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Augustine de Augustinis

(d. 1551) [E. A. Hammond, 'Doctor Augustine, Physician to Cardinal Wolsey and Henry VIII', Medical History, vol. 17, no. 3 (July, 1975) pp. 215-49]

b. Venice; MD; physician to Cardinal Wolsey, then to Henry VIII in 1537

Nephew of Girolamo Ghinucci, papal nuncio and bishop of Worcester; arrested with Wolsey; agent for the king at the imperial court (1530 - 32); elected to the College of Physicians in 1536; left England in 1546

At the time of Thomas Wolsey's arrest, Augustinis was arrested and sent to the Tower. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

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George Talbot

(1468 - 1538) [ODNB]

4th earl of Shrewsbury (1473 - 1538) and 4th earl of Waterford; magnate; great steward of the king's household

The earl of Northumberland was given a commission by the king to arrest Thomas Wolsey at Cawood Castle and turn him over to the earl of Shrewsbury. Although Wolsey protested, he submitted to the arrest. 1570, p. 1132; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

The king sent the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the marquess of Exeter and the earl of Shrewsbury into Yorkshire to put down the Pilgrimage of Grace. 1570, pp. 1237-38; 1576, pp. 1059-60; 1583, pp. 1086-87.

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Henry Algernon Percy

(c. 1502 - 1537) [ODNB]

6th earl of Northumberland (1527 - 37); educated in the household of Wolsey; warden of the eastern and middle marches 1527

The earl of Northumberland was given a commission by the king to arrest Thomas Wolsey at Cawood Castle and turn him over to the earl of Shrewsbury. Although Wolsey protested, he submitted to the arrest. 1570, p. 1132; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

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John Cawood

(1514 - 1572)

Queen Mary's official printer. (DNB) [See E. G. Duff, A Century of the English Book Trade: Short Notices of All Printers, Stationers, Book-binders, and Others Connected with it from the Issue of the First Dated Book in 1457 to the Incorporation of the Company of Stationers in 1557 (London, 1948), p. 23.]

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In the 1563 edition, the privy council's letter to Bonner, announcing that the queen was pregnant, is stated by Foxe to have been printed by 'Iohn Cawood' (1563, pp. 1014-15). The letter was reprinted in later editions (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-76) but the attribution to Cawood was never repeated.

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In the 1563 edition, a copy of Hugh Weston's prayer for the safe delivery of Mary's child was printed and followed by the phrase 'Imprinted by Iohn Cawode etc'. 1563, p. 1015) This phrase was omitted when the poem was reprinted in 1570, p. 1653; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1480-81.

John Cawood printed the proclamation of Philip and Mary, dated 13 June 1555, prohibiting the importation or ownership of certain protestant books. 1563, pp. 1146-47; 1570, pp. 1772-73; 1576, pp. 1513-14; 1583, p. 1597

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Sir Edward Carne

(c. 1496 - 1561) [ODNB]

Diplomat; BCL Oxford 1519; DCL 1524; sent to Rome by Henry VIII in 1530 to delay proceedings on the divorce; resigned ecclesiastical preferments when married 1537; royal commissioner during dissolution of the monasteries; MP Glamorgan 1554; resident ambassador in Rome under Mary

Thomas Wolsey, after his fall, wrote to the court of Rome and to princes, criticising the king, and these words reached the ear of Edward Carne. 1570, p. 1132; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

Thomas Cranmer, John Stokesley, Edward Carne, William Benet and the earl of Wiltshire were sent as ambassadors to the pope to dispute the matter of the king's marriage. 1570, p. 1280; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

One of Henry VIII's chief grievances against the pope was his rejection of the king's ambassador, Sir Edward Carne, and the arguments he wished to put forward in the king's defence. 1570, p. 1220; 1576, p. 1045; 1583, p. 1071.

Sir Edward Carne was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 826-27.

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Sir William Kingston

(c. 1476 - 1540 [ODNB; Bindoff]

Courtier and administrator; captain of the guard, constable of the Tower of London (1524 - 40); privy councillor by 1533; comptroller of the king's household (1539 - 40); MP Gloucestershire (1529, 1539)

Sir William Kingston was sent to Sheffield Castle to take Thomas Wolsey to the Tower. Wolsey was ill, and Sir William treated him gently and made the journey in easy stages. Wolsey died at Leicester Abbey. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

Kingston spoke in favour of the Act of Six Articles in parliament and against Thomas Broke. 1563, p. 660.

