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Reginald Pole
 
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Reginald Pole

(1500 - 1558) [ODNB]

BA Oxford 1515; dean of Exeter (1527 - 37); cardinal 1536; legate 1537

Archbishop of Canterbury (1555 - 58)

In a sermon delivered by Cuthbert Tunstall, Reginald Pole was described as a traitor, sent by the pope to provoke war against England. 1570, p. 1210; 1576, p. 1036; 1583, p. 1063.

Reginald Pole fled to Rome and was created cardinal. While in Rome, he was sent a letter from Bishops Stokesley and Tunstall, urging him to give up his support of the supremacy of the pope. 1563, pp. 613-20; 1570, pp. 1212-16; 1576, pp. 1037-42; 1583, pp. 1065-68.

Cardinal Pole and Paolo Giovio both wrote adversely of Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1083.

Paul III sent Cardinal Pole to the French king to stir him to war against Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

In a letter to Henry VIII, Philip Melancthon complained of Cardinals Contarini, Sadoleto and Pole working to cover up the corruption in Rome. 1570, p. 1341; 1576, p. 1145; 1583, p. 1173.

Pole urged Adam Damplip to stay in Rome to deliver lectures, but he refused. Pole gave him a French crown when he left. 1563, p. 656; 1570, p. 1400; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1223.

The Western rebels in 1549, especially their priests, called for Pole's restoration. 1570, p. 1496; 1576, p. 1268; 1583, p. 1305.

In a letter to the Lord Protector, Stephen Gardiner referred to Pole as his old master. 1563, p. 741.

1087 [1063]

K. Henry. 8. Tonstals sermon agaynst the Pope. The pride of the Pope.

them? Surely (sayth he) the Bishoppes of Rome be these whom I do meane. Who following the pride of Lucifer theyr father, make themselues fellowes to God, and do exalt theyr seate aboue the starres of God, and do ascend aboue the cloudes, MarginaliaThe Pope exalted aboue the cloudes and the starrs of heauen. and will be like to almighty God. The starres of God be ment the aungels of heauen, for as stars doe shew vnto vs in part, the light of heauen, so do Aungelles sent vnto men, shew the heauenly light of the grace of God, to those to whom they be sent. And the cloudes signified in the olde Testament the Prophettes, and in the new doe signify the Apostles and Preachers of the woord of God. For as the cloudes do conceiue and gather in the skye moysture, which they after poure downe vpon the ground to make it thereby more fruitfull: so the Prophets in the olde Testament, and the Apostles and Preachers in the newe, do poure into our eares the moysture of theyr heauenly doctrine of the word of God, to make therewith by grace, our soules beinge seere and drye, to bring foorth fruit of the spirite. Thus doe all auncient expositours, and amongest them 

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The psalm, which is set in the scene of a wedding, is generally considered an analogy for the church and Christ or subjects and king (for bride and bridegroom).

Saynt Augustine, interpret to be ment in Scripture, starres and cloudes, in the exposition of the 45. Psalme.

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But S. Iohn 

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Tunstal here refers to Revelation 19.10 & 22.9 (the reaction of John to the appearance of the angel).

the Euangelist writeth in the 19. chapter of the Apocalips, & in the 22. also, that whē he would haue fallen downe at the Aungels foote that did shew him those visions there written, to haue adored him with godly worship, the Aungell sayd vnto him: MarginaliaApoc. 19. 21.See thou do not so, for I am the seruaunt of God as thou art. Geue adoration and Godly worship to God, and not to me. Here it appeareth, that the Bishops of Rome suffering all men prostrate before them to kisse theyr feet (yea the same Princes, to whom they owe subiection) do clime vp aboue the starres and Aungels too, MarginaliaThe Pope exalted aboue Angels. offering their feet to be kissed, with shoes and all. For so I saw my selfe 
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This claim appears at p. 51 of the 1823 edition. Tunstal studied law at the university of Padua (earning his doctorate there) so the claim is not unlikely.

being present, 34. yeares ago, whē Iulius thē Bishop of Rome stood on his feet, and one of his chamberlaynes held vp his fkyrt because it stood not (as he thought) with his dignity, that he should do it himselfe, that his shoo might appeare, whiles a noble man of great age did prostrate himselfe vpon the ground, and kissed his shoo: which he stately suffered to be done, as of duety. Where me think I saw 
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Acts 10.25-6. Tunstal is making a juxtaposition between the Cornelius-Peter interaction from the bible story and the real life scenario of Peter (as embodied by pope Julius II) receiving visitors.

