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Cuthbert Tunstall

(1475 - 1559) [ODNB]

DCnL, DCL from Padua by 1505; diplomat; keeper of the privy seal (1523 - 30)

Bishop of London (1522 - 30); bishop of Durham (1530 - 52, 1553 - 59)

William Carder, Agnes Grebill and Robert Harrison were tried for heresy in 1511 before William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, Gabriel Sylvester, Thomas Wells and Clement Browne. All three were condemned to burn. 1570, pp. 1454-55; 1576, p. 1240; 1583, pp. 1276-77.

After William Tyndale went to London, he tried to enter the service of Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, but was unsuccessful. 1570, pp. 1225-26; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, pp. 1075-76.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. Wolsey committed the hearing to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

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Thomas Bilney wrote five letters to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 465-73; 1570, pp. 1140-47; 1576, pp. 977-81; 1583, pp. 1003-08.

Bilney initially refused to recant and asked to introduce witnesses; this request was refused by the bishop of London because it was too late in the proceedings. Bilney was given two nights to consult with his friends. 1563, p. 479; 1570, p. 1140; 1576, p. 977; 1583, p. 1003.

In 1526 Tunstall issued prohibitions to his archdeacons, calling in New Testaments translated into English and other English books. 1563, pp. 449-50; 1570, pp. 1157-58; 1576, pp. 990-91; 1583, pp. 1017-18.

Augustine Packington favoured William Tyndale, but pretended otherwise to Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, then in Antwerp. He offered to procure all the unsold copies of Tyndale's New Testament held by the merchants in the city if Tunstall would provide the money to buy them. Packington then paid Tyndale for the books, and Tyndale immediately had them reprinted. 1563, p. 443; 1570, pp. 1158-59; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

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Thomas Wolsey, having obtained large sums from the king's treasury, went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army. He took with him Cuthbert Tunstall, William Sandys, the earl of Derby, Sir Henry Guildford and Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 439; 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 988.

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John Tewkesbury was examined before Cuthbert Tunstall, Henry Standish and John Islip. 1563, p. 490; 1570, p. 1165; 1576, p. 996; 1583, p. 1024.

After Richard Bayfield returned to England, he was arrested, tried by Cuthbert Tunstall and abjured. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Tunstall was translated to the see of Durham after Thomas Wolsey was deprived of office. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Tunstall swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

Tunstall preached a sermon on Palm Sunday in front of King Henry in which he attacked the pope's claimed authority. 1570, pp. 1206-10; 1576, pp. 1033-36; 1583, pp. 1060-63.

Tunstall was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bishops Stokesley and Tunstall wrote a letter to Cardinal Pole in Rome, urging him to give up his support of the supremacy of the pope. 1563, pp. 613-20; 1570, pp. 1212-16; 1576, pp. 1037-42; 1583, pp. 1065-68.

Tunstall disputed with John Lambert at his trial before the king. 1563, p. 536; 1570, p. 1283; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, pp. 1123.

Tunstall was imprisoned in the Tower with Stephen Gardiner under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Tunstall was a deponent in the case of Gardiner. 1563, pp. 828-29, 855.

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John Alen

(1476 - 1534) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1494-5; MA 1498; DCnCL by 1508. Commissary to Richard Fitzjames, bishop of Rochester, 1499; proctor for William Warham at the papal curia (1502/3 - 12); commissary-general for Thomas Wolsey, archbishop of York, (1519 - 28).

Archbishop of Dublin (1528 - 34); lord chancellor of Ireland (1528 - 32); murdered

Thomas Wolsey sent John Alen to visit all religious houses in the realm. 1570, p. 1121; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 986.

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Richard Hunne

(d. 1514) [ODNB]

Wealthy merchant tailor of the parish of St Margaret New Fish St, London; son-in-law of Thomas Vincent, leading member of the city's Lollard community; alleged murder victim; hanged or strangled in Lollard's Tower

According to Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars, Richard Hunne was charged with heresy because he brought an action of praemunire against a priest. 1563, p. ; 1570, p. ; 1576, p. ; 1583, p. 64.

Richard Hunne was one of those Sir Thomas More in his The Supplication of Purgatory said the souls in purgatory railed against. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

In his will, Hunne left provision for the repair of the conduit in Fleet Street. 1570, p. 1184; 1576, p. 1013; 1583, p. 1041.