Letters were sent to Kingston, among others, accusing Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber of Calais of heresy. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1402; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

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Thomas Cromwell

(in or bef. 1485 - 1540) [ODNB]

Lawyer; king's secretary; chief minister

Earl of Essex 1540; beheaded gruesomely

Thomas Cromwell was the son of a smith. He had an impressive memory and was skilled in languages. He was retained by the English merchants in Antwerp as clerk. He accompanied Geoffrey Chambers to Rome to obtain indulgences for the guild of Our Lady in Boston. 1570, p. 1346; 1576, p. 1149; 1583, pp. 1177-78.

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As a young man Cromwell fought with the French at Garigliano. He was then destitute in Italy and was helped by the Italian merchant banker Francesco Frescobaldi. Cromwell years later repaid him with generous interest when Frescobaldi was impoverished in England. 1570, pp. 1357-58; 1576, pp. 1158-59; 1583, pp. 1186-87.

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Cromwell confessed to archbishop Cranmer that he had been wild in his youth. He was at the siege of Rome with the duke of Bourbon. 1570, p. 1346; 1576, p. 1149; 1583, pp. 1177-78.

Cromwell, Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner served together in Thomas Wolsey's household. 1563, p. 592; 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

Cromwell was one of Wolsey's chief councillors and was active in the dissolution of the monasteries. After Wolsey's fall and his departure to Southwell, Cromwell entered the king's service. 1570, pp. 1132, 1347; 1576, pp. 969, 1150; 1583, pp. 996, 1179.

Cromwell was knighted, made master of the jewels and admitted to the king's council. Two years later he was made master of the rolls. Shortly before the birth of Prince Edward, Cromwell was created earl of Essex and appointed viceregent. 1570, p. 1348; 1576, p. 1151; 1583, p. 1179.

Cromwell discovered and made public fraudulent miracles. 1570, p. 1359; 1576, p. 1160; 1583, p. 1188.

Elizabeth Barton prophesied that if the king divorced Queen Catherine and married Anne Boleyn, he would not reign more than a month thereafter. Through the efforts of Cranmer, Cromwell and Latimer, she was condemned and executed with some of her supporters. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, pp. 1054-55.

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Cromwell urged King Henry to destroy the monastic houses and to grant the lands to the nobility and gentlemen. 1570, p. 1350; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1181.

Edward Lee was sent, under Cromwell, to visit the monasteries and nunneries to release all those in religious orders who wished to leave. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Cromwell gave an oration at the synod in 1537 of bishops and learned men. 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. Bonner owed his major preferments to Cromwell. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

Bonner sent a declaration to Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

Through the efforts of Cromwell, the destruction of the abbeys and religious houses was accomplished. 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

At the end of John Lambert's trial, the king had Cromwell read the sentence of condemnation. On the day of Lambert's execution, Cromwell asked for his forgiveness. 1563, pp. 537, 569; 1570, pp. 1283-84; 1576, pp. 1097-98; 1583, pp. 1123-24.

The king sent Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Thomas Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

The wife of Thomas Broke wrote to Thomas Cromwell, complaining of the way the imprisoned men in Calais, especially her husband, were treated. Cromwell wrote to the commissioners in Calais, commanding that Broke and a number of others be sent to England. 1563, p. 666; 1570, p. 1405; 1576, p. 1198; 1583, p. 1227.

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Cromwell was instrumental in obtaining Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. Cromwell procured letters from King Henry to Francois I that resulted in a licence being granted to print bibles in English at Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

When printing of English bibles was stopped in Paris, Cromwell got the presses and types sent to London. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

Stephen Gardiner was Cromwell's chief opponent. Cromwell had other enemies as well, and in 1540 he was suddenly arrested in the council chamber and committed to the Tower. He was charged with heresy and treason. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1359; 1576, pp. 1160-61; 1583, p. 1189.

Cromwell, having made an oration and prayer, was beheaded by an incompetent axeman. 1563, p. 598; 1570, pp. 1361-62; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1190.

Stephen Gardiner recalled that Cromwell spent a day and a half investigating a matter between Sir Francis Bryan and Gardiner, finally declaring Gardiner an honest man. 1563, p. 756; 1570, p. 1526; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

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Walter Walsh

(d. 1538) [ODNB sub Privy Chamber of Henry VIII]

Gentleman of the king's privy chamber; referred to as yeoman, page, groom at different times 1526-27; groom from 1528 on; went with Northumberland to arrest Wolsey in 1530; life sheriff of Worcestershire

Walter Walsh arrested Augustine de Augustinis, Wolsey's physician, and took him to the Tower. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

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North Yorkshire

OS grid ref: SE 575 375

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OS grid ref: TQ 145 645

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Leicester Abbey (Abbey of Saint Mary de Pratis)


OS grid ref: SK 584 059

Augustinian abbey founded 1143

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Sheffield Castle

Sheffield, South Yorkshire

Coordinates: 53° 22' 26.51" N, 1° 26' 11.96" W

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OS grid ref: SK 705 535

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NGR: SE 603 523

A city and county of itself, having exclusive jurisdiction; locally in the East Riding of the county of York, of which it is the capital. 198 miles north-north-west from London. The city is the seat of the Archbishop, and comprised originally 33 parishes, reduced by amalgamation to 22; of which 33, 17 were discharged rectories, 10 discharged vicarages, and 6 perpetual curacies; all within the diocese of York.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1020 [996]

K. Henry. 8. Articles agaynst Cardinall Wolsey. The death of Cardinall Wolsey at Leycester.

Lords house to the great reioysing of the lay people, and to the great displeasure of the spirituall persons.