Cornelius the Centurion, Captyn of the Italians band, spoken of in the tenth Chapiter of the Actes, submitting himselfe to Peter, and much honoring him: but I saw not Peter there to take him vp, and to bidde him rise, saying I am a man as thou art, as Saynt Peter did say to Cornelius: MarginaliaThe Pope climeth aboue the Apostles.so that the Bishops of Rome, admitting such adoration due vnto God, doe clime aboue the heauenlye cloudes, that is to say, aboue the Apostles sent into the world by Christ, to water the earthly and carnal hartes of men, by theyr heauenly doctrine of the word of God.

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Thus Bishop Tonstall hauing described the passing pride of the Pope, surmounting like Lucifer, aboue Byshops, Apostles, Aungelles, and starres of heauen, proceeding then further to the latter ende of his Sermon, commeth to speake of his rage and malice most furious and pestilent, in that he being iustly put from his kingdome here: to wreake his spitefull malice, MarginaliaThe Pope stirreth vp warre agaynst England.styrreth vppe warre against vs, & bloweth þe horn of mischief in geuing our land for a spoyle and pray to all, whosoeuer at his setting on, will come and inuade vs. But let vs heare his owne wordes preaching to the king and all Englishmen, touchyng both the popes malice, MarginaliaThe treason of Cardinal Poole.and the treason of Cardinall Poole.

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Now (sayth he) because he can no longer in this realm wrongfully vse his vsurped power in all thinges, (as he was wont to do) and sucke out of this Realme by auarice insatiable, innumerable summes of money yearely, to the great exhausting of the same: he therefore moued and repleat with furious ire and pestilent malice, goeth about to styrre all Christen nations, that will geue eares to hys deuillish enchauntmentes, to moue warre agaynst this realme of England, geuing it in pray to all those, that by hys instigation will inuade it.

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MarginaliaThe Pope geueth England away for a pray.And here expounding these foresayd wordes (to geue in pray) he declareth what great mischiefe they conteyne, and willeth euery true Englisheman well to marke the same. First to make this realme (sayth he) a pray to all vēturers, all spoylers, all snappehaunses, all forlornehopes, all cormorantes, all rauenors of the world, that will inuade this Realme, is to say: thou possessioner of any landes of thys Realme, of what degree soeuer thou be, from the highest to the lowest, shalt be slayne and destroyed, and thy lands taken from thee by those that will haue all for themselues: & thou mayest be sure to be slayne, for they will not suffer thee, nor none of thy progeny to liue to make any claime afterwarde or to be reuenged, for that were theyr vnsurety. Thy wife shalbe abused before thy face: thy daughter lykewise defloured before thee: they children slayne before thine eyes: thy house spoyled: thy cattell driuen away & sold be-fore thy visage: thy plate, thy mony by force taken frõ thee, all thy goodes, wherin thou hast any delight, or hast gathered for thy children, rauened, broken and distributed, in thy presence, that euery rauenour may haue his share. Thou Marchaunt art sure to be slaine, for thou hast either money or ware, or both, which they seach for Thou Byshoppe or priest, whatsoeuer thou be, shalt neuer escape, because thou wouldest not take the Bishop of Romes part, and rebell agaynst God and thy Prince, as he doth. If thou shalt flee and escape for a season, whatsoeuer thou be: thou shalt see and heare of so much misery and abhomination, that thou shalt iudge them happy, that be dead before: for sure it is, thou shalt not finally escape: For, to take the whol realme in pray, is to kill the whole people, and to take the place for themselues, as they will do if they can.

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And the Bishop of Rome now of late, to set forth hys pestilent malice the more, hath allured to his purpose a subiect of this Realme, Reginald Poole comē of a noble blood 

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Pole was a son of Sir Richard Pole and Margaret, countess of Salisbury (whose parents were the duke and duchess of Clarence - George Plantagenet and Isabella Neville). In the 1530s Henry came to consider the Poles a family of dangerous rival claimants to the throne.

, and therby the more errant traytor, MarginaliaCardinal Poole traytor to England. to go about frõ Prince to Prince, and from country to countrey, to styrre them to warre agaynst this Realme, and to destroy the same being his natiue countrey: whose pestilent purpose, the Princes that he breaketh it vnto, haue in much abhomination, both for that the Bishop of Rome (who being a Bishop should procure peace) is a styrrer of warre: and because this most errant and vnkind traytour is his minister to so deuilish a purpose, to destroy the coūtry that he was borne in, which any heathen man would abhorre to do.

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MarginaliaThe popes name and memory abolished.And so continuing in his discourse agaynst Cardinall Poole and the Bishop of Rome for styrring the people to warre and mischiefe, he further sayth, & sayth truely, that for these many yeares past, little warre hath bene in these partes of Christendome, but the Bishop of Rome eyther hath bene a styrrer of it, or a nourisher of it, and feldome any cõpounder of it, vnlesse it were for his ambition or profite. Wherfore since, as S. Paule sayth, Marginalia1. Cor. 14.that God is not the God of dissention but of peace, who commaundeth by hys word, peace alway to be kept: we are sure that all those, that go about to breake peace betwene Realmes, and to bring them to warre, are the childrē of the deuill, what holy names soeuer they pretend to cloke their pestilent malice withall: which cloking vnder hipocrisy is double deuilishnes, and of Christ most detested, because vnder his blessed name, they do play the deuils part.

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And in the latter end of his Sermon concluding wyth the 39. Chapiter 

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Ezekiel 39.

of Ezechiell, MarginaliaEzech. 39. where the Prophet speaketh against Gog and Magog, going about to destroy the people of God, and prophecyeth agaynst them, that the people of God shall vanquish and ouerthrow them on the mountaynes of Israell that none of them shall escape, but theyr carcases shal there be deuoured of kytes, and crowes, and byrds of the ayre: so likewise sayth he of these our enemies, wishing, that if they shall persist in theyr pestilent malice, to make inuasion into this Realme, then theyr great Captayne Gog MarginaliaThe Pope compared to Gog. (the bishop of Rome he meaneth) may come wt them, to drinke with them of the same cup, which he maliciously goeth about to prepare for vs, that þe people of God might after quietly liue in peace,

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We haue heard hetherto the othes, censures, and iudge mentes of certayne particulare Byshoppes of Yorke, of Winchester, of London, of Duresme, and also of Edmund Bonor, Archdeacon then of Leycester, agaynst the Popes vnlawfull vsurpatiõ. MarginaliaTestimonies out of the byshops booke, against the Popes supremacye.Now for the more fortification of the matter, and satisfying of the Reader, it shall not be much out of purpose, besides the consent and approbatiõ of these aforesayd, to inferre also the publicke and generall agreement of the whole Clergy of Englãd, as in a totall summe together, confirmed and ratified in theyr owne publicke booke, made and set forth by them about the same tyme, called then the Bishops booke. In the which booke, although many thinges were very slender & vnperfect, yet as touching this cause of the Bishop of Romes regalty, we wyll heare (God willing) what theyr whole opinion & prouinciall determinatiõ did conclude, according as by their own words in the same book, is to be sene word for word, as foloweth, subscribed also with theyr owne names: the Catologue of whom vnder theyr owne confession, shall appere.

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WE thinke it 

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Foxe takes this directly from the Bishops' Book, otherwise known as The Institution of a Christian Man, from the bishops exposition on the sacrament of orders. [See 'The Institutions of a Christian Man', in Formularies of Faith Put Forth By Authority During the Reign of Henry VIII, ed. by C Lloyd (Oxford, 1825), pp.23-211 (at pp.116-7)].

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conuenient, that all Bishops and Preachers shal instruct and teach the people cõmitted vnto theyr spirituall charge, þt where as certayne men doe imagine and affirme, that Christ should geue vnto the Byshop of Rome power and authority, not only to be head & gouernor of all Priestes & Bishops in Christes Church, but also to haue and occupye the whole Monarchy of the world in his handes, and that he may therby lawfully depose kinges and Princes from theyr realmes, dominions,

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and
AAA.ij.
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