wood and Miles 111. Adherall and Clement 112. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 113. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow114. Persecution in Lichfield 115. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 116. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 117. Examinations of John Fortune118. John Careless 119. Letters of John Careless 120. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 121. Agnes Wardall 122. Peter Moone and his wife 123. Guernsey Martyrdoms 124. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 125. Martyrdom of Thomas More126. Martyrdom of John Newman127. Examination of John Jackson128. Examination of John Newman 129. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 130. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 131. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 132. John Horne and a woman 133. William Dangerfield 134. Northampton Shoemaker 135. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 136. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1502 [1476]

Q. Mary. The story and Martyrdome of Rawlins White a Fisherman.

MarginaliaAn. 1555. March.strawe vnto hym, and made two litle stayes, & set them vnder his elbowes. Then went the Priest forward in his sermon, wherin he spake of many thinges touching the authoritie of the church of Rome. In the meane tyme Rawlins gaue such good eare and intention, that he seemed nothing at all moued or disquieted. At the last the priest came to the sacrament of the altar, and there he began to inuey against Raulins opinions: in whiche his inuection he cited the common place of Scripture and thereupon made a Clerklye interpretation.

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Nowe when Raulins perceyued that he went aboute not onely to preache and teache the people false doctrine, but also to confirme it by Scripture, he suddainly starte vp and beckened his handes to the people, saying twise: Come hither good people, and heare not a false prophet preaching: and then saide vnto the preacher: MarginaliaRawlins words to the false Prophet.Ah thou naughty hypocrite, doest thou presume to proue thy false doctrine by scripture? Looke in the text what foloweth: dyd not Christ say: Doo this in the remembraunce of me? After whiche wordes the Priest being rather amazed then interrupted, forthwith held his peace.

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MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Rawlins White, a Fisherman, at Cardiffe. Anno. 1555. March.¶ The burnyng of Raulins, Martyr.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
The illustration of the bearded dignified figure of Rawlins White, one of the small woodcuts (Type 2) added to the 1570 edition, was among the group of these well-worked blocks which was not reused. Although Foxe's account provided sufficient drama for a specific illustration, this seemingly generalised image was perhaps following the text in showing Rawlins, the 'good old man' (aged about 60), his back 'close to the stake', bearded and bolt upright.

Then some that stood by cryed out, Put fire, set to fire: whiche being set to, the strawe and Reede by and by caste vp both a great and a suddaine flame. In the which flame this good and blessed man bathed his handes so long, vntyll such tyme as the sinewes shronke, and the fatte dropped away, sauing that once he dyd, as it were, wipe his face with one of them. MarginaliaThe constant patience of Rawlins at his burning.Al this while, which was somewhat long, he cryed with a loude voyce: O Lorde receiue my soule: O Lord receiue my spirite, vntyl he could not opē his mouth. At the last the extremitie of the fire was so vehement against his legges, that they were consumed almoste before the rest of his bodye was burned: whiche made the whole body fal ouer the chayne into the fire soner then it woulde haue done. During which tyme of his burnyng it can not be said, that hee suffered or fealt any great paine, considering that not without his perfect memorie he aboad both quietly and paciently, euen vnto the departing of his life. 

Commentary  *  Close

Here again White is displaying the stoicism expected of a martyr. On the polemical importance of the stoicism of the martyrs see Collinson (1983) and Freeman (1997).

Thus dyed this godly and old man Rawlins for the testimonie of Gods truth, being now rewarded, no doubt, with the crown of euerlasting life.

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MarginaliaA sodain alteratiō of nature marueilous in Rawlins before his deathIt is recorded furthermore of the said good father Raulins by this Reporter, that as he was going to his death, and standing at the stake, he seemed in a manner to be altered in nature. For wheras before he was wont to go stowping, or rather crooked, through the infirmitie of age, hauyng a sad countenaunce and a very feeble complexion, and withal very soft in speache and gesture.

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Now he wente and stretched vp hym selfe, not onely

bolt vpright, but also bare withal a most pleasant and comfortable countenance, not without great courage and audacitie both in speache and in behaueour. He had (of whiche thing I shoulde haue spoken before) about his head a kerchife. The heares of his head (somewhat appearing beneath his kerchiefe) and also of his beard were more inclined to white then to graye: whiche gaue such a shewe and countenance to his whole person, that he seemed to be altogether angelical.

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It is also saide by this MarginaliaThe reporter of this story one M. Dane.Reporter, that a litle before the fire flashed vp to his body (as ye haue heard) many of his frendes came to hym, and tooke hym by the hand, amongest whom, the Reporter of this story helde hym so long by the hand, tyll the flame of the fire rose, and forced them to sunder. In the meane tyme the priest of whom I spake afore, cryed out, and said, that it was not lawful for any man to take hym by the hand, because he was an heretike, and condemned by the Churche. The chiefe cause of his trouble, was his opinion touching the sacrament of the aultar. He was at the tyme of his death, of the age of three score yeres or thereaboutes.

