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Matthew Mackerell (Makkarell)

(d. 1537) [ODNB]

Abbot of Barlings; by 1524 bishop-suffragan in the York diocese, then Lincoln (suffragan bishop of Chalcedon); executed as traitor

Matthew Mackerell led a rebellion in Lincolnshire in defence of the old religion. 1570, p. 1237; 1576, p. 1059; 1583, p. 1086.

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Thomas Cromwell

(in or bef. 1485 - 1540) [ODNB]

Lawyer; king's secretary; chief minister

Earl of Essex 1540; beheaded gruesomely

Thomas Cromwell was the son of a smith. He had an impressive memory and was skilled in languages. He was retained by the English merchants in Antwerp as clerk. He accompanied Geoffrey Chambers to Rome to obtain indulgences for the guild of Our Lady in Boston. 1570, p. 1346; 1576, p. 1149; 1583, pp. 1177-78.

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As a young man Cromwell fought with the French at Garigliano. He was then destitute in Italy and was helped by the Italian merchant banker Francesco Frescobaldi. Cromwell years later repaid him with generous interest when Frescobaldi was impoverished in England. 1570, pp. 1357-58; 1576, pp. 1158-59; 1583, pp. 1186-87.

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Cromwell confessed to archbishop Cranmer that he had been wild in his youth. He was at the siege of Rome with the duke of Bourbon. 1570, p. 1346; 1576, p. 1149; 1583, pp. 1177-78.

Cromwell, Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner served together in Thomas Wolsey's household. 1563, p. 592; 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

Cromwell was one of Wolsey's chief councillors and was active in the dissolution of the monasteries. After Wolsey's fall and his departure to Southwell, Cromwell entered the king's service. 1570, pp. 1132, 1347; 1576, pp. 969, 1150; 1583, pp. 996, 1179.

Cromwell was knighted, made master of the jewels and admitted to the king's council. Two years later he was made master of the rolls. Shortly before the birth of Prince Edward, Cromwell was created earl of Essex and appointed viceregent. 1570, p. 1348; 1576, p. 1151; 1583, p. 1179.

Cromwell discovered and made public fraudulent miracles. 1570, p. 1359; 1576, p. 1160; 1583, p. 1188.

Elizabeth Barton prophesied that if the king divorced Queen Catherine and married Anne Boleyn, he would not reign more than a month thereafter. Through the efforts of Cranmer, Cromwell and Latimer, she was condemned and executed with some of her supporters. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, pp. 1054-55.

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Cromwell urged King Henry to destroy the monastic houses and to grant the lands to the nobility and gentlemen. 1570, p. 1350; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1181.

Edward Lee was sent, under Cromwell, to visit the monasteries and nunneries to release all those in religious orders who wished to leave. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Cromwell gave an oration at the synod in 1537 of bishops and learned men. 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. Bonner owed his major preferments to Cromwell. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

Bonner sent a declaration to Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

Through the efforts of Cromwell, the destruction of the abbeys and religious houses was accomplished. 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

At the end of John Lambert's trial, the king had Cromwell read the sentence of condemnation. On the day of Lambert's execution, Cromwell asked for his forgiveness. 1563, pp. 537, 569; 1570, pp. 1283-84; 1576, pp. 1097-98; 1583, pp. 1123-24.

The king sent Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Thomas Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

The wife of Thomas Broke wrote to Thomas Cromwell, complaining of the way the imprisoned men in Calais, especially her husband, were treated. Cromwell wrote to the commissioners in Calais, commanding that Broke and a number of others be sent to England. 1563, p. 666; 1570, p. 1405; 1576, p. 1198; 1583, p. 1227.

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Cromwell was instrumental in obtaining Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. Cromwell procured letters from King Henry to Francois I that resulted in a licence being granted to print bibles in English at Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

When printing of English bibles was stopped in Paris, Cromwell got the presses and types sent to London. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

Stephen Gardiner was Cromwell's chief opponent. Cromwell had other enemies as well, and in 1540 he was suddenly arrested in the council chamber and committed to the Tower. He was charged with heresy and treason. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1359; 1576, pp. 1160-61; 1583, p. 1189.

Cromwell, having made an oration and prayer, was beheaded by an incompetent axeman. 1563, p. 598; 1570, pp. 1361-62; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1190.

