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161 [160]

King Ethelwulfus. K. Ethelwulf. Ludouicus Pius. Frider. B.

our English histories do most exclayme & complayn: fistly by the Normanes, which I pray God be the last.

Then it followeth in the story, that the time of this persecution of the foresayd Paganes and Danes continuyng, kyng Egbert when he had ruled the Westsaxons, and ouer the most part of England, by the terme of xxxvii. yeares, dyed, and was buried at Winchester, leauyng to his sonne Ethelwolfe his kyngdome, whiche first was Byshop of Winchester (as Houeden recordeth) and after vpon necessitie made kyng, leauyng withall and pronouncing this saying to his sonne: Fçlicem fore, si regnū, quod multa rexerat industria, ille consueta genti illi non in terrumperet ignauia.

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¶ Kyng Athelwolfus.

A Thelwulfus, the sonne of Egbert, in his former age had entred into the order of Subdeacō, and as some other say was made Byshop of Winchester. But afterward beyng the onely sonne of Egbert was made kyng through the dispensation (as Fabian sayth) of Pope Paschalis, but that can not be: Marginalia837.
A place in Fabian to be amended.
for Paschalis then was not Byshop: so that by the cōputatiō of tyme, it should rather seeme to be Gregory the 4. MarginaliaGuilel. Lib. de gestis. pont. Anglor. sayth this Pope was Leo. iiij.This Athelwulphe (as beyng himself once nuselled in that order) was alwayes good and deuout to holy Church & religious orders. In somuch that he gaue to them the tythe of all his goodes & landes in Weastsaxonie, with libertie & fredome from all seruage and ciuill charges. Wherof, his charte or instrument beareth testimony, after this tenour procedyng: much like to the donatiō of Ethelbaldus kyng of Mercians, aboue mentioned.

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¶ The priuileges and donations geuen by king Ethelwulfus, to the Clergie.

Priuileges and temporalties graūnted to the Church by kyng Ethelwuite.
Ex Flor. hist.
REgnante Domino nostro imperpetuum. 

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Charter of Ethelwolf
Foxe text Latin

REgnante Domino nostro imperpetuū ... aliqua parte leigamus. &c.

Cattley-Pratt, Vol. II, page 15 has in addition to the Foxe text

Placuit autem episcopis ecclesiæ Scireburnensis Alstano, et Winton Switheno, cum suis abbatibus et Dei servis, viris scilicet et fœminis religiosis quibus supradicta collata sunt beneficia, consilia inire, ut omnes fratres et sorores omni hebdomada, die Mercurii, hoc est Wednesday, in unaquaque ecclesia cantent psalmos 50 et unusquisqu presbyter duas missas, unam pro rege, et aliam pro ducibus ejus in hunc modum consentientibus, pro salute et refrigerio delictorum suorum. Postquam autem defuncti fuerimus, pro rege defuncto singulariter, et pro ducibus communiter. Et hoc sit firmiter constitutum omnibus diebus Christianitatis, sicut libertas constituta est, quamdiu fides crescit in gente Anglorum. Scripta est autem hæc donationis charta, anno gratiæ 855 indictione quarta quinto nonas Noveb. in urbe Wentana ante majus altare beati Petri apostoli.

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[Ex Flor. Hist. (Lond. 1570, p. 307; Francof. 1601, p. 158. The Latin in the text is according to the printed copies, from which Foxe a little varies.]


John Wade, University of Sheffield

Our Lord Jesus Christ ruling for ever, in our times through the fires of wars, and the plunderings of our wealth, and also the most cruel depredations of barbarous enemies causing devastation, and the multiple tribulations of pagan nations afflicting us for our sins to our utter destruction, we see dangerous times pressing upon us. Therefore, I Ethelwulf, king of the West Saxons, together with the council of my bishops and chieftains, have affirmed a sound plan and uniform remedy: to grant some portion of my land to be held in everlasting right by God and the Blessed Mary and all the saints, namely a tenth part of my land, that it may be safe from burdens and free from all secular services, including greater and smaller royal payments, or taxes, which we call Witteredden: and may be free of all matters, for the remission of souls and my sins, to the service of God alone, without a campaign, the construction of a bridge, and the fortification of a citadel, so that they may the more diligently utter prayers without ceasing for us to God, by which we may in some way lighten their service. Moreover, it has pleased the bishops of the church, Alstan of Sherborne and Swithen of Winchester, with their abbots and servants of God, namely the religious men and women upon whom the above named benefits have been conferred, to devise plans, so that all the brothers and sisters each week on the day of Mercury, that is Wednesday, in each and every church should sing 50 psalms and each priest two masses, one for the king and the other for his leaders agreeing on this manner, for the salvation and consolation of their transgressions and, after we have died, individually for the dead king, and all together for the leaders. And let this be firmly established for all the days of Christianity, just as liberty has been established, for as long as the faith increases in the nation of the English. This charter of gift is written in the year of grace 855, in the fourth indiction, on the 1st November in the city of Winchester in front of the high altar of St Peter the Apostle.

