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730 [706]

K. Henry. 7. A Priest. Babram. An olde man, martirs. Hieronimus Sauonarola.

MarginaliaAn. 1497.
Rich. Milderale.
Iames Sturdye.
SHortly after the martyrdome 

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The following accounts of Londoners punished for heresy are drawn from The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley (London, 1938), pp. 261, 262 and 264.

of this godly aged mother, in the yeare of our Lord, 1497. and the 17. of Ianuary, 
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I.e., 17 January 1497.

being Sonday, two men, the one called Richard Milderale, and the other Iames Sturdye, bare Fagots before the procession of Paules, and after stoode before the preacher in the tyme of his Sermon. And vpon the Sōday folowyng, stode other two men at Paules crosse all the Sermon time: the one garnished with painted and written papers, the other hauyng a Fagot on his necke. MarginaliaHugh Glouer. After that in Lent season vpon Passion Sonday, one Hugh Glouer bare a Fagot before the procession of Paules, and after with the Fagot stode before the preacher all the Sermon while at Paules Crosse. MarginaliaFoure other beare fagots And on the Sonday next folowyng foure men stode, and did there open penaunce at Paules as is aforesayd, in the Sermon tyme many of their bookes were burnt before them at the Crosse.

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MarginaliaAn. 1498. FVrthermore the next yeare folowyng, whiche was the yeare of our Lord. 1498. 

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Actually 1499; Foxe was misled by the author of the Great Chroniclereckoning years by the Lord Mayor's term of office which began in the spring. This account is from The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley(London, 1938), p. 286.

in the begynning of May, the kyng then being at Cāterbury, MarginaliaA priest burnt was a Priest burnt, which was so strōg in his opinion that all the clerkes & doctours thē there being, could not remoue him frō his faith: wherof the kyng being enfourmed, caused þe said Priest to be brought before his presence, who by his persuasions caused hym to reuoke, and so he was burnt immediatly.

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MarginaliaThe Queene was remoued to Calys at the beheading of her cousin Edward Plantagenet IN the same yeare aboue mentioned, which was the yeare of our Lord. 1499, 

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Actually 1500; Foxe was misled by the author of the Great Chroniclereckoning years by the Lord Mayor's term of office which began in the spring.

after the beheadyng of Edward Plātagenet Earle of Warwike, and sonne to the Duke of Clarence, the Kyng and Queene beyng remoued to Calys, MarginaliaBabram brent in Northfolke Martyr. a certaine godly man and a constaunt Martyr of Christ, named Babram 
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Foxe made a mistake error, there was no such person. In the Great Chronicle, it reads that in July there 'was a town in Norfolk [sic] namyd Babramconsumed the more part therof with fire' (The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley [London, 1938], p. 294). This reference to burning is followed immediately by the account of the execution of a heretic in Smithfield. In the manuscript Foxe consulted a marginal note reads: Babram hereticus (London Guildhall MS 3313, fo. 273v).

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Reading rapidly Foxe must have thought that Babram was the name of a heretic andthat he was burned. By the way, Babraham is a village in Cambridgeshire, notNorfolk.

in Northfolke, was brent in the moneth of
¶ The burnyng of Babram

woodcut [View a larger version]

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Brabam was martyred in Norfolk, his story first being recounted by Fabian. It is not clear why this particular martyr warranted an illustration.

Iuly, as is in Fabian recorded after þt copy, which I haue writen. 
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Foxe is referring to the Great Chronicle, which he believed was written by the chronicler Robert Fabian. These histories of English martyrs are all derived from London Guildhall MS 3313 (now printed as The Great Chronicle of London), which belonged to John Stow and possibly was loaned by him to Foxe (certainly Foxe consulted the work at some point). Foxe attributes this work (probably correctly) to the chronicler Robert Fabyan.

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Albeit in the booke of Fabian Printed, his burnyng is referred to the nexte yeare followyng, whiche is an. 1500. 
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Foxe is referring to the version of Fabian.s chronicles in print, incontrast to the Great Chronicle, which Foxe believed was written by Fabian, butwhich was in manuscript. These histories of English martyrs are all derived from London Guildhall MS 3313 (now printed as The Great Chronicle of London), which belonged to John Stow and possibly was loaned by him to Foxe (certainly Foxe consulted the work at some point). Foxe attributes this work (probably correctly) to the chronicler Robert Fabyan.

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Ex Fabiano, & alio scripto codice. MarginaliaAn olde man burned.

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ABout which yeare likewise or in the yeare next folowing the xx. day of Iuly, was on old mā burnt in Smithfield. 

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This is from The Great Chronicle of London, ed A. H. Thomasand I. D. Thornley (London, 1938), p. 294. The execution of an unnamed old man at Smithfield is recorded in a number of sources (e.g., The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley [London, 1938], p. 294 and Fabyan's Chronicle, ed. H. Ellis [London, 1911], p. 687). None of the surviving sources supply the details of the man's attempted escape and injury, so it must be assumed that whatever the source that Cary supplied to Foxe was, it was subsequently lost.

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MarginaliaAn. 1499.
Hieronimus Sauonarola with two fryers, Martyrs.
IN the same yeare also, which was of the Lord. 1499. fell the Martyrdome 

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Foxe had an account of Savanorola in his Commentari (fo. 177r-v)but this account is conflated from two sources. The first is the admiring accountof Philippe de Commynes, whose praise of Savanorola as a prophet who foresawthe future and who was dedicated to the reform of the Church, helped establishSavanorola as a proto-Protestant to the Reformers (see Philippe de Commynes,De Carlo Octavo…et bello Neapolitano Commentarii [Paris, 1561], pp. 105-7). The other source was the account of Savanorola in Matthias Flacius,Catalogus testium veritatis (Basel, 1562), p. 565.