Stephen Gardiner recalled that Cromwell spent a day and a half investigating a matter between Sir Francis Bryan and Gardiner, finally declaring Gardiner an honest man. 1563, p. 756; 1570, p. 1526; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

1110 [1086]

K. Hen. 8. Rebellion in Lincolnshire with the kinges answere to their petitions.

deceite worke not more mischief, then your vertue can doe good: & euerlasting warre we would all Princes had with this Papacie. As for their Decrees, so harken to them, that if in this Mantua assemble, thynges be well done, ye take them, but not as authorised by them, but that trouth and thyngs that mainteyne Religiō, are to be taken at all mēs hādes. And euē as we will admit thynges well made, so if there be any thyng determined in preiudice of trouth, for mainteinaūce of their euill grounded primacy, or that may hurt þe authoritie of kings, we protest vnto þe whole world, that we neither allow it, nor will at any tyme allow it.

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Ye haue, Christen Readers, our mynde cōcernyng the generall Councell. We thinke you all see, that Paule & his Cardinals, Byshops, Abbots, Monkes, Friers, with the rest of the rablemēt, do nothing lesse intēd, then the knowledge or search of trouth. Ye see, this is no tyme meete, Mātua no place meete, for a generall Coūcell. And though they were both meete, yet except some other cal this Coūcell, you see, that we neither neede to come, nor to sēd. You haue heard how euery Prince in his owne Realme, may quiet thynges amisse. If there be any of you, that can shew vs a better way, we promise wt all harty desire, to do that, that shalbe thought best for the setlyng of Religion, & that we wil leaue our own aduises, if any mā shew vs better. Which mynde of ours, we most hartly pray GOD, that gaue it vs, not onely to encrease in vs, but also to send it vnto all Christen Princes, all Christen Prelates, and all Christen people.

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A little before the death of Queene Anne, there was a Parliamēt at Westminster, wherin was geuē to the kyng by cōsent of the Abbots, all such houses of religiō, as were vnder 300. markes. Which was a shrewde prognosticate of the ruine of greater houses, which in deede folowed shortly after, as was & might easely be perceaued before of many, who thē sayd: that the low bushes and brambles were cut downe before, but great okes would folow after.

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MarginaliaThe Papistes purpose disapointed.Although the proceedyng of these thyngs did not well like the myndes of the Popes frendes in Englād, yet notwithstandyng they began agayne to take some breath of comfort, when they sawe the foresayd Queene Anne dispatched. Neuerthelesse they were frustrate of their purpose (as is aforeshewed) and that doblewise. For first, after they had their willes of Queene Anne, the Lord raysed vp an other Queene, MarginaliaQueene Iane maryed to the king. not greatly for their purpose, with her sonne kyng Edward. And also for that the Lord Crōwell the same tyme began to growe in authoritie. MarginaliaL. Cromwell groweth in authoritye. Who light a mighty piller set vp in the Churche of Christ, was enough alone to confounde and ouerthrow all the malignant deuises of the aduersaries, so long as God gaue him in lyfe here to continue: whose story hereafter followeth more at large.

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MarginaliaAlteration of religion a little beginneth.Shortly after this foresayd Mariage of the kyng with this Queene Iane Semer aboue mentoned, in þe moneth of Iune, duryng the continuation of the Parliament, by the consent of the Clergy holdyng thē a solemne conuocation in the Church of S. Paule, a booke was set forth conteyning certaine Articles of religon necessary to be taught to the people, wherein they intreated specially but of three Sacramentes: Baptisme, Penaunce, & the Lordes Supper. Where also diuers other thyngs were published concernyng the alteration of certaine pointes of Religion, as that certaine holy dayes were forbiddē, and many Abbayes began to bee suppressed. MarginaliaCommotion in Lincolnshire.For the whiche cause, the rude multitude of Lincolneshyre fearing the vtter subuersion of their old Religion, wherein they had bene so long nousled, did rise vp in a great cōmotion, to the nūber: wel neare of 20. thousād, hauyng for their Captaine, MarginaliaA mōke stirrer of the cōmotiōa Monke named D. Makerell, calling himselfe then Captaine Cobbler: but these rebels being repressed by the kyngs power, and desiryng pardon, soone brake vp their assembly. For they hearing of the royal army of the king cōming against them wyth his owne persone there present, & fearing what would follow of this, first the noble men and Gentlemen, which before fauoured them, began towtdraw themselues, so that they were destitute of Captaines: and at the laste, they in writing made certaine petitions to the king, protesting that they neuer intended hurt toward his royal person. These petitions the king receiued, and made thys answere againe to them as followeth.

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The kings answere to the rebels.