And thus much concerning these Bylles agaynst the Cleargy, by the way. Now, to returne to the Cardinall agayne: during the time of the said Parliament, there was brought downe to the Commons, the booke of Articles which the Lords had put vp to the King, against the Cardinall. The chiefe Articles were these.

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MarginaliaArticles against the Cardinall.1 FIrst, that he without the Kings assent had procured to be Legate, by reason whereof he tooke away the right of all Byshops and spirituall persons.

2 In al writings that he wrote to Rome, or to any other Prince, he wrote: Ego & rex meus, I and my King, as who would say, that the King were his seruaunt.

3 That he slaundered the Church of England to þe court of Rome: for his suggestion to be Legate, was to reforme the Church of England, which (as he wrote) was Facta in reprobum sensum.

4 He without the Kings assent caried the Kings great Seale with him into Flaunders, when he was sente Ambassadour to the Emperour.

5 Without the Kings consent, he sent commission to Sir Gregory de Cassalis, Knight, to conclude a league betweene the King and the Duke of Ferrarie.

6 That he hauing the French pockes, presumed to come and breathe on the King.

7 That he caused the Cardinalles Hat to be put on the Kings coyne.

8 That he had sent innumerable substance to Rome, for the obteining of his dignities, to the great impouerishmēt of the Realme, with many other things, which are touched more at large in Chronicles.

These articles with many moe, being read in the cōmon house, were confessed by the Cardinal, and signed with his hand. Also there was shewed an other writing sealed with his seale, by the which he gaue to the Kyng all his moueables and vnmoueables.

MarginaliaAnno. 1530.You haue heard hytherto declared how þe Cardinall was attainted in the Premunire, & how he was put out of the office of the Chauncelour, & lay at Asher: which was in the yeare of our Lord 1530. The next yeare after in the Lent season, the king by the aduice of his counsayle, licenced him to go into his dioces of Yorke, and gaue hym commandemēt to keepe him in his dioces, and not to returne Southward, without the Kings speciall licence in writing.

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So he made great prouision to go Northward, & apparelled his seruants newly, and bought many costly things for his houshold, but diuers of his seruaunts at this tyme departed from him, to the Kings seruice, and in especiall Thomas Crumwell, one of his chiefe counsaile, and chiefe doer for him in the suppression of Abbeys. After that all things necessary for his iourney were prepared, he tooke his iourney Northward, til he came to Southwell, which was in his dioces, and there he continued that yeare, euer grudging at his fall, as you shall heare heereafter: but the lands which he had geuen to his Colleges in Oxford and Ipswich, were now come to the Kings hands, by his attainder in the Premunire, and yet the King of his gentlenes, and for fauour that he bare to good learning, erected againe the Colledge in Oxford, MarginaliaThe Cardinalls Colledge, now called Christes College in Oxforde.and where it was named the Cardinalles Colledge, he called it the Kings College, and endued it with faire possessions, and ordeined newe statutes and ordinances, and for because the Colledge of Ipswich was thought to be nothing profitable, therefore he leaft that dissolued.

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Notwithstāding that the Cardinall of Yorke was thus attainted in the Premunire, (as is aboue mentioned) yet the King being good vnto him, had graunted him the Bishopricks of Yorke and Winchester, with great plentie of substance, & had licenced him to lye in his dioces of Yorke, where he so continued the space of a yeare. MarginaliaThe Cardinall complayneth to the Pope, of the king.But after, in the yeare folowing, which was 1531. he being in his dioces, wrote to the Court of Rome, and to diuers other Princes, letters in reproch of the King, and in as much as in him lay, he stirred them to reuenge his cause against the King and his Realme, in so much, that diuers opprobrious words against the King, were spoken to Doctor Edward Keerne, the Kings Oratour at Rome, and it was sayd to him, that for the Cardinalles sake, the King should haue the woorse speede in the suite of his matrimonie. The Cardinall also would speake faire to the people to winne their harts, and declared euer, that he was vniustly and vntruely ordered, which faire speaking, made many men beleeue that he sayd true: and to Gentlemen he gaue greatgiftes, to allure them vnto him: MarginaliaThe Cardinalls proude iourneie toward yorke.and to be had in more reputation among the people, he determined to be installed or inthronised at Yorke, with all the pompe that might be, and caused a throne to be erected in the Cathedral Church, in such an height and fashion, as was neuer seene, and sent to all the Lords, Abbots, Priors, Knightes, Esquiers and Gentlemen of his dioces, to be at his Manor of Cawood the sixt day of Nouember, and so to bring hym to Yorke, with all maner of pompe and solemnitie.