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and burning of Hieronymus Sauonarola, a man no lesse godly in hart, then constant in his profession. Who beyng a Monke in Italy, & singularly well learned, preached sore agaynst the euill lyfe and liuing of the spiritualty and specially of his own order, complainyng sore vpon them, as the sprynges and authours of all mischieues & wickednes. Wherupon, by the helpe of certaine learned mē, he begā to seeke reformation in his own order. Which thing the pope perceiuyng, & fearing, that the said Hierome, which was now in great reputation amongest all men, should diminish or ouerthrow his authoritie, he ordeined his vicare or prouinciall to see reformation of these matters: which vicare with great superstition began to reforme thynges, but the sayd Hierome did alwayes withstand him, wherupō he was complayned of to the Pope, and because that contrary vnto the Popes commaundement, he did withstand his vicare, he was accursed. But for all that, Hieronimus left not of preaching, but threatned Italy with þe wrath MarginaliaProphecie of Hieron. Sauonarola against Italy. and indignation of God, and prophecied before vnto them, that the land should be ouerthrowen for the pride and wickednes of the people, and for the vntruth, hypocrisie and falsehode of the Clergy, which God would not leaue vnreuēged, as afterward it came to passe, MarginaliaPope Alexāder besieged by Charles the Frēch K. when as kyng Charles came into Italy and to Rome, and so straitly beset the Pope Alexander, that he was forced to make composition with the kyng.

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MarginaliaSauonarola cited to appeare before the pope. Now for somuch as the sayd Hierome would not leaue of preaching, he was commaunded to appeare before the pope, to geue accompt of his new learnyng, (for so then they called the truth of the Gospell:) but by meanes of the manifold perilles, he made his excuse that he could not come. MarginaliaThe doctrine of Sauonarola condemned because he would not come before the pope. Then was he agayne forbidden by the pope to preach, and his learnyng pronounced and cōdemned as pernicious, false and sedicious.

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This Hieronymus, as a man worldly wise, foreseyng the great perils and daungers that might come vnto him, for feare, left of preachyng. But when as the people, which sore hungred and longed for Gods word, were instant vpon him that he would preach agayne, MarginaliaSauonarola preacheth cōtrary to the popes commaūdement. he begā agayne to preach in the yeare of our Lord. 1496. in the Citie of Florēce: and albeit that many coūcelled him that he should not so do without the popes commaundemēt, yet did he not regarde it, but went forward frely of his owne good wil. When as the pope and his shauelynges 

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This is a prejorative term for priest.

heard newes of this, they were greuously incensed and inflamed agaynst him, and now agayne cursed him, as an obstinate and stifnecked hereticke. But for all that, Hieronymus proceded in teachyng and instructyng the people, saying, that men ought not to regarde such curses, which are agaynst the true doctrine and the commō profite, whereby the people should be learned and amended, Christes kyngdome enlarged, and the kyngdome of the deuill vtterly ouerthrowen.

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In all his preachyng, he desired to teach no other thyng then the onely pure and simple word of God, makyng often protestatioō that all men should certifie him if they had heard him teach or preach any thyng contrary thereunto, for vpon his own consciēce he knew not that he had taught any thing but the pure word of God. What his doctrine was all men may easely iudge by his bookes that he had written.

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MarginaliaHieronnymus with 2. other fryers committed to prison. After this, in the yeare of our Lord. 1498. he was takē and brought out of S. Markes cloyster, & two other Friers with him, named Dominicke and Siluester, which fauoured his learnyng, and was caried into prison, MarginaliaThe cōmentarie of Hierome Sauon. vpō the Psalme beginning: In te domine speraui. whereas he wrote a goodly meditation vpon that most comfortable. 31. Psalme. In te Domine speraui non confundar in æternum sed in iusticia tua libera me. Wherein he doth excellently describe and set fourth, the continuall strife betwene the flesh and the spirite.

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After this the Popes Legates came to Florence, and called forth these three good men, threatenyng them maruelously, but they continued stil constant. MarginaliaArticles obected against Hierome & the two fryers. Then came the chief cōsailers of the Citie, with the popes cōmissioners, which had gathered out certaine Articles agaynst these mē, wherupon they were condemned to death: the tenour of whiche Articles hereafter ensue. 

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The first eight of these articles come from Matthias Flacius, Catalogustestium veritatis (Basel, 1562), p. 565. The remaining six are culled from the accountof Savanorola in Philippe de Commynes, De Carlo Octavo…et bello Neapolitano Commentarii [Paris, 1561], pp. 105-7, where they are not, however, presented as articles objected against Savanorola.

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1. The first Article was as touchyng our free iustification through fayth in Christ.

2. That the Communion ought to be ministred vnder both kyndes.

3. That the indulgences and pardons of the pope, were of no effect.

4. For preachyng agaynst the filthy and wicked lyuing of the Cardinals and spiritualty.

5. For denying the popes supremacie.

6. Also that he had affirmed, that the keyes were not geuen vnto Peter alone, but vnto the vniuersall Church.

7. Also, that the Pope did neither follow the life nor doctrine of Christ, for that he did attribute more to his owne pardons and traditions, then to Christes merits, and therfore he was Antichrist.

8. Also, that the popes excommunications are not to be feared, and that he which doth feare or flye them, is excommunicate of God.

9. Item,
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