Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Censorship Proclamation 32. Our Lady' Psalter 33. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain34. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 35. Bradford's Letters 36. William Minge 37. James Trevisam 38. The Martyrdom of John Bland 39. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 40. Sheterden's Letters 41. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 42. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 43. Nicholas Hall44. Margery Polley45. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 46. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 47. John Aleworth 48. Martyrdom of James Abbes 49. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 50. Richard Hooke 51. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 52. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 53. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 54. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 55. Martyrdom of William Haile 56. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 57. William Andrew 58. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 59. Samuel's Letters 60. William Allen 61. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 62. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 63. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 64. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 65. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 66. Cornelius Bungey 67. John and William Glover 68. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 69. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 70. Ridley's Letters 71. Life of Hugh Latimer 72. Latimer's Letters 73. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed74. More Letters of Ridley 75. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 76. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 77. William Wiseman 78. James Gore 79. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 80. Philpot's Letters 81. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 82. Letters of Thomas Wittle 83. Life of Bartlett Green 84. Letters of Bartlett Green 85. Thomas Browne 86. John Tudson 87. John Went 88. Isobel Foster 89. Joan Lashford 90. Five Canterbury Martyrs 91. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 92. Letters of Cranmer 93. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 94. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 95. William Tyms, et al 96. Letters of Tyms 97. The Norfolk Supplication 98. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 99. John Hullier 100. Hullier's Letters 101. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 102. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 103. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 104. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 105. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 106. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 107. Gregory Crow 108. William Slech 109. Avington Read, et al 110. Wood and Miles 111. Adherall and Clement 112. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 113. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow114. Persecution in Lichfield 115. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 116. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 117. Examinations of John Fortune118. John Careless 119. Letters of John Careless 120. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 121. Agnes Wardall 122. Peter Moone and his wife 123. Guernsey Martyrdoms 124. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 125. Martyrdom of Thomas More126. Martyrdom of John Newman127. Examination of John Jackson128. Examination of John Newman 129. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 130. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 131. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 132. John Horne and a woman 133. William Dangerfield 134. Northampton Shoemaker 135. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 136. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1808 [1782]

Q. Mary. The Martyrdome of Doct. Thomas Cranmer Archbyshop.

MarginaliaAn. 1556. March.was almost out of his wittes, alwayes hauyng this in his mouth: Non fecisti? diddest thou it not?

But whē he came to the place where the holy Byshops and Martyrs of God, Hugh Latymer and Ridley, were burnt before him for þe confession of þe truth: MarginaliaThe Archb. brought to the place of execution. kneelyng down, he prayed to God, and not lōg tarying in his Prayers, puttyng of his garmentes to his shyrt, he prepared himselfe to death. His shyrt was made long down to his feete. His feete were bare. Likewise his head, when both his cappes were of, was so bare, that not one heare could be sene vpon it. His beard was long and thicke, coueryng his face with maruailous grauitie. Such a countenaunce of grauitie moued the hartes, both of his frendes and of his enemyes.

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Then the Spanish Friers, Iohn and Richard, of whō mention was made before, began to exhorte hym and play their partes with him a freshe, but with vayne and lost la-

bour, Cranmer with stedfast purpose abydyng in the profession of his doctrine, gaue his hand to certaine old men, and other that stode by, biddyng them farewell.

And when hee had thought to haue done so lykewise to Ely, 

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Foxe took the name of Ely and the fact that he was a fellow of Brasenose from 'J. A.' (cf. BL, Harley 422, fo. 51r).

MarginaliaM. Ely refuseth to geue his hand to the Archbyshop.the sayd Ely drew backe his hād and refused, saying: it was not lawfull to salute heretickes, & specially such a one as falsely returned vnto þe opiniōs þt he had forsworne. And if he had knowē before that he would haue done so, he would neuer haue vsed his company so familiarly, and chide those Sergeaunts & Citizens which had not refused to geue him their handes. This Ely was a Priest lately made, & studēt in Diuinitie, beyng thē one of the fellowes of Brasennose.

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MarginaliaThe Archb. tyed to the stake.Then was an yron chayne tyed about Cranmer, whō whē they perceiued to be more stedfast thē þt he could be moued from his Sentence, they cōmaunded the fire to bee set vnto hym.

¶ The burnyng of the Archbyshop of Caunterbury Doctour Thomas Cranmer, in the Townedich at Oxford, with his hand first thrust into the fire, wherewith he subscribed before.

woodcut [View a larger version]