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¶ The summe of the wordes spoken by queene Mary to certain of her coūsailers. March. 28. an. 1555. touching the restitution of Abbay landes. 
Commentary  *  Close
The Restoration of Abbey Lands

There is nothing on the restoration of monastic lands nor on Pope Julius III nor on the spectacular death of Nightingale in the Rerum. The materials on Pope Julius III's death and a version of Nightingale's demise appear in the 1563 edition. The account of the plans to restore monastic property and of the woman of St Magnus were added in the 1570 edition. Details were also added in this edition to the account of Nightingale's death. There were no changes made to this material in subsequent editions.

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BEfore I passe ouer this month of Marche, I can not but leaue a litle Memorandum of the woordes or consultation of Queene Mary, vsed to certayne of the Counsaile, the eight and twenty day of the said moneth of March touching the restoring againe of the Abbay landes. Who after shee had called vnto her presence foure of her priuie Counsaile, the day and moneth aforesaid: the names of whiche Counsailors were these:

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
The Restoration of Abbey Lands and Other Events in Spring 1555

The main topics in this section are the queen's decision to restore the abbey lands she held, and the response to the death of Julius III. The glosses concerning the pope are far more ribald than those relating to Mary. Julius III's prodigious appetite is recounted, as are the blasphemies linked to his greed; the glosses underline this at various points, using the phrase ' a Porkishe Pope' to describe his affection for pork. The glosses relating to Mary are more restrained but revealing. The use of 'conscience' in the gloss 'The Q. taketh a conscience in keeping Abbay landes' does not contain the sense of unanswerability that its invocation by protestants appears to carry. The gloss 'Note the nature of the Papistes where they can ouercome, they are Lions: where they are ouermatched, they play the Foxes' attacks the catholics for not living up to their principles and delaying the enforcement of the return of land for fear of rousing the nobility. The contrast between these two glosses perhaps hints that the queen was not devious, but was zealous in her pursuit of papal interests.

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There are examples of mistakes in the editions after 1570: a 'no' is lost from the 1570 gloss 'Here lacked no good will in the Bishops, but time as yet did not serue them'; the gloss 'Note here what an holy Catholicke Church this is' is out of place in 1583, and a date given correctly in 1570 and 1576 ('Aprill. 10') is incorrect in 1583 ('Aprill. 20').

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MarginaliaThe names of the Counsellers called before Q. Mary.1. William Lord Marques of Winchester, high treasurer of England.

2. Syr Robert Rochester knight, the queenes Controller.

3. Sir William Peter knyght, Secretary.

4. Sir Fraunces Inglefield knight, Maister of the Wardes:

MarginaliaThe effect of Q. Maryes wordes touching Abbay landes to be restored.The said Queene Mary inferred these woordes: the principalle effect and summe whereof here foloweth. You are here of our Counsaile, and we haue willed you to be called vnto vs, to the entent ye might heare of me my conscience, and the resolution of my mind, concerning the landes & possessions as well of Monasteries, as other Churches whatsoeuer, being now presently in my possession.

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Firste, I doo consider, that the saide landes were taken awaye from the Churches aforesaide, in tyme of schisme, and that by vnlawfull meanes, suche as are contrarye both to the lawe of God and of the Church. MarginaliaThe Q. taketh a conscience in keeping Abbay landes.For the which cause my conscience dooth not suffer me to deteine them: and therefore I here expressely refuse eyther to clayme or to retayne the saide landes for myne, but with all my hart, freely, and willyngly without all paction or condition, here and before God I doo surrender and relinquishe the saide landes and possessions or inheretaunces what so euer, MarginaliaThe Q. surrendreth from her selfe the possession of Abbay lādes.and doo renounce the same with this mynde and purpose, that order and disposition therof may be taken, as shal seme best liking to our most holy Lord the Pope, or els his Legate the Lord Cardinal, to the honour of God and wealth of this our Realme.

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And albeit you may obiect to me againe, that considering the state of my kingdome, the dignitie thereof, and my Crowne Imperiall can not be honorably mainteined and furnished without the possessions aforesaid: yet notwithstanding I set more by the saluation of my soule, then by x. kingdomes, and therefore the said possessions I vtterly refuse here to hold after that sort and title, and geue most harty thankes to almighty God, which hath geuen me an husbande likewise mynded, with no lesse good affection in this behalfe, then I am my selfe.

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MarginaliaPromise for restitution of Abbay landes.Wherefore I charge and commaund, that my Chauncellour (with whom I haue conferred my minde in this matter before) and you foure, to morowe together doo resort to the most reuerend Lord Legate, and doo signifie to hym the premisses in my name, and geue your attendaunce vppon hym for the more full declaration of the state of my kingdome, and of the foresaid possessions accordingly as you your selues doo vnderstande the matter, and can infourme hym in the same.

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This Intimation being geuen by the Queene, first vnto the Counsailours, and then commyng to the Cardinals hand, he drawing out a copie therof in Latine, sent the same to the Pope: whiche copie drawen into Latine, and

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