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William Horsey

(1476 - 1534) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1494-5; MA 1498; commissary to Fitzjames, bishop of Rochester 1499; proctor for Warham at the papal curia (1502/3 - 1512); DCnCL by 1508; commissary-general for Wolsey (1519 - 28); archbishop of Dublin (1528 - 34); lord chancellor of Ireland (1528 - 32); murdered

According to Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars, Horsey and his accomplices murdered Richard Hunne in prison. 1563, p. 447; 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 989; 1583, p. 1016.

1040 [1016]

K. Hen. 8. The supplication of Beggars declaring the corruptions of the Clergye.

was also at that time, but few poore people, and yet thei did not begge, but there was geuen them enough vnasked, for there was at that time, none of these rauenous wolues to aske it from them, as it appeareth in the Actes of the Apostles. MarginaliaThe cause of so many beggars, theeues and idle people in England.Is it any maruell though there be now so many beg gers, theues, and idle people? Nay truely. What remedy? 

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At this point in the treatise, Fish has basically claimed that the clergy are a separate state within the state, subject to their own rules and regulations, indeed, taking power away from the temporal authority all the time. His point here is that temporal law is ineffective.

make lawes agaynst them? I am in doubt whether ye be able. MarginaliaThe popes clergy stronger in Parliamente, then Princes, as hath appeared by their cruell lawes against the poore Gospellers.Are they not stronger in your owne Parliament house then your selfe? What a number of Bishops Abbots and Priors, are Lordes of your Parliament? Are not all the learned men of your realme in fee with them, to speake in your Parliament house for them agaynst your crowne, dignity and common wealth of your realme, a few of your owne learned Counsell onely excepted? What lawe can be made agaynst them that may bee auayleable? MarginaliaNo lawe nor remedye against the clergie. Who is hee (though he be greued neuer so sore) that for the murther of his auncester, rauishmēt of his wife, of his daughter, robbery, trespasse, maime, debt, or any other offence, dare lay it to theyr charge, by any way of action: and if he do, then is he by and by, by theyr wylines, accused of heresy: yea they will so handle him ere he passe, that, except he will beare a Fagot for theyr pleasure, he shalbe excommunicate, & then be all his actions dashed.

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MarginaliaAll lawes and actions captiue to the clergy men.So captiue are your lawes vnto them, that no man whom they list to excommunicate, may be admitted to sue any actiō in any of your Courts. If any man in your Sessions dare be so hardy to indite a Priest of any such crime, he hath ere the yeare go out, such a yoake of heresye layd in his necke, that it maketh him wish that he had not done it. Your grace may see what a worke there is in Londō: how the Bishop rageth for inditing of certayne Curates of extortion, & incontinēcy the last yere in the Wardmote quest. Had not Richard Hunne MarginaliaOf Richard Hunne read before pag. 806 commenced action of Premunire against a Priest, 

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This refers to the great cause célèbre of the 1510s, the so-called Hunne case. In essence, Hunne refused to pay a fee to the parish priest (the rector of St Mary Matfelon in Whitechapel) for the burial of his child (March 1511). The priest sued Hunne in the ecclesiastical court of Audience (April 1512) - which found in the priest's favour - and Hunne counter-sued in the civil courts (January 1513) accusing the priest of slander and praemunire (acting upon the orders of a foreign power without the king's license). The London clergy rallied and charged Hunne with heresy as a result, and he was imprisoned in the Lollards' Tower of St Paul's Cathedral (October 1514). He committed suicide (4 December 1514) and his body was burned for heresy (20 December). A coroner's jury concluded (February 1515) that Hunne had been murdered while in prison. See E Jeffries Davis, 'The Authorities for the Case of Richard Hunne (1514-15)' in The English Historical Review 30 (July 1915), pp. 477-88.

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he had bene yet aliue and no heretick at all, but an honest man. Did not diuers of your noble progenitors, seeyng theyr crowne and dignity runne into ruine, and to be thus craftily translated into the handes of this mischieuous generatiō, make diuers statutes for the reformation thereof: among which the statute of Mortmayne 
Commentary  *  Close

Mortmain is a legal condition in which land or property is possessed not by a person but by a non-personal legal entity (or corporation) like the church. The land or property, thereby, is not subject to inheritance fines. The two statutes (of 1279 and 1290) were attempts by Edward I to prevent too much land falling into the possession of the church (which limited the crown's revenues).