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The famous scene of Cranmer sacrificing as first oblation to the flames the right hand that had betrayed his heart became one of the best known passages in Foxe's book. The place where 'the holy bishops' Latimer and Ridley had burned is shown much as it was in the woodcut of that earlier event (1583, pp. 1769-70), with the tower over the north gate of Oxford's city wall, from which Cranmer had looked down. His 'long and thick' beard which gave his face 'marvellous gravity' is intact, as is his raised left hand, crumpling in the flames on his stiff horizontal arm. Everything is focused on this guilty index finger, exactly centred in the mid-point of the block - the gesture crudely paralleled by the outstretched left arm of the ugly Spanish friar John, still testing Cranmer's steadfast purpose. Cranmer's burning was one of the four woodcuts of English martyrs illustrated in Foxe's 1559 Latin book, but very differently. There the archbishop, bearded and erect, is still untouched by the roaring fire (tended, as in the Acts and Monuments by a solitary attendant) in which he holds his hand. In 1559 the assembled viewers are in the background, mainly officials. There is no crush of awed spectators filling the space as in the English book, and no banderole for the final words, 'Lord receive my spirit'. As in other cases, the chief persecutor is drawn to the viewer's attention by a label (in roman letters in both 1563 and 1570 - redone - and then in italic in 1576 and 1583. The archbishop's last words were naturally treated with care, the roman lettering of 1563 changing to italic in 1570 and then altered again respectively to roman and italic in 1576 and 1583

MarginaliaCranmer putteth his right hand which subscribed first into the fire.And whē the wood was kindled, & the fire begā to burne neare him, stretchyng out his arme, he put his right hand in to the flame: which he held so stedfast & immoueable (sauing that once with the same hand he wiped his face) that all mē might see his hand burned before his body was touched. His body did so abyde the burnyng of the flame, with such constancie & stedfastnes, that standyng alwayes in one place without mouyng of his body, he seemed to moue no more then þe stake to which he was bound: his eyes were lifted vp into heauen, and oftentymes hee repeated, his vnwoorthy right hād, so lōg as his voyce would suffer him: & vsing often the wordes of Steuen, MarginaliaThe last words of Cranmer at his death.Lord Iesus receaue my spirite, in the greatnes of the flame, he gaue vp the Ghost.

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This fortitude of mynde, which perchaūce is rare & not vsed among the Spanyardes, when Frier Iohn saw, thinkyng it came not of fortitude but of desperation (although such maner exāples which are of the like constācie haue bene cōmon here in Englād) ran to the Lord Williās of Tame, MarginaliaThe Fryers lying report of Cranmer.crying that the Archb. was vexed in mynde, & dyed in great desperation. But he which was not ignoraūt of the Archb. constācy, beyng vnknowē to the Spanyardes, smiled onely, & (as it were) by silence rebuked the Friers folly. And this was the end of this learned Archb. whō, lest by euil subscribyng he should haue perished, by well recātyng God preserued: & lest he should haue liued longer with shame & reproofe, it pleased God rather to take him away, to the glory of hys name & profit of his church. So good was the Lord both to

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his Churche in fortifying the same with the testimony and bloud of such a Martyr: & so good also to þe man, with this crosse of tribulatiō to purge his offences in this world, not onely of his recātatiō, but also of his stādyng against Iohn Lābert, & M. Allen, or if there were any other with whose burnyng & bloud his handes had bene before any thyng polluted. But especially he had to reioyce, that dying in such a cause, he was to be numbred amongest Christes Martyrs, much more worthy the name of S. Thomas of Caūterbury then he whom the Pope falsly before did Canonise.

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And thus haue you the full story cōcerning the life & death of this reuerēd Archb. & Martyr of God Tho. Cranmer, & also of diuers other the learned sort of Christs martyrs burned in Queene Maries tyme, of whō this Archb. was the last, being burnt about the very middle tyme of the raigne of that Queene, MarginaliaArchb. Cranmer the middle Martyr of all the Martyrs burnt in Q. Maryes tyme.& almost the very middle man of all the Martyrs which were burned in all her raigne besides.

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Now, after þe life & story of this foresayd Archb. discoursed, let vs adioyne withal his letters, begynnyng first wt his famous letter writtē to Q. Mary which he wrote vnto her incontinent after hee was cited vp to Rome by Byshoppe Brokes and his fellowes, the tenour wherof here foloweth.

¶ Letters of Doct. Tho. Cranmer Archb. 
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Cranmer's Letters

Given Cranmer's status and pre-eminence among Marian protestants, the amount of epistolary communication he had with his co-religionists was surprisingly small. Apart from his letters to his friend and supporter Joan Wilkinson and to his former protègè Rowland Taylor, his surviving letters dealt with his own legal situation. This was probably partly due to the vigilance with which Cranmer was guarded and probably partly due to the internal struggles Cranmer underwentafter the Oxford disputations in April 1554.

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None of Cranmer's letters are printed in the Rerum. His letters to Mary and to Thomas Martin and John Story were first printed in the 1563 edition as was his letter to a lawyer, written in Latin, about his appeal to a general council. In the 1570 edition, his letter to his lawyer was replaced with a translation of it. Cranmer's letters to Joan Wilkinson and Rowland Taylor were reprinted from the Letters of the Martyrs, where they first appeared, in the 1570 edition. No changes were made to the letters in subsequent editions.

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¶ The Archbyshop of Canterburyes letter to the Queenes hyghnesse. 
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This letter was first printed during Mary's reign in The copy of certain letterssent to the quene (Emden: 1556?), STC 5999. This letter was reprinted in every edition of the Acts and Monuments and in Letters of the Martyrs, pp. 3-15. BL, Lansdowne 389, fos. 213v-222r; BL, Harley 417, fos. 69r-78v and ECL 260, fos.261r-265r are copies of this letter.

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