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Gray

Smith of Bishop's Stortford

Gray was charged with denying transubstantiation and was sent to London, but was saved from burning by Thomas Cromwell. 1570, p. 1355; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

 
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Sir Henry Guildford

(1489 - 1532) [ODNB]

Courtier; master of the horse; comptroller of the household

William Tyndale wished to enter the service of Tunstall, the bishop of London, and approached Sir Henry Guildford, who accompanied him and wrote a letter on his behalf. However, Tunstall in the end refused. 1570, pp. 1225-26; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, pp. 1075-76.

Thomas Wolsey, having obtained large sums from the king's treasury, went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army. He took with him Cuthbert Tunstall, William Sandys, the earl of Derby, Sir Henry Guildford and Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 439; 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 988.

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Amongst the grievances against the clergy expressed in the 1530 parliament, Sir Henry Guildford complained that he and other executors of the will of Sir William Compton had to pay a thousand marks for probate to Cardinal Wolsey and the archbishop of Canterbury. 1570, p. 1131; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 995.

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Sir William Compton

(1482? - 1528) [ODNB]

Courtier; friend of Henry VIII; groom of the stool (1510 - 26); was enriched through royal service

Amongst the grievances against the clergy expressed in the 1530 parliament, Sir Henry Guildford complained that he and other executors of the will of Sir William Compton had to pay a thousand marks for probate to Cardinal Wolsey and the archbishop of Canterbury. 1570, p. 1131; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 995.

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Asheridge

[Asherige]

Buckinghamshire

OS grid ref: SP 935 045

College of Bonhommes at Asheridge, founded 1283, possessed a phial of Precious Blood; place of pilgrimage [VCH: Buckinghamshire, vol 1 (1905) pp. 386-90]

 
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Gray [Gry]

nr Besancon, Franche-Comté, France

Coordinates: 47° 27' 0" N, 5° 35' 0" E

1019 [995]

K. Hen. 8. Greeuances against the clergie. Articles concluded in the Parliament for reformation.
¶ Greeuances against the Cleargie of Englande.

MarginaliaExcessiue fines for probates of testamentes.1. THe first for the excessiue fines, which the Ordinaries tooke for probate of Testaments, in so much that Sir Henry Guilford, Knight of the Garter, and Comptrollour of the Kings house, declared in the open Parliament, of his fidelitie, that he and other being executours to Syr William Compton Knight, payed for the probate of hys will, to the Cardinall and the Archbishop of Canterbury, a thousand marke sterling. MarginaliaA thousand Markes for the probate of one testament. After this declaration, were shewed so many extortions done by Ordinaries for probates of willes, that it were too much to rehearse.

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MarginaliaThe vnreasonable exaction of the clergye for Mortuaries.2. The second cause was, the great poling & extreame exaction which þe spirituall men vsed, in taking of corps, presents, or Mortuaries: for the childrē of the dead should all die for hūger and go a begging, rather then they would of charitie geue to thē the sely cow which the dead mā ought, if he had but onely one: such was the charitie of them.

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MarginaliaFermes and Granges in Priestes handes.3. The third cause was, that Priestes being Surueyers, Stuards, and officers to Byshops, Abbots, and other spirituall heads, had and occupied Farmes, Graunges, and grasing in euery Countrey, so that the poore husbandmen could haue nothing but of them, and yet for that they shuld pay dearely.

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MarginaliaMonkes and priests marchauntes.4. The fourth cause was, that Abbots, Priors, and spirituall men kept Tannehouses, and bought and sold wooll, cloth, and all maner of Marchaundise, as other temporall Marchaunts did.

MarginaliaBeneficed men take of their flocke, but geue nothing.5. The fift cause was, because the spirituall persons promoted to great benefices, and hauing their liuing of theyr flocke, were lying in the Court of Lords houses, and tooke all of their parishioners, and nothing spent on them at all, so that for lacke of residence, both the poore of the parishe lacked refreshing, and vniuersally all the parishioners lacked preaching, and true instruction of Gods word, to the great perill of their soules.

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MarginaliaPluralities of benefices.6. The sixt cause was, because one Priest being litle learned, had tenne or twelue benefices, and was resident on none, and many well learned scholers in the Vniuersitie, which were able to preach and teach, had neyther benefice nor exhibition.

These thinges before this time, mighte in no wise be touched, not yet talked of by any man, except he woulde be made an hereticke, or lose all that he had: for the Byshops were Chauncellours, and had all the rule about the King, so that no man durst once presume to attempt any thyng contrary to their profite, or commoditie.

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But now whē God had illuminated the eyes of þe king, and the time so seruved, that men more boldly durst expresse with voyce such grudges, as they had long conceaued in their harts against the Clergy: MarginaliaThree bils drawen out against the misorder of the clergye.the Burgesses of the Parliament appoynted certayne of the common house, men learned in the Lawe, to drawe one bill of the probates of testaments, another for Mortuaries, & the third for none residence, pluralities, and taking fermes by spiritual men.

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MarginaliaThe first bill for mortuaryes.And first to þe bill of Mortuaries being drawen, and being also passed the commō house, and sent vp to the higher, the Spirituall Lords shewed a faire face, sayeng, that assuredly Priestes and Curates tooke more then they shoulde, and therefore it were well done to take some reasonable order. Thus they spake, because it touched them but little.

