Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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198 [197]

K W. Conquerour. Lanfrancus. K. W. Conquerour. Lanfrancus.

MarginaliaForen mariage.daungers often do chaunce to Realmes publique by forein maryage with other Princes. &c.

MarginaliaAn. 1070.
A councel holden at Winchester.
Mighte ouercommeth right.
In the same fourth yeare of this kyng, betwene Easter and Whitsontyde: was holden a solemne councell at Winchester of the clergy of england. At the which councell were present two Cardinals, sent from Pope Alexander. 2. Peter, & Iohn. In this coūcell the king being there himself present, were deposed diuers byshops, Abbots, and Priors (by the meanes of the kyng) without any euident cause: to thentent hys Normans might be preferred to the rule of þe church, as he had preferred his knights before to þe rule of þe temporaltie, therby to stand in more suretie of the land. MarginaliaDiuers bishops, Abbots and priours deposed in England.
Stigandus archb. of Cant. depriued, and the causes why?
Amongst whom also Stigandus archb. of Cant. was put downe, for iij. causes agaynst hym pretended.

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The first was, for that he had holden wrongfully that byshoprike,while Robert the Archbishop (aboue mentioned pag. 156 was lyuing.

The second was, for that he had receaued the palle of Benedict byshop of Rome the fifth of that name. Which Benedict, for bying his popedome, had bene deposed, as is shewed before.

The third cause, for that he occupied the said palle without licence and lefull autoritie of the court of Rome.

MarginaliaFaire connutinance not to be trusted.Then Stigandus well proued the beneuolence of king William. For where before, the king seemed in frendly countenaunce to make much of hym, and did vnto hym great reuerence: then he chaunged all his mildenes into sternes, & excused himselfe by the byshop of Romes autoritie: So that in the end Stigandus was depriued of his dignitie and kept in Winchester, as a prisoner duryng hys lyfe. MarginaliaA couetous byshop.Thys Stigandus is noted for a man so couetous and sparing, that when he would take nothing of his owne, and swaring that he had not a peny, yet by a key fastened about his neck was found great treasours of his vnder þe ground.

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MarginaliaThomas made archb. of Yorke.At the same time was preferred to the Archbishoprike of Yorke, Thomas a Normand, and chanon of Baion.

MarginaliaLanfrancus an Italian, archb. of Canterb.At which tyme also Lancfrancus Abbot of Cadomonencie (a Lumbard, and Italian borne) was sent for and made Archbishop of Cant. betwene which two Archbyshops about there consecration, first began a contentiō for geuing and takyng the othe of obedience, but that cōtentiō was at that tyme appeased by the kyng. And Thomas cōtented to subscribe to the Archbyshop of Cant. obedience.

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MarginaliaThe minster of Yorke builded.After thys it folowed within short space, that the sayde Lanfrancus and Thomas Archbyshop of Yorke, who first builded the minster of Yorke, & gaue possessions therunto: came to Rome with Remigius byshop of Dorcester, for their palles, as the maner was: without which, no Archbyshop nor bishop could be confirmed, although their election were neuer so lawfull. MarginaliaThe geuing of the palle.
Dist. 100. Cap. Prisca.
This palle must be asked no where but of the Pope, or his assignes, and that within. iij. monethes: also it must be asked not feintly but mightely: Dist. C. cap. prisca: Which, as it was a chargeable thing to other nations (especially such as were farre from Rome( so it was no small gayne to the Romish sea, so as they did order it: for although at the beginning the palle was geuen without money, accordyng to the decree. Dist. C. or for litell, as percase in thys time of Lanfrank: MarginaliaDist. 100. cap Nouit.yet in proces of yeares it grew to such excesse, that where the Byshopprike of Mentz was wont to geue to Rome but x. M. florence: afterward it arose so, that he that asked to haue his confirmation could not obtayne it, without. xx. M. MarginaliaEx lib. graua minūnationis Germanicæ.And from thence it exceced to xxv. thousand, and at length to xxvii. thousand florences: which summe MarginaliaIacobus Archb. of Mentes.Iacobus Archbyshop of Mentz was prest to pay, a litle before the councell of Basill: in so much that the sayd Iacobus, at his departing (which was within foure yeares after) sayd, that his death did not so much greue him, as to remember hys poore subiectes, which should be constrayned to pay so terrible a fine for the Popes palle. MarginaliaEneas Siluius writeth to be 50 byshoprickes in Germany.Now by this what did rise to the Pope in whole Germany conteinyng in it aboue L. Byshopprikes, it may be easely coniectured. Lanfrancus thus commyng to Rome, with the other two Byshops: he for the estimation of hys learning, obtayned of Alexāder. ij. palles, one of honor, the other of loue. Item, he obteined for the other, ij. Byshops also their confirmation. At which tyme, they being there present before Alexander: the cōtrouersie began first to be moued (or rather renued) for the primacy betwixt the. ij. Metropolitanes, that is betwixt the Archbyshop of Cāturbury, and Archbishop of Yorke, whether of them should haue preeminence aboue the other: For Canterbury chalenged to himselfe prerogatiue and the primacy, ouer whole Britany, and Irelande: the which contētion continued a long season, betwixt these two Churches, and was often renued in the dayes of diuers kynges after this: as in the reigne of Henry the first, betwixt Thurstinus of Yorke, and Radolphus of Canterbury. And agayne in the xxvij yeare of the sayd king, at his second coronation: for Radolphus would not suffer the first coronatiō to stād, because it was done by the Byshop of Yorke, without hys assent. Also in the reigne of Henry the second, where Alexāder Pope made a letter decretall betwixt these ij. metropolitanes, for bearyng the crosse. an. M. CLix. Also an other tyme, in the raigne of the sayd kyng, betwixt Richard of Canterbury, and Roger of Yorke: agayne about the yeare of the Lord. M. Clxx. when Thomas Becket, hearing the kyng to be crowned of Roger Byshop of Yorke: complayned therof greuously to Pope Alexāder the iij. Item an other tyme. an. M. Clxxvi. betwixt Richard, and the sayd Roger, whether of thē should sit on þe right hā of Cardinal Hugo, in his Councell at London. Moreouer in the beginnyng of the reigne of kyng Richard. an. M. Cxc. betwixt Baldwinus of Canterbury, & Godfridus of Yorke. &c.

