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668 [644]

K. Henry. 6. Thomas Bagley, Paule Crawe, Thomas Rhedon, Martyrs.

vicare of Monenden beside Malden, beyng a valiaunt disciple and adherent of Wickleffe, was condemned by the Bishops of heresie at London aboute the midst of Lent, was disgraded and burned in Smithfield.

¶ Paule Craw a Bohemian. 
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Paul Craw and Thomas of Rennes

Between his account of the persecution of Lollards in the diocese of Norwich in 1428-31 and his account of the council of Basel, Foxe gives the accounts of several diverse individuals punished for heresy during the second and third decades of the fifteenth century. All of Foxe's information on these martyrs came from John Bale in one form or another. Foxe first printed the accounts of Thomas Bagley, Paul Krǎvar (or Craw) and Thomas of Rennes in his Commentarii (fos. 83r-90r) and reprinted this material without change in the Rerum (pp. 72-5). Apart from a Latin poem praising Thomas of Rennes, which was dropped, this material was translated and reprinted in every edition of the Acts and Monuments. Each of these accounts was taken, virtually word-for-word, from John Bale's notes in Bodley MS e Musaeo, fos. 63r-v and 293r-v. The list of martyrs burned in German territories in the 1420s was added in the 1570 edition and it was taken entirely from John Bale's Catalogus (p. 564). The brief note on Eugenius IV was also added in 1570 and it was also taken from Bale's Catalogus (p. 548). These brief accounts were of use to Foxe in two respects. In the first place, they served to underline a point dear to Foxe's heart: that the faithful members of the True Church existed throughout Christendom. And, secondly, it allowed Foxe to picture the persecution of these faithful as continuing without let-up through the final centuries of the world.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaPaule Craw martyr.
Ex Hector. Boetio.
THe same yeare also was Paule Crawe a Bohemian taken at S. Andrewes by the Bishop Henry, & deliuered ouer to the secular power to be burnt for holdyng cōtrary opinions vnto the Church of Rome touching the sacramēt of þe Lords supper, the worshippyng of saints, auricular confession, with other of Wickleffes opinions.

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¶ The story of Thomas Rhedon, a French man, and a Carmelite Frier, burnt in Italy for the profession of Christ.

MarginaliaTho Rhedonensis, Martyr.
Ex Antonin. 3. parte hist fol. 165.
WE haue declared before, how this cruell storme of persecution which first began with vs in England, after it had long raged here agaynst many good and godly men, it brake out and passed into Boheme, and after within a short tyme, the fire of this persecution increasing by litle and litle, inuaded Scotland, and from thence now with greater force & violence, this furious deuouryng flame hath entred Italy, and suffreth not any part of the world to be free from the murther and slaughter of most good and godly mē. MarginaliaTho. Rhedonensis commeth into Italy. It happened about this tyme, that one Thomas Rhedon, a Frier of that sect which taketh his name of the mount Carmelus, by chaunce came with the Venetiā Ambassadours into Italy. This man although he was of that sort and sect, which in steade of Christians are called Carmelites, yet was he of a farre other religion, and vnderstood the word of God, iudgyng that God ought not to be worshipped, neither in that mount, nor at Ierusalem onely, but in spirite and truth. This man beyng a true Carmelite, and sauoring with his whole hart that new sweete must of Iesu Christ, with earnest study & desyre seekyng after a Christian integritie of lyfe, prepared himselfe firste to go into Italy trustyng that he should find there, or els in no place, some by whose good lyfe and liuyng he myght be edified and instructed. For where ought more aboūdaunce of vertue and good lyuing to be, then in that place, which is counted to be the forte and fountaine of all religion? And how could it otherwise be, but that whereas so great holynes is professed, wherupon all mens eyes are bent as vpon a stage, whereas S. Peters seate is, and is thought to be the ruler and gouernour of all the Church, all thynges should florish and abound worthy so great expectation in that place? This holy man hauyng these thynges before his eyes, and consideryng the same with himselfe, forsooke his owne countrey & Citie, & went vnto Rome, cōceiuing a firm and sure hope, that by the example of so many notable and worthy men, he should greatly profite in godlynes and learnyng: but the successe of þe matter did vtterly frustrate his hope, for all things were cleane contrary. Whatsoeuer he saw, was nothyng els but meere dissimulation and hipocrisie. MarginaliaThe golden citie of Rome. In stead of gold, he founde nothing but coales: and for to say the truth, he found nothyng els there but gold and siluer. In steade of heauenly giftes, there raigned amongest them the pompe and i of the world. In place of godlynes, riote. In steade of learning and study, slouthfulnes and superstition. Tyranny and hautynesse of mynde had possessed the place of Apostolicke simplicitie: MarginaliaAll thinges corrupt at Rome. that now there remayned no more any place or libertie for a man to learne that whiche he knew not, or to teach that which he perfectly vnderstood.