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MarginaliaThe second bill, for probates of testamentes.After this, within two dayes, was sent vp the secōd bill, concerning probates of testaments, which bill, because it touched their profite somewhat neare, both the Archbishop of Canterbury, and all other Bishops in generall, began to frowne and grunt, in so much as Doctor Iohn Fisher Bishop of Rochester, stāding vp in the Parlament chamber, openly protested, that such billes were sent vp frō the cōmon house, tending to no other thing, but to the destruction of þe Church: which Church being downe, the glory then of þe whole kingdome (said he) must needes fall, desiring therfore the Lords, for Gods sake, to take example by the kingdome of Boheme: For as it was then with the people there, so now what say the cōmons here, but down with þe Church. MarginaliaD. Fysher chargeth the cōmons. with lacke of faith.And all this (said he) seemeth only to be for lacke of faith. When these words were reported to the cōmons of the lower house, what the Bishop had sayde, in noting all their doings to be for lacke of faith, MarginaliaThe grudge of the commons, in the lower house, against Fisher Bishop of Rochester.they tooke the matter greeuously, so to be esteemed of the Bishop for no better then heretikes, vnderstanding moreouer, how that he by those slāderous words, went about to perswade the Lords temporall against them, and so to ouerthrowe the two billes by them passed before, as ye haue heard.

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Whereupon, after long debate, it was at length agreed by the said commons, that Thomas Audeley their speakerwith xxx. of the chief of that house, should be sent to the kyng, beyng then in his palace at Westminster, before called Yorke place: where they eloquently declared, what a dishonour to the kyng and the realme it was, to say, that they which were elected for the wisest mē of all þe Shyres, Cities, and Boroughes within the Realme of England, should be declared in so noble and open presence, to lacke fayth, which was equiualent to say, that they were Infidels, and no Christians, as ill as Turkes or Sarasins: so that what payne or study soeuer they tooke for the commō wealth, or what actes or lawes soeuer they made or stablished, should be taken as lawes made by Paynims and Heathen people, and not worthy to be kept by Christian men: wherefore they most humbly besought the kynges hyghnesse, to call the sayd Byshop before him, and to cause him to speake more discretly of such a number as was in the common house.

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MarginaliaThe king not contented with the Byshop of Rochester.The kyng not beyng well contented with the saying of the Byshop, yet gently aunswered the speaker, and sent them away. Who immediately sent for the Archbyshop of Canterbury, & vi. other Byshops, and Rochester also, signifying vnto them the grudge of the commons. The Byshop of Rochester excusing himselfe, aunswered, MarginaliaThe Byshops excuse.that he in so saying, meant onely the doyngs of the Bohemiās to be for lacke of fayth, & not the doynges of them that were in the cōmon house, which saying was confirmed by the Byshops there present, which had him in great reputation, & so by that onely saying, the kyng accepted his excuse, and therfore sent word to the cōmons by Syr Williā Fitzwilliams Knight, Treasurer of his houshold: which blynde excuse pleased the commons nothyng at all.

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MarginaliaDifference betweene the laity and spiritualtye, about certaine constitutions.After this, diuers assemblies were kept betwene certaine of the Lordes, and certaine of the Commons for the Billes of the probates of Testamentes, and Mortuaries. The temporaltie layd to the spiritualtie, their own lawes & Constitutions, and the Spiritualtie sore defended them by prescription & vsage. To whom it was thus aunswered by a Gentlemā of Greyes Inne: The vsage hath euer bene of theeues, to rob on Shoters hill Ergo, is it lawfull? MarginaliaLōg vse maketh not euill thinges lawfull. With this aunswere the spirituall men were sore offended, because their doynges were called robberies, but the temporall men stood still by their sayinges, in somuch that the sayd Gentlemā sayd to the Archb, of Cāterbury, that both the exaction of probates of Testamentes, MarginaliaMortuaries as they were vsed differed but litle from theft.and the takyng of Mortuaries, as they were vsed, were open robbery and theft. After long disputation, the temporall Lordes began to leane to the commōs, but for all that, the Bylles remayned vnconcluded a while.

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It folowed shortly after in the Parliamēt, that a Byll was assented to, by the Lords of the higher house, and sent downe to the commons in the lower house, and by them also, with much labour agreed vnto, of whō the most part were the kynges seruauntes: in the which Bill it was required, and concluded, that the kyng should be released of all such loane of money, which he had borowed of his subiectes, in the xv. yeare of his reigne. The passing of which Byll went sore agaynst the stomackes of the poore Commons, so many rested vpon it, countyng and passing it ouer one to an other for good debt, as if it had bene ready money in their purses. Wherfore the king to regratifie thē agayne, graunted to them a generall pardō of all offences, onely certaine great offences & debts excepted: MarginaliaRedresse of the greeues of the commons.also he ayded them for the redresse of their grieues agaynst the spiritualtie, & caused two new Bylles to be made indifferently, both for the probates of Testamentes, & Mortuaries, which Bylles were so reasonable, that the spirituall Lordes assēted to them all, though they were sore agaynst their myndes, and in especiall the probate of Testamentes sore displeased the Byshops, and the Mortuaries sore displeased the Parsons and Vicares.

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MarginaliaThe third bill of the cōmons for pluralities &c.After these Actes thus agreed, the commons made an other Act for pluralities of benefices, none residence, buying and sellyng, and takyng of fermes by spirituall Parsons, which Act so displeased the spiritualtie, that þe priests rayled on the commōs of the lower house, and called them heretickes and schismatikes, for the which diuers Priestes were punished.

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This Act was sore debated aboue in the Parliament chamber, and the Lordes spirituall would in no wise consent. Wherfore the kyng perceiuyng the grudge of his cōmons, caused viij. Lordes & viij. of his Commons to mete to the starre chamber at an afternoone, and there was sore debatyng of the cause, in so much that the tēporall Lordes in the vpper house, which were there, tooke part with the Commons, agaynst the spirituall Lordes, and by force of reason caused them to assent to the Bill with a litle qualifiyng, which Bill the next day was wholy agreed to, in the

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Lords
RRr.iiij.
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