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Now to procede in the story hereof. After this questiō was brought as is sayd, to the Popes presence (he not disposed to decise the matter) sent them home vnto England, there to haue their cause determined. Wherupon they speading thēselues frō Rome, to England an. M. lxx. and the vi. yeare (as is sayd) of this William: brought the matter before the king and the Clergy, at Windsore. Where as Lancfrāck first alledgyng for hymself, brought in, from þe time of Austē, to the tyme of Bede (which was about. C. xl. yeres) how that the Byshop of Cant. had euer the primacie ouer the whole land of Britanie, and Ireland: how he kept his coūcels diuers tymes within the presincts of Yorke: how he did call and cite the Byshops of Yorke therto: wherof some he did constitute, some he did excommunicate, & some he did remoue: besides also he alledged diuers priuileges graūted by princes and prelates to the primacie of that sea. &c.

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To this Thomas Archbishop of Yorke replyeth again, and first beginnyng with the first originall of the Britanes Church declareth in order of tyme, how the Britanes. &c.

¶ The Britanes first possessioners of this kyngdome of Britaine, which endured from Brutus & Cadwalader. 2076. yeares vnder an hundreth and. ij. kynges, at length receaued the Christian fayth an. Clxij. in the tyme of Lucius their kyng. Eleutherius byshop of Rome, MarginaliaLucius the first king of Britannie christened.
Theonus first Archbishop of London.
sent Faganus and Dumanus, preachers vnto them, at which tyme after their conuersion, they assigned and ordeined in the Realme. xxviij. Byshops with two Archbyshops Theonus the Archbishop of London, and Theodoceus Archbyshop of Yorke. Vnder those Byshops and Archbyshops the Church of Britane was gouerned, after their conuersion, almost. 300. yeares, till at length the Saxons beyng then infidels, with Hengistus their kyng, subdued the Britans by fraudulent murder, and inuaded their land: which was about the yere of the Lord. 440. MarginaliaEx Chronico. Sigebert.After this the Britans beyng driuen into Cambria (which we now call Wales) the Saxons ouerrunning the land, deuided themselues into vij. kyngdomes. And so being infidels and pagans cōtinued, till the tyme that Gregory Byshop of Rome, sent Augustinus, to preach vnto them: which Austen commyng first to MarginaliaDouer the head citie of Kent.Douer, beyng then the head Citie of Kent, called in Latin Dorobernia, and there plantyng himselfe, conuerted first the kyng of Kent, called Edilbertus: who had thē subdued certain other kyngs vnto Humber. By reason wherof Augustine was made Archbishop of Douer, by the appointment of Gregorius, who sent hym certaine Palles, with his letter from Rome, which before is expressed, pag. 199. MarginaliaThis was about. 150. yeares after the comming of the Saxons.Which letter beyng recited, then Thomas expoūdyng vpon the same, begynneth to declare for himselfe, how the meanyng of Gregory in this letter, was to reduce the new Church of Saxones, or Englishmen, to the order that was in the old tyme among the Britanes: that is, to be vnder. ij. Metropolitanes, one of London, the other of Yorke: for so the Church was ordered in the tyme of the Britanes, as is before declared. Notwithstādyng, he geueth to Austen this prerogatiue duryng his lyfe time, to haue autoritie and iurisdiction, not onely ouer his. xij. Byshops, but vpon all other Byshops and Priestes in England. And after his decease, thē these. ij. metropolitanes, London and Yorke, to ouersee the whole Clergy, as in tymes past, amongst the Britanes: whō he ioyneth together after the death of Augustine, to constitute Byshops, and to ouersee the Church. And that he so meaneth, London to be equall in authoritie with Yorke, it appeareth by foure argumentes: First that he will Lōdon to be cōsecrate by no Byshop but of his own Synode. Secondly, in that he willeth no distinction of honor to be betwixt London and Yorke, but accordyng onely to that as eche of them is elder in tyme. Thirdly for that he matcheth these two together in common counsell, and with one agreement to consent together in doyng and disposing such things, as they shall consulte vpō in the zeale of Christ

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