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Dum in nostris temporibus per bellorū incendia, & direptiones opum nostrarum, nec non & vastātium crudelissimas depredationes hostium, barbararum, paganarumq̀ gentium, multiplices tribulationes ad affligendum vsq̀ ad internecionem, tempora cernimus incumbere periculosa. Quamobrem, ego Ethelwulfus Rex occidentalium Saxonum, cum consilio Episcoporum & principum meorum, consilium salubre, & vniforme remedium affirmaui: vt aliquam portionem terrarum hæreditariam, Deo & sanctæ Mariæ, & omnibus sanctis iure perpetuo possidendam concedam, scilicet partē terræ meæ, vt sit tuta & immunis ab omnibus secularibus seruicij:, nec non regalibus tributis maioribus & minoribus siue taxationibus, quod nos dicimus Witereden: sitq̀ libera, omnium rerum, pro remissione animarum & peccatorū nostrorum, ad Deo soli deseruiendū sine expeditione, & pontis cōstructione, & arcis munitione: vt eo diligentius pro nobis ad Deum preces sine cessatione fundant, quo eorum seruitutem in aliqua parte leuigamus. &c. MarginaliaPro remis.
Note the blind ignoraunce and erroneous teachyng in those Dayes.

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Hereby may it appeare, how and when the Churches of England, began first to be indued with temporalties and landes: also with priuilegies & exemptions enlarged. Moreouer (and that whiche specially is to be considered & lamented) what pernicious doctrine was this, wherewith they were led: thus to set remission of their sinnes, and remedy of their soules, in this donation and such other deedes of their deuotion, contrary to the information of Gods word, and no small derogation to the crosse of Christ.

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These thynges thus done within the Realme, then the sayd Ethelwulfus «e king, taking his iourney to Rome with Alured his yongest sonne, committed him to the bringyng vp of Pope Leo the iiij. where he also reedified the English schole at Rome: whiche being founded by kyng Offa, or rather by Iue kyng of Merciās (as in the flowers of Hist. is affirmed) was lately in the tyme of kyng Egbert his father, consumed with fire. MarginaliaPeter pence through the whole realm graunted to Rome.
Money bestowed to burne day light.
Farther and besides, this kyng gaue and graunted there vnto Rome, of euery fire house a peny to be payed through his whole lād, as kyng Iue in his dominion had done before. Also he gaue and graunted yearely to be payed to Rome 300. markes, that is to the mainteinyng of the light of S. Peter. c. markes: to þe light of S. Paul. c. markes: to the vse of the Pope also an other hundreth. This done, returnyng home through Fraunce, maried their Iudith the daughter of Carol9 Caluus, the Frēch kyng: whom he restored afterward, contrary to the lawes of Westsaxons, to the title and throne of a Queene. For before, it was decreed among the Westsaxons (by the occasion of wicked Ethelburga, who poysoned Brigthricus her owne husband) that after that, no Kyngs wife there should haue the name or place of a Queene.

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And for somuch as I haue here entred into the mentiō of Iudith, daughter of Carolus Caluus: the occasion therof putteth me in memory, here to inserte by the way a matter done: although not in this Realme, yet not impertinent to this Ecclesiasticall history. And first to deduce the narratiō hereof from the first originall. The father of this Carolus Caluus, whose name was Ludouicus, first of that name, called Pius King of Fraunce, had two wiues: wherof by the first, he had iij. sonnes, Lothary, Pepyn, and Lewes. Whiche iij. sonnes vnnaturally and vnkyndly conspiryng agaynst their father, & his second wife, with her sonne, their yoūgest brother, persecuted him so: that through a certaine counsell of Lordes spirituall and temporall: MarginaliaNote here the holy & holesome counsailes & doynges of the spirituall Lordes.they deposed the same their naturall and right godly father, dispossessing and dischargyng him of all rule and dominion. Moreouer caused him to renounce his temporall habite, inclosing him in the Monastery of Saint Marke, for a Monke or rather a prisoner. All whiche done, they deuided his Empire & kyngdome among themselues.