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Finally all thyngs were turned arsye versye, all thyngs happened vnto him contrary to his expectation, where soeuer he went. But nothyng so much offended this good mās mynde, as the intolerable ambition, and pompous pride in them, whome example of humilitie should especially commend and prayse to the whole world. MarginaliaThe wickednes & pride that raigneth at Rome. And albeit that he saw here nothyng, which did accorde & agree with the rule of the Apostles: yet these thynges dyd so much passe all measure and pacience, that he could by no meanes refrayne his toung in so great abuse and corruption of the Church, seing such ambitious pride in their buildynges, apparell, in their places, in their daintie fare, in their great traynes of seruauntes, in their horse and armour, & finally in all thynges pertainyng vnto them. Which thynges, how much they dyd vary from the prescript rule of the Gospell, somuch the more was this good man forced to speake. Albeit he did well vnderstand how litle he should preuayle by speakyng: for if admonitiō would profite any thyng at all, the bookes of Wickleffe and diuers other were not wantyng. The famous testimonies of Iohn Hus, and of Hierome of Prage, & their bloud shed for the same, was yet present before their eyes: MarginaliaThe corruptiō of Rome will admitte no reformation. at whose most effectuall exhortations, they were so litle correct and amended, that they seemed twise more cruell then they were before. Yet all this could not feare this good man, but that in so necessary and wholesome an office, he would spēd his lyfe if nede should be. So by this meanes, he which came to be a scholer vnto others, was now forced to be their teacher. And he which determined to folow other mēs liues and maners, had now contrarywise set before them his lyfe to be marked and followed. For he lyued so amongest them, that his lyfe might be a rule vnto them all, and so taught as he might also be their schole maister. MarginaliaPietie rewarded with persecution. For euen as Paule had forshewed vnto such as desired to liue godly in Christ, that they should suffer persecution: such like reward happened vnto this man. He gaue vnto them the fruite of godlynes, which they should folow: they agayne set vpon his head the diademe of Martyrdome. He sheweth them the way to saluation, & they for the benefite of lyfe rewarded him death: and whereas no rewardes had bene worthy for his great labours and trauailes, they with most extreme ignominie persecuted him euen vnto the fire. For when as by continuall preaching he had gotten great enuy and hatred, the rulers began to consult together by what meanes they might circumuent this mans lyfe. Here they had recourse to their accustomed remedies: MarginaliaHeresie made, where none is. for it is a peculiar and continual custome amongest the prelates of the Church, that if any man displease them, or that hys talke be not according to theyr mynde, or by any meanes hurtfull or hinderance to theyr luker and gayne, by and by they frame out Articles of some heresie, which they charge hym withall. And lyke as euery liuyng thyng hath hys peculiar and proper weapon to defend hymselfe from harme, as nature hath armed þe Bore wyth hys tuskes, the hedge hogge wyth hys prickels, the Lyon is feared for hys clawes, the dogge for hys byting, the Bull fighteth wyth hys hornes, neither doth the Asse lacke hys houes to strike wythall: MarginaliaPopery armed with policie & defended wyth tyranny. euen so thys is the onely armour of the byshops, to strangle a man with heresie, if he once go about to mutter agaynst their will and ambition: which thyng may be easely perceiued and seene in this most holy man, beside a great number of other. Who, when as now he began to waxe greuous vnto them, and coulde no longer be suffred: what did they? straight wayes flee vnto their olde policies, and as they had done wyth Hus & Hierome of Prage, euen so went they about to practise against this man. They ouerwhelme hym wyth suspition, they seeke to intangle him wyth questions, they examine hym in iudgement, they compile Articles against him and lay heresie vnto his charge, they condemne him as an hereticke, and being so condemned, they destroy & kill him. This was their godlines: this was the peaceable order of those Carmelites. Whose religion was to weare no sword nor shielde, notwithstanding they did beare in their heartes, malice, rancour vengeaunce, poyson, crafte and deceite, sharper then any sword. With how great care and policie is it prouided by law, that none of these Clergy men should fight with sword in the streates? when as in iudgement and accusatiōs (where as it is not lawfull for a mā to oppresse his brother) there is no murtherer which hath more ready vengeaunce, or that doth more vilye esteme his brothers soule then they. They shed no bloude them selues, they stricke not, nor kill, but they deliuer them ouer vnto others to be slaine. What difference is there I pray you, but that they are the authours, and the other are but the ministers of the cruell facte? they kill no man as murtherers do. How then? Although not after the same sort, yet they do it by another meane.

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The Articles which they falsly gathered agaynst this man, are affirmed by some to be these.

MarginaliaHys articles. That the Church lacketh reformation, and that it shall be punished and reformed.

That Infidels, Iewes, Turkes and Mores shall be conuerted vnto Christ in the later dayes.

That abhominations are vsed at Rome.

That the vniust excommunication of the Pope, is not to be feared: and those which do not obserue the same, do not sinne or offend.

MarginaliaEx Antonin. 3. part. histo. fol. 165.
W. Cardinalis Rhotomagēsis his persecutour.
But yet there lacked a minister for these Articles: albeit he could not long be wantyng at Rome, where all thynges are to be sold, euen mens soules. For this office and ministery, there was no man thought more meete, then William of Rowne, Cardinall of S. Martines in þe Moūt, Vicechaūcelour of the Court of Rome. Eugenius at that tyme was Pope, who had a litle before succeded Pope Martin aboue mentioned. MarginaliaTho. Rhedonensis brought before Pope Eugenius. Before the which Eugenius, this godly Rhedonensis the Frenchman, was brought, and from thence sent vnto prison. And agayne after his imprisonment, & diuers and sondry greuous torments, he was brought before

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