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MarginaliaThe statute of Mortmayne. was one, to the intent that after that tune they should haue no more geuen vnto them? But what auayled it? haue they not gotten into theyr handes more landes since, thē any Duke in England hath, the statute notwithstandyng? Yea, haue they not for all that translated into theyr handes from your grace, halfe your kingdome throughly, MarginaliaHalfe the profite of the realme in the clergies handes. the onely name remayning to you for your aūceters sake: So you haue the name and they the profit. Yea I feare, if I should wey all thinges to the vttermost, they would also take the name vnto them, and of one kingdome make twayne: the spirituall kingdome as they call it (for they will be named first) and your temporall kingdome. And which of these 2. kingdoms suppose you, is like to ouergrow the other, yea to put þe other cleare out of memory? Truly the kingdome of the bloudsuppers, for to them is geuen daily out of your kingdome: and that that is once geuen them, commeth neuer from them agayne. Such lawes haue they that none of them may neither geue nor sell nothing. What law can be made so strong agaynst thē, that they either with mony or els with other pollicy, will not breake or sette at nought? What kingdome can endure, that euer geueth thus frō him and receiueth nothing agayne? Oh how all the substaunce of your realme, your sword, power, crowne, dignity & obedience of your people, runneth headlong into the insatiable whirlepole of these gredy goulfes, to be swallowed and deuoured.

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MarginaliaThe most good that the Popes clergye doth in England is to pray mēs soules out of Purgatorye.Neither haue 

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This is one of Fish's theological arguments, this one against the doctrine of purgatory very much along sola scriptura lines.

they any other colour to gather these yearely exactions into their handes, but that they sayd they pray for vs to God, to deliuer our soules out of the paynes of Purgatory, without whose prayer they say, or at least without the Popes Pardon, we coulde neuer be deliuered thence. Which if it be true, then it is good reason that we geue thē all these things, although it were a hūdred times as much. But there be many men of great litterature and iudgement, that for the loue they haue vnto the trueth and vnto the common wealth, haue not feared to put thēselues into the greatest infamy that may be, in abiection of all the world, yea in peril of death, to declare theyr opinion in this matter: which is, that there is no Purgatory, MarginaliaPurgatory denyed. but that it is a thing inuented by the couetousnes of the spiritualty, onely to translate all kingdomes from othet princes vnto thē, and that there is not one word spokē of it in all holy Scripture. They say also, that if there were a Purgatory, and also if that the Pope with his pardons for money may deliuer one soule thence: 
Commentary  *  Close

Fish here rejects the sale of indulgences, very much after the tenor of Luther's Ninety-five theses. The doctrine of purgatory was nonsensical in terms of scripture and, according to Fish, the sacrament of penance was more a financial expedient than anything else. Fish seems to (consciously?) misunderstand the doctrine of penance, however, insofar as it relates to indulgences. The indulgence derives from the donation of the penitent (considered to be his act of remorse or his necessary penalty for sin) and not from the action of the pope (who could not simply pardon all the souls without some evidence of genuine remorse).

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he may deliuer hym as well without mony, if he may deliuer one, he may deliuer a thousād: if he may deliuer a thousand, he may deliuer them al, and so destroy Purgatory, and then he is a cruell tyrant without all charity, if he keepe them there in prison and in payne, tyllmen will geue him money. Marginalia

* If the Pope may deliuer soules out of Purgatorye for money, hee may then as well deliuer them without mony, if it pleased him.

Agayne, if he deliuer one, he can deliuer a thousand, if he can deliuer a thousand, he can deliuer all, and so make a gaile deliuerie, and a cleane dispatch of all Purgatorie, if hee woulde: and if he will not whē he may, thē is there no charitye in him.

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Likewise say they of all the whole sort of the spiritualtye, that if they will pray for no man but for thē that geue thē money, they are tyrants & lacke charity, & suffer those soules to be punished and payned vncharitably for lacke of theyr prayers. This sorte of folkes they cal hereticks, these they burne, these they rage agaynst, put to open shame and make them beare Fagots. But whether they be heretickes or no, well I wot, that this Purgatory & the popes pardons are all the cause of the translatiō of your kingdome so fast into theyr handes: wherefore it is manifest, it can not be of Christ, MarginaliaChrist submitted himselfe vnder temporall gouerment. for he gaue more to the temporall kingdome, he himselfe payd tribute to Cesar, he tooke nothing frō him, but taught that the high powers should be alwaies obeied, yea he himself (although he were most free Lord of al, & innocēt) was obedient vnto þe high powers vnto death. 