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MarginaliaLudouicus Pius, Emperor & kyng of Frāce.Thus was Ludouicus Pius, of impious sonnes left desolate. But the power of God, whiche worketh when all earthly power ceaseth, of his diuine mercy so ayded and recouered him out of all this tribulation to his Imperiall dignitie againe: that it was to all his enemyes confusion, and to all good men a miracle. But this by the way. By his secōd wyfe whose name was Iudith, he had this Charles the Bald here mētioned. Which Iudith was thought and so accused to the Pope, to be within such degree of alliaūce: that by the popes law, she might not cōtinue his wife without the Popes dispensation. It so fell out in the meane tyme, that this Ludouicus the Emperour, had promoted a young man named MarginaliaFridericke Byshop of Vtrike.Frederike to be Byshop of Vtrike: and to hym had geuen sadde and good exhortation, that he remembryng and followyng the constauncie of his predecessors, would maintaine right and truth without all exception of any person, and punish misdoers with excommunication, as well the rich as the poore, with such like wordes of godly counsaile. Frederike hearyng the kyng thus to say, sittyng at dinner with him, as the maner was beyng newly inuested, in these wordes aūswered to the Emperour againe. I thanke your maiestie sayth he, whiche with your so wholesome exhortation putteth me in minde of my profession. But I beseech you of your benigne fauour and pacience, that I may freely disclose, that which hath long encombred and pearced my consciēce. To whom leaue beyng geuen, thus he begā: MarginaliaBishop Friderike openly admonisheth the Emperour at the table.I pray you (Lord Emperour) to shew me herein your mynde (poynting to the fish before him) whether is it more according to attame this fish here presēt, begynning first at the head or at the tayle. What a tale is this, quod the Emperour, of the taile, and of the head: At the head quoth he. Thē Frederike takyng therof his occasion, proceedeth: Euen so let it be (Lord Emperour) sayth he, as you haue sayd. Let Christian fayth and charitie first begyn with your selfe, as with the head, admonishing you to cease from your fact and errour: that your subiectes by your example, be not boldened to follow your misdoyng. Wherefore first forsake you, your vnlawful wedlocke which you haue made with Iudith MarginaliaNote, there were ii. Iudithes one the mother of Carolus Caluus, the other his daughter, whom Kyng Ethelwulf dyd marry.your neare kinswoman. These wordes of the new Byshop, although they moued Ludouic9 the Emperour not a litle: yet he, with a gentle modestie, and modest silence was contented, sufferyng the Bishop to go home in peace. But the word beyng vttered in such an audience could not so be concealed, but spread and brast out in much talke in the whole Court: and especially among the Byshops, consultyng earnestly with them selues about the matter. Through whose coōsaile and labour so at length it fell, that the Emperour was constrained to leaue the company of his wife, till he had purchased a licence of the Byshop of Rome, to reteine her agayne: who thē forgaue the sayd Byshop all that was past. But the woman, hyred two Knightes that slew hym in his vestmentes, when he had ended his Masse. MarginaliaFriderike Byshop of Vtrike iudged of some a Martyr.Ranulfus, and Guliel. Libro de pontificib geue forth this story in his great commendation to dye a Martyr. Wherof, I haue not to iudge, nor here to pronoūce: but that rather I thinke him to be cōmended in his dying, then the woman for her killing. MarginaliaExample of the woman more redy to reuenge then the man.

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And for asmuch as mention hath bene made of Ludouicus Pius, here is to be noted, that in Fraunce then was vsed of Priestes and Churchmen, precious and shewyng vesture, and golden, and rich staryng gyrdles, with rynges and other ornamentes of gold. Wherefore, the sayd Lewes purchased of the Byshop of Rome a correction for all such as vsed such disordinate apparell, causing them to weare browne and sad colours, accordyng to their sadnes. Fab.

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Of this Lewes the Papistes do fayne, that because he conuerted certaine of their Church goodes and patrimonie to the wages of his souldiours, his body (they saye) was car-

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