Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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413 [412]

K. Edw.3. The viage of K. to Fraunce. Letters of defiance.

we haue set our seales. Geuen in the full Parliament at Westminster the 18. day of May, an. 1343.

After these thinges thus passed ouer, the kyng shortly after sent ouer his Procuratours, Erle of Lancaster and Darby, Hugh Spencer, L. Raufe Stafford, with the Bishop of Exetor and diuers other, to the Popes court to discusse and plead about the right of hys title, before the Pope. Vnto whom the sayd Pope Clement the vi. not long after, sent downe this message: MarginaliaThe popes message to the that Ludouike duke of Bauarie, the Emperour whom the Pope had before deposed, had submmitted hymselfe to hym in all thinges, and therefore deserued at his handes the benefite of absolution: And how the Pope therfore had conferred and restored to him iustly and gratiously the Empire, which he before vniustly dyd hold. &c. Which message when the kyng did heare, beyng therwyth moued to anger, aunswered agayne saying: MarginaliaThe kynges aunswere to the popes message.That if he did agree and compounde also with the Frenche kinge, he was readye to fight with them both. &c. Ex chro. Albanens.

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Within the time of this yeare, pence, halfepence, and farthinges began to be coyned in the tower. Marginalia1344.
The castle in Windsore enlarged.
The rounde table builded in Windsore.
And the next yeare folowing, which was an. 1344, the castle of Winsore (where the king was borne) began to be repaired: and in the same, þe house called the round table was situate, the diameter wherof from the one side to the other, contained. 200. feete, to the expenses of which house weekly was allowed an hundrethe pound, for the mainteining of the kinges chiualry: til at lēgth by the occasion of the French warres, it came down to nine pound a weeke. By the example whereof, the French kinge being prouoked, began also the like round table in Fraunce for the maintaining of his knighthoode. At which time, the sayd French king moreouer gaue free libertie thorough hys realme to fell downe trees for making of ships and maintainynge of hys nauye, whereby the Realme of England was not a litle damnified.

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MarginaliaTenthes graunted to the king by the clergie for 3. yeares.During the same yeare, the Clergie of England graūted to the king tenthes for three yeares: For the which þe king in recompence againe graunted to them his Charter containing these priuileges: that no archbishop nor bishop shoulde be areigned before his Iustices MarginaliaPriuelegies graunted by the king to the clergie.siue ad sectam suam, siue partis, if the sayd clarke doe submit and claime his clergye, professing himselfe to be a member of holy Church, who so doing shall not be bounde to come to hys answere before the Iustices. And if it shall be layd vnto them to haue maryed two wiues, or to haue maryed a widow: MarginaliaBy this it is lyke that priestes had wyues.the Iustices shall haue no power to proceede against them, to inquire for the matter: so that the cause shall be reserued to the spirituail court. &c.

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MarginaliaPrince Edward first prince of Wales.About this present time at the setting vp of the round table, the king made Prince Edward his eldest sonne the firste Prince of Wales. All this while yet continued the truce betwene the two kinges. Albeit it is likely to be thought, that the French king gaue many attemptes to infringe þe same. Marginalia1345.
Henry Erle, after made duke of Lācaster, sent ouer to Gasconie.
Wherupon Henry earle of Lancaster with. 600. men at armes, and as many archers was sent ouer to Gascoin, þe year after, an. 1345. who there so valiantly is sayd to behaue himselfe, that he subdued 55. townships vnto the king 23. noble men he tooke prisoners, encountring with the Frenche men at Allebroke. So courteously and liberally he delte with his soldiars, that it was ioy to them and a preferment to fighte vnderneath him. His maner was in winning any towne, litle or nothing to reserue to himselfe, but to sparse the whole spoyle to his soldyars. MarginaliaA rare example of a liberall captaine to his souldiours.One example in the author (whom I follow) is touched: how the foresayd Earle at the winninge of the towne of Bryers, where he had graūted to euery soldyar for his bootie, the house with all the implementes therin which he by victorye should obtaine: amonge other hys soldiars, to one named Reh, fell a certaine house, with the implementes thereof, wherin was contayned the mint & mony coyned for that countrey to the valure of a great substaunce: which when the souldyar had found, in breakyng vp a house, where first the grosse mettal was not yet perfectly wrought, he came to the earle declaring to him the treasure, to knowe what was hys pleasure therein. To whom the Earle aunswered, that the house was hys, and whatsoeuer he founde therein. Afterwarde, the soldyar finding a whole mynte of pure siluer readye coyned, signified the same to the Earle, forsomuch as he thought such treasure to be to greate for hs portion. MarginaliaThe liberall hart & constant voyce of a worthy whom the sayde Earle agayn aunswering, declared: that he had once geuen him the whole house, and that he had once geuen he would not call back agayne, as children vse to play. And therfore bad him inioy that which was graunted to hym: And if the money were thrice as much, it should be hys owne. Ex chron. Albanens, which story whither it was true or otherwise in those dayes, I haue not to affirme. But certes, if in these our couetous wretched dayes now present, any author should report the lyke act to be practised, I wold hardly beleue it to be true.