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Matthew 22.21.

MarginaliaThe cause touched, why the Popes clergy will not let the new Testament goe abroad in the mother tongue.This is the great skabbe, why they will not let þe new testamēt go abroad in your mother toung, least men should espye that they by theyr cloked hypocrisy do translate thus fast your kingdome into their hādes: that they are not obedient vnto your high power: that they are cruell, vncleane, vnmercifull and hipocrites: that they seeke not the honor of Christ but theyr owne: that remission of sinnes are not geuen by the Popes Pardon, but by Christ, for the sure fayth and trust that we haue in him.

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Marginalia* M More here playeth the cauiller, noting the authour of this supplication to desire leaue to raile of the whole clergye, as though the hipocrisie of ihe Friers coulde not otherwise be disclosed without railing of the Whole clergye.Here may your grace well perceiue, that except you suffer their hipocrisy to be disclosed, all is like to runne into theyr handes, and as long as it is couered, so long shal it seme to euery man to be a great impiety, not to geue them. For this I am sure your grace thinketh (as the truth is) I am as good a man as my Father: why may I not as well geue them as much as my father did? And of this minde I am sure, are all the Lordes, knightes, squires, gentlemē, & yeomen in England: yea and vntill it be disclosed, all your people will think that your statute of Mortmaine was neuer made with no good cōscience, seing that it taketh away the liberty of your people, in that they may not as lawfully buy their soules out of Purgatory by geuing to the spiritualty, as theyr predecessors did in times past.

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Wherfore, if you will eschew the ruine of your crowne & dignity, let theyr hipocrisy be vttred, & that shalbe more speedefull in this matter, then all the lawes that may bee made, be they neuer so strong For to make a law for to punish any offender, except it were more for to geue other mē an ensample to beware how they commit such like, offence, what should it auayle? Did not Doct Alen 

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John Alen was very active in the cardinal's suppression of monasteries in the late 1520s.

MarginaliaOf Doctour Alen the Cardinalls Chauncellour read before, pag. 986. most presumptiously now in your time, agaynst al his allegiance all that euer he could, to pull frō you the knowledge of such plees, as belong vnto your high Courtes, vnto an other Court in derogation of your crown and dignity? Did not also D. Horsey MarginaliaOf this Doct. Horsey, the bish. of Londons Chauncellour, read before pag. 807. and his complices most heinously (as al the world knoweth) murder in prison that honest Marchaunt Rich. Hunne, for that he sued your writ of Premunire agaynst a priest that wrongfully held him in plee in a spiritual court, for a matter whereof the knowledge belonged vnto your high Courtes? And what punishment was there done, that any man may take example of, to beware of like offence? Truely none, but that the one payd 500. pound (as it is sayd) to the building of your chamber, & when that paymēt was once passed, the Captaynes of his kingdome (because he fought so manfully agaynst your crowne and dignity) haue heaped to him, benefice vpon benefice, so that he is rewarded * Marginalia10. tymes, that is, 10. times as much as he had in benefices before, & not as he payde to the king. And althoughe these murtherers of Hunne were not recompensed with 10. times, or withe 4. tymes as much (which More denieth) yet can he neuer be able to denie the substance of the story, that is, that Hunne by these was broughte to hys death, & that they being put to their fines, wer afterward sufficiently recompēsed with benefices vpon benefices.x. times as much. The other (as it is sayd) payd 600. pound for him & hys complices: which for because that he had like wise fought so manfully against your crown and dignity, was immediately as he had obteyned your most gracious pardon, promoted by the captaynes of his kingdome, wyth benefice vpon benefice, to the value of foure times as much. Who can take example of punishment, to beware of suche like offence? Who is he of their kingdome that will not rather take courage to commit like offence, seing the promotions that fell to these men for theyr so offending? so weake and blunt is your sword to strike at one of the offenders of this crooked and peruerse generation.

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MarginaliaVnconuenient for a spirituall man to be Lord Chauncellour.And this is by the reason that the chiefe iustrument of your law, yea þe chiefe of your Councell and he which hath your sword in his hand, to whom also all the other instrumentes are obedient, is alwayes a spirituall man, which hath euer such an inordinate loue vnto his own kingdome that he will maintayne that, though all the tēporall kingdomes and common wealthes of the world, should there-

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