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The King which knew his doings and priuie conueyance, all this yeare dissembled the matter, to see what hee would do at length, till that he saw his proud hart so highly exalted, that he would be so triumphātly installed, without making the king priuie, yea and in manner, in disdaine of the King, thought it not meete nor conuenient to suffer him any longer, to cōtinue in his malitious & proud purposes and attemptes: wherefore he directed his letters to the Earle of Northumberland, willing him with all diligence, to arrest the Cardinal, & to deliuer him to the Earle of Shrewsbury, great Steward of the Kings housholde. When the Earle had sene the letters, he with a conuenient number came to the Manor of Cawood the fourth daye of Nouemb. and whē he was brought to the Cardinal in his chāber, he said to him, MarginaliaThe Cardinal arrested.My Lord, I pray you take patience, for here I arrest you. Arrest me, said þe Cardinal? Yea, sayd the Earle, I haue a commaundement so to do. You haue no such power, said the Cardinall, for I am both a Cardinall and a Legate De Latere, and a Peere of the College of Rome, & ought not to be arrested by any tēporall power, for I am not subiect to that power, wherefore if you arrest me, I will withstand it. Well, saide the Earle, heere is the Kings commission (which he shewed him) and therefore I charge you to obey. The Cardinall somewhat remembred himselfe, and sayd, Well my Lord, I am contente to obey, but although þt I by negligence fell into the punishment of the Premunire, and lost by the lawe all my lands & goodes, yet my person was in the Kings protection, and I was pardoned that offence, wherefore I maruell why I nowe should be arrested, & specially cōsidering that I am a member of the Sea Apostolique, on whome no temporall man ought to lay violent hands. Well, I see the King lacketh good counsayle. Well, sayd the Earle, when I was sworne Warden of þe Marches, you your self told me, that I might with my staffe arrest all mē, vnder the degree of a King, & nowe I am more stronger, for I haue a commission so to do, which you haue seene. The Cardinal at length obeyed, and was kept in a priuie chamber, and his goodes seased, and his officers discharged, and his Phisitiō called Doctor Augustine, was likewise arrested, and brought to the Tower by Sir Walter Welsh, one of the Kings chamber. The sixt day of Nouember he was conueyed from Cawood, to Sheffeld Castle, and there deliuered to the Earle of Shrewsburies keeping, till the Kings pleasure were knowne. Of this attachement was much communing amongst the common people, wherefore many were glad, for he was not in the fauour of the commonaltie.

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MarginaliaThe Cardinal brought vp toward London.When the Cardinall was thus arrested, the King sente sir William Kingston Knight, Captaine of the Gard, and Constable of the Tower of Lōdon, with certeine yeomen of the gard, to Sheffeld, to fetch þe Cardinal to the Tower. When the Cardinall sawe the Captaine of the Garde, he was sore astonished, and shortly became sicke, for then he perceiued some great trouble toward him, & for that cause mē said, that he willingly toke so much quātitie of a strong purgatiō, that his nature was not able to beare it. MarginaliaThe Cardinall poysoneth hym selfe.Also the matter that came frō him was so blacke, that the stayning therof could not be gottē out of his blākets by any means. But sir William Kingston cōforted him, and by easie iorneyes he brought him to the Abbey of Leycester, the xxvij. daye of Nouember, where for very feeblenes of nature, caused by purgations and vomites, he dyed the seconde night folowing, and in the same Abbey lyeth buried.

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It is testified by one, yet being aliue, in whose armes the sayde Cardinall dyed, that hys body being dead, was blacke as pitch, also was so heauie, that sixe coulde scarse beare it. Furthermore, it did so stinke aboue the grounde, that they were constrayned to hasten the buriall thereof in the night season, before it was daye. At the which buriall, such a tempest, with such a stinch there arose, that all the torches went out, and so he was throwne into the tombe, and there was layde.

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MarginaliaThe pride of the Cardinall.By the ambitious pride and excessiue worldly wealth of this one Cardinal, al mē may easily vnderstand & iudge what the state and condition of al the rest of the same order (whom we cal spiritual men) were in those dayes, as well in all other places of Christendome, as especially heere in England, where as the princely possessions & great pride

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