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As the Erle of Lancaster was thus occupied in Gascony, the Scots were as busy here in England, wasting & spoyling without mercy. Which were thought, (& not vnlyke) to be set on by the French king. MarginaliaThe Scots partly a meane of breaking truce.And therefore was iudged both by that, & by other diuers wayes to haue broken the couenantes of truce betwene hym, and the king of England.

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MarginaliaAn. 1346.Wherefore the next yere insuyng. an. 1346. king Edward first sendyng his letters to the court of Rome, & therin complayning to the Pope of Philip de Valois, how he had trāsgressed, and broken the truce betwene them made, which by euident probations he there made manifest: 

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Outbreak of the Hundred Years War

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about the mōth of Iuly made his voyage into Normādy in such secret wise, that no man well knew whether he intended. MarginaliaThe viage of k. Edward into Fraunce.Where first he entred the towne of Hogs, from thence proceded vnto Cardone. MarginaliaThe battel at CardoinWhere, about the 27. of Iuly by the riuer of Cardone he had a strong battail, with the Normandes & other French men, which to stop hys passage, defended the bridge. At the which battail were taken of the Lords of France, þe Erle of Ewe, þe Erle of Tankeruile. And of knights with other mē of armes, to þe number of an 100. of footemen 600. & the town & suburbes beaten down to þe hard wals. And all that coulde be borne away transported to the ships.

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A little before, mention was made how the French Kyng began first to infringe the truce takē, and how þe Erle of Lancaster, vpon the same was sent vnto Gascony. Now for the more euidence of the matter concerning the falling of the French king from the league, and other his wrongs and vntrue dealing: It shall better in the kings letter appeare, who hearing word that the Lord Philip de Valois (cōtrary to the forme of truce taken at Vanes) had apprehended certayn of his nobles of England, and had brought them to Paris to be imprisoned & put to death: beside other slaughters and spoilings made in Britaine, Gascony, & other places mo. He therfore seyng the truce to be broke of þe French kings part, and beyng therto of necessity compelled: In the yeare aboue prefixed, the 14. of the month of Iune, did publish and send abroad hys letter of defiaunce, conteynyng this effect.

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¶ The kings letters of defiance agaynst the French kyng.

MarginaliaThe kinges letters of defiance agaynst the french kingTO all and singular, to whom these presentes shall come, publike gretyng. We thinke it is not vnknowen vnto you all. that after the deceasse of Charles late kyng of France of famous memory, brother to our redoubted Lady mother Quene Isabell, Quene of England. That the crowne of Fraunce, by iust inheritaunce hath fallen vnto vs, as to the next heyre male now liuing after the sayd king. Now Philip de Valois, beyng sonne but only to the vncle of the foresayd kyng Charles, & therfore by degree of cōsanguinitie being further of remoued frō the same (we beyng in the tyme of our minoritie) hath violently by force & power contrary to God and iustice vsurped, occupied, and yet doth occupy the same, inuading further and spoyling our landes in the dukedome of Aquitania, and ioyning himselfe with our rebellous enemies the Scottes, sekyng our subuersion both by lande and by sea, to the vttermost of his endeuour. And although we to preuent the damages which might ryse by warre, haue offered to the sayd Phillip diuers frendly wayes of peace: to the entent, we might better intend our purposed voyage against Christes enemies the Turkes: Yet could nothing preuail with him in obteinyng any peaceable way of reformation, driuing vs of by crafty dissimulatiō, through false pretensed wordes, but performyng nothyng with hart and dede. Wherupon, we not neglecting the grace and the gift of God, to defend the right of our inheritance, and to repulse the iniuries of our enemy: haue not refused by force of armes, commyng downe to Britany to encounter wyth hym in open field. And so we beyng occupied in our wars, there repayred vnto vs, the reuerend father bishop of Preuest, and of Tusculane Cardinals, and legates frō Pope Clement 6. to entreat some reformation of peace betwene vs. At whose request we consented, agreyng to such formes & conditions of peace, as then were take betwene vs, sendyng moreouer our Embassadours to the court of Rome, speacially to intreat of the same matter. And thus while some hope of truce semed betwene vs to appeare: Newes sodēly came vnto vs, which not a little astonied our mynd, of the death of certayne of our nobles and adherents, whom the sayd Phillip vniustly, and cruelly at Paris commaunded to be executed. Beside the wasting and spoilyng our landes and subiectes in Britany, Gascony, and other places: with other innumerable wronges and iniuries deceitfully intended agaynst

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