MarginaliaThe kinges aunswere to the rebels.FIrst, we begin and make answere to the fourth and sixt articles, because vpon them dependeth much of the rest. Concerning choosing of Counsailours, I neuer haue red, heard, nor knowen, that Princes, Counsailours and Prelates, should be appoynted by rude and ignorant common people, nor that they were persons meete, or of habilitie todiscerne and choose meete and sufficient Counsailours for a Prince: How presumptuous then are ye the rude cōmons of one shire, and that one the most base of þe whole realme, and of the least experience, to finde fault with your Prince, for the electing of his Counsailours and Prelates, and to take vpon you, contrary to Gods lawe, and mans lawes, to rule your Prince, whom ye are boūd by al law, to obey and serue with both your liues, landes and goodes, and for no worldly cause, to withstand?

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MarginaliaFor suppression of religious houses.As to the suppression of religious houses & Monasteries, we wil that ye and al our subiects should wel know, that this is graunted vs by all the nobles spirituall & temporall of thys realme, and by al the commons in the same, by Acte of Parlament, and not set foorth by any Counsailour or Counsailours vpon their mere wil and fantasy, as ye full falsely would perswade our realme to beleeue.

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And where ye alleage, that the seruice of God is muche diminished, the trueth thereof is contrary: for there bee no houses suppressed where God was well serued, but where most vice, mischiefe, and abomination of liuing was vsed, and that doth well appeare by their owne confessions subscribed wyth their owne handes in the time of their visitations, MarginaliaIn these visitations of religious houses, horrible it is to read what wickednes and abomination was there founde and regystred by the vysitors. and yet we suffred a great many of them (more then we needed by the Acte) to stand: wherin, if they amend not their liuing, we feare, we haue more to aunswere for, then for the suppression of all the rest. And as for the hospitalitie for the reliefe of the poore, we wonder ye be not ashamed to affirme, that they haue bene a great reliefe of poore people, when a great many or the most parte hath not past foure or fiue religious persons in them, & diuers but one, which spent the substaunce of the goodes of their houses in nourishing of vice and abhominable liuing. Nowe, what vnkindnes and vnnaturalitie may we impute to you and all our subiects that be of that minde, which hadde leuer suche an vnthriftie sorte of vicious persons shoulde enioye suche possessions, profites and emoluments, as grow of the sayd houses, to the maintenance of their vnthriftie life, then we your naturall Prince, soueraigne Lorde and King, whych doth & hath spent more in your defences of our owne, then sixe times they be woorth?

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MarginaliaThe acte of vses.As touching the acte of vses, we maruaile what madnes is in your braine, or vpon what ground ye wold take authority vpon you, to cause vs to breake those lawes and statutes, which by all the noble Knightes and Gentlemen of this Realme (whom they same chiefly touched) hath bene graunted and assented too: seeing in no maner of things, it toucheth you the base commons of our realme.

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Also, the groundes of all those vses were false, and neuer admitted by law, but vsurped vpon the prince, contrary to all equitie and iustice, as it hath bene openly both disputed & declared by all the well learned mē in the Realm of Englande, in Westminster Hall: whereby yee may well perceiue, howe madde and vnreasonable your demaundes be, both in that and in the rest, and howe vnmeete it is for vs, & dishonorable, to graunt or assent vnto, and lesse mete and decent for you in such a rebellious sort, to demande the same of your Prince.

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MarginaliaThe acte of fiftene.As touching the fifteene which yee demaunde of vs to be released, thinke yee that we be so faint hearted, that perforce ye of one shire (were ye a great many mo) could compell vs with your insurrections & such rebellious demeanour, to remitte the same? or thinke yee that any man will or may take you to be true subiects, that first make & shewe a louing graunt, and then perforce would compel your soueraigne Lord and King to release the same? The time of paiment whereof is not yet come: yea and seeing the same will not counteruaile the tenth peny of the charges, whych we haue and daily do susteine for your tuition & safegarde; make you sure by your occasiōs of these your ingratitudes, vnnaturalnes, and vnkindnes to vs now administred, ye geue vs cause (which hath alwayes bene asmuche dedicate to your wealth, as euer was King) not so muche to set our study for þe setting forward of the same, seing how vnkindly and vntruly ye deale now wyth vs, wythout any cause or occasion. And doubt yee not, though you haue no grace nor naturalnes in you to consider your duetie of allegiāce to your king & soueraigne Lord, the rest of our Realme (we doubt not) hath, & we and they shall so looke on thys cause, þt we trust it shalbe to your confusion, if according to your former letters you submit not your selues.

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MarginaliaThe acte of first fruites.As touching the first frutes, we let you to witte, it is a thing graunted vs by Acte of Parlament also, for the supportation of part of the great and excessiue charges, which we support & beare for the maintenaunce of your wealthes and other our subiects: and we haue knowen also that yee our commons haue much complained in times passed, that the most part of our goodes, landes, and possessions of the Realme, were in the spirituall mens handes: and